Adaptation of young children to the conditions of the DOW -this is quite a serious and disturbing process in most cases. The entry of children into the nursery changes the usual rhythm of the life of the parents. They feel very anxious, because they are used to the fact that their children are always under their control. Those, in turn, also experience stress, because at home they are accustomed to the same routine, the method of feeding, the sleep regime. And at one point, all this changes: parents can not see half a day, the food is completely different, the regime is different.
From the ability of the child to adapt to everythingnew regime of the day, new people, further formation and development, prosperous life in preschool and in the family depends. It is the adaptation of young children to the conditions of the DOW that allows to eliminate the arising problems and to shape the adaptability of the kids to everything new.
An important role is played by
children of early age, since the DOW is the firstsocial institution, where they acquire the experience of constant communication with peers and other people, it is here that the foundations of a communicative style are laid. Therefore, a situation must be created for the addiction of children, given their age.
Adaptation of young children to the conditions of the DOW depends on their physiological and personal qualities, relationships in the family, the conditions of stay in the pre-school institution.
Adaptation in young children to conditionsDOW, its pace and formation passes in different ways. For this process to be more productive, it is necessary to maintain contact between parents and educators, both sides should have the desire to cooperate, to meet each other. If the period
passes safely, then the baby will be calm.
Adaptation of young children to preschool age
At an early age, adaptation to the conditions of the pre-schoolpasses several stages. At the first stage of adaptation, information is collected about the characteristics and needs of the baby. When parents first visit preschool, they are introduced to the charter, parental agreement. Parents are also introduced to the group's educators and pupils. An individual visit schedule is developed. Initial diagnostics is carried out.
At an early age, there is often a lack of adaptation during adaptation
. This is twofold, since it both facilitates the situation, but also complicates the diagnostic process and the formulation of the underlying problem of early age.
Psychocorrective work is carried out overexperiences in the early age, behind the position "here and now" and with an emphasis on the consolidation of positive processes, manifested in the process of corrective work.
At the second stage, a comparative analysis of the values of primary and concluding diagnostics is carried out, which diagnoses the adaptation features of early age.
When the adaptation of early children endsage to the DOW, there is a medical-psychological-pedagogical consultation with an expanded staff, which analyzes the results of work during adaptation, its positive aspects and problem situations, sums up the results, introduces changes in the plan for organizing the adaptation process, and discusses subsequent activities on the specifics of the adaptation of pupils.
To achieve rapid adaptability tonew circumstances, a new regime, certain conditions for the adaptation of young children in the DOW should be created. A purposeful organization of the vital activity of children in their entry into an unfamiliar situation of a pre-school institution should be carried out, it would influence the formation of a positive attitude towards the DOW.
Conditions for the adaptation of young children in the PEDmust be coordinated on both sides - from parents and from educators. If educators have pedagogical knowledge about what conditions for the adaptation of young children in the DOW will be better, then parents should take this into consideration in order to make the conditions of the home regime and the kindergarten regime as similar as possible.
Almost all the kids, entering the kindergarten, cry,a slightly smaller part behaves more confidently, they show that they are not particularly worried about this. They accurately perform all the activities of the educator. Such children are easier to give farewell to their relatives, and they are easier to adapt.
Others go with their parents together in a group. This behavior shows that babies need communication. They are afraid to stay without a mom or dad in a group, so the caregiver can let the parents stay. Feeling at this moment the support of a loved one, the crumb begins to behave more relaxed and confident, he begins to be interested in toys. If the parents are always near the baby, then he will not be able to go through the adaptation process and in the future socialize.
The behavior of toddlers is often completely different,because they all had different developmental conditions, they had different needs before enrolling in preschool. Of particular importance is the psychological readiness of children at an early age to kindergarten, it is one of the results of the development of the psyche of the preschooler. Difficulties in the adaptation of young children to the conditions of the DOW can arise in the involvement in the process of communication, which is of no interest to them. Parents should talk a lot with children, introduce them to their peers outside the kindergarten, so that they are ready for intensive communication.
Failure to comply with basic pedagogical rules in upbringing can lead to violations of their intellectual sphere and physical maturation. Concerning this, negative forms of behavior are formed.
Adaptation of young children to the conditions of the pre-schoolhas three phases. The first - an acute phase, characterized by an unstable physical and mental state. Often children decrease in weight, have respiratory diseases, suffer from sleep disorders, and there is a decrease in speech development.
The second phase of adaptation in pupils of earlyage - subacute, normal behavior is typical here, all progress is weakened and fixed against the backdrop of a slightly inhibited rate of development, in particular of mental development, relative to the average age norms.
The third phase of adaptation of young children to the conditions of DOW - compensation, increases the pace of development and closer to the end of the year, there is a delay in the pace of development.
In order for the transition from the family mode to the pre-school regime, during the adaptation period was successful, it is necessary that it be implemented gradually. Coordination is of great importance
and the claims of crumbs with their true capabilities and environmental conditions.
Adaptation of children in kindergarten of early agehas three degrees. Easy adaptation at an early age is characterized by a relatively short stay in a negative emotional state and mood. Toddlers are characterized by sleep disorders, they have no appetite, do not want to play with peers. Less than a month, this condition is normalized. The joyful, stable state prevails, active communication with adults and other pupils of early age.
Adaptation to pre-school age children of an average ageseverity is expressed in a slower normalization of the emotional state. In the first month of adaptation, diseases, mainly respiratory infections, often occur. Such diseases last from a week to ten days and end without complications. The mental state is unstable, any novelty contributes to negative emotional reactions. With the help of an adult, children are more interested in cognitive activity and rather get used to new conditions.
Severe degree of adaptation: The emotional state stabilizes very slowly, can last several months. In a difficult period of adaptation, aggressively destructive reactions are characteristic. All this affects health and development. A severe degree of adaptation of early age is due to several reasons: the absence of a regime in the family that would coincide with the order in the kindergarten, inability to play with a toy, peculiar habits, lack of hygiene skills, inability to communicate with new people.
Adaptation of young children to the conditions of the pre-schoolis easy, fast and almost painless, but can be severe. It is impossible to immediately determine exactly what it will be, it depends on the influence of many different factors: from the conditions of the period of pregnancy to the individual properties of the central nervous system. Only an experienced pediatrician can suggest what kind of adaptation the child will be at an early age, what difficulties may arise in its course.
Regardless of the forecast, one way or another,negative signs will always arise, at the level of the whole organism. But such deviations are an insignificant part of what can be present in the behavior of young children. They are under strong mental stress, which is everywhere pursuing them. Therefore, children are in a state of
or are a step ahead of it. If the stress is minimal, then the shifts in the adaptation period will go smoothly. If the stress is captured completely, then, most likely the child will fall ill, this happens during severe adaptation.
The mental state also changes markedly. After enrolling in a pre-school institution, the kids change cardinally in the other direction, their own parents often do not recognize them. For example, if earlier the kid was quiet and balanced, now he began to roll up
. He lost self-service skills, whichpreviously enjoyed. This process is called regress, it shows a reaction to stress. The skills lost during regression return after a while and all is normalized by the end of the adaptation stage.
Social adaptation of young children is often very difficult, because
is a constant companion of this period. They are afraid of unfamiliar adults and peers, they do not understand why they should listen to other people's adults, they prefer to play by themselves rather than with others. All this forms their closedness from contacts with others, introverted. Other kids also do not really want to contact such a child, because they see how he is afraid of everything that surrounds him and only calls his mother, who can protect him. If the moment comes when the baby finds contact with other babies, then the adaptation period is over.
Kindergarten is the place where the first timeexperience of collective communication. New circumstances, new acquaintances - all this is not immediately perceived. Most kids react with crying. Some can very easily enter the group, but at home crying in the evenings, others - go to the kindergarten, but just before the entrance they begin to cry and be capricious.
The manner of education in the family plays a significant role in adapting to new circumstances. Often in the family lies the reason for low social adaptation.
is formed to a greater extent in the family. Also important is the structure of the family, its cultural level of development, observance of moral rules, moral laws, the attitude of parents.
The family is particularly affected by the formation"I-concepts", because the family is the only social sphere for children who do not stay in preschool. This influence of the family lasts for some time and in later life.
The child does not have personal experience of the past, does not know the criteria
. He is guided only by the experience of surrounding people, their evaluation, the information that he receives from the family and for the first time years he has formed a self-assessment.
The influence of the external environment also forms andestablishes self-esteem obtained in the family. Confident in themselves crumbs, are able to successfully and quickly cope with the failures arising before them, in a home situation or in a kindergarten. Also, they can quickly adapt. Babies with low self-esteem are always in a state of doubt, it is enough for them to survive the failure once in order to lose their self-confidence, which is what slows down their adaptation process.