Addiction is an intrusive desire that manifests itselfIn the acute need for its commission or the performance of any activity. Previously, this term was used only to designate chemical dependencies (drug addiction, alcohol addiction, drug addiction), but now it is actively used to refer to non-chemical dependencies (game addiction, food addiction, shopaholism, Internet addiction and others).
Addiction is characterized by the fact that it is accompanied by increased tolerance (addiction to the constantly increasing dose of stimulus) and psychophysiological changes in the body.
Addiction is in psychology the designation of the desire of the individual to escape from the real world, with the help of the "clouding" of consciousness.
Addictions and addictive behavior are studied by such sciences as addictology,
, Sociology, which investigate the causes, peculiarities of addict behavior and methods of treating this condition.
In society, there are some acceptable forms of addictions: meditation, creativity, workaholism, spiritual practices, sports. Socially unacceptable addictions: drug addiction, alcoholism, substance abuse,
. Along with scientific and technological progress, other addictions developed: computer addiction, Internet addiction,
, Dependence on the TV, from
Causes of addiction
It is impossible to say that there is some kind ofA single reason for the occurrence of addiction, because almost always a combination of various adverse factors cause the occurrence of addiction. For example, the unfavorable environment in which the child grew, its low adaptation in various social institutions, lack of support and understanding, plus personal characteristics (psychological instability, inadequate
) Contribute to the development of addictive behavior. There are four groups of causes of addictive behavior.
Psychological - immaturity of the person, constant stresses, inability to conduct internal dialogue, inability to solve problems, unacceptable solutions to problems.
Social - the instability of society, social pressure, the lack of positive traditions.
Socio-psychological - the consolidation of negative images in
, Lack of respect and mutual understanding of generations.
Biological - the unconsciousness of what is happening, the effect of the stimulus on the body (a strong motive moment) and its consequences (addiction).
Types of Addictions
Addictions and addictive behavior are aimed at the need to commit an action. In the variety of addictions, we can conditionally distinguish two categories:
1. Chemical, it includes physical addictions;
2. Behavioral includes psychological addictions.
Chemical addiction is the use of different substances, under the influence of which the physical state of the person receiving them changes. The presence of chemical addiction causes great harm to health
, Leads to organic lesions.
Alcohol addiction has the greatestDistribution, it is investigated best. Its presence leads to the destruction of the body, virtually all internal organs suffer, the mental state worsens. The most pronounced alcohol addiction, when a person is unable to overcome the unrestrained desire to drink, hang out, cope with internal discomfort, with a negative attitude toward the world.
Narcotic addiction (
) Is expressed in an irresistible attraction toPsychotropic substances. This includes toxicomania, as the attraction to toxic drugs. Dependence occurs after the first time, and tolerance increases with an unconscious rate. The processes occurring at that time in the body are irreversible, and in almost every case they end in a lethal outcome.
Behavioral addiction is a psychological,Non-chemical dependence, attachment to a specific action, from which it is impossible to get rid yourself. Behavioral addiction provokes such an enthusiasm, to which a person attaches a supervalued value, as a result, it determines all the behavior of a person.
Game addictions are a kind of non-chemicalBehavioral dependencies. A person who suffers from a game addiction does not see his life without gambling, casino, roulette, slot machines and other entertainments.
Game addictions bring not only damage to the psychePersonality, but also social well-being. The main signs of game dependencies: too much interest in the game process, increasing the time given to entertainment, changes in the circle of communication, loss of control, causeless
, A constant increase in rates, lack of resistance.
Addition of relations has several forms: Loving, intimate, avoiding. Such disorders are caused by inadequate self-esteem, misperceptions of oneself and others, inability to love and respect oneself.
Is an excessive attachment and obsessionAddict on the man. Love addiction is expressed through an irresistible desire to be around your partner all the time and limit contact with other people.
The addiction of avoidance is manifested in evasion from too close and intimate relations, the desire to stick to the distance, in the subconscious
Intimate addiction is uncontrolled sexual behavior, despite possible negative consequences.
Workaholism, as well as other dependencies,It is characterized by the flight of a person from reality using fixation at work. The workaholic does not see his goal in making money so much, how to strive to replace his work with entertainment, friendship and relationships. The peculiarity of a workaholic is that he has an obsessive desire for success and approval and is extremely worried if he turns out to be worse than others. Such addicts are too alienated to behave around friends and family, they are obsessed with work, they live in a system of their own experiences. They tell other personalities that they are trying to earn more. When a workaholic is fired, for him it becomes a serious stress, which is very difficult to handle and sometimes he can resort to using chemicals to relieve tension. Workaholism can turn into chemical addiction, but at the same time it can become one of the ways of rehabilitation of people with chemical dependence.
Internet addiction in its prevalenceAlmost reached one level with a chemical dependence. Computer addiction can lead to the fact that a person for ever falls out of real life, he stops the relationship with family and friends. Most of all, Internet addiction in adolescents is manifested.
Can be treated only with the help of a therapist. The task of a specialist is to draw a teenager out of the unreal world and transfer it into reality.
Sports addiction is socially acceptableCharacter, but nevertheless, this kind of addiction is attributed to the disease, because it expresses physical dependence. Too much enthusiasm for sports can lead to the fact that sports addiction will go into the chemical. Proceeding from this, it is observed that among former sportsmen there is a very high percentage of those who use drugs, alcohol and medicines.
Shopoholizm is dependence on purchases,An uncontrollable desire to buy something. Making a purchase satisfies pleasure for a short time, after which a desire to make a new purchase immediately arises. Often, shopaholics have problems with the law, with debts. Characteristic features of a shopaholic: concern with purchases, obsessive desire to buy something sometimes completely unnecessary things, almost all the time is spent in shops, shopping centers. The unregulated distribution of time constitutes a great threat to the daily, professional and personal life of a person. Uncontrolled waste of money entails financial problems. The constant irresistible desire to spend money, to acquire unnecessary and useless things is expressed in the form of periodic aspirations to make purchases in too much.
When a dependent person in betweenHe does not feel well, he does not understand what is happening, he becomes irritated, he can cry, the tension grows and the next purchase will help to cope with such a state. Almost in every case, after acquiring things from a person, there is a feeling of guilt. Thus, shopaholics have a wide range of emotions experienced. Negative emotions prevail when a person does not acquire anything, when he is busy in the intervals between purchases by something else, and positive emotions arise only when the purchase is made.
Shopaholics always have problems in their personal lives. Their partners do not maintain such behavior, they consider them to be frivolous, they try to prove that their material well-being is greatly damaged, but all is vain and they leave shopaholics alone with their attachments. Also, relations with relatives and friends are spoiled, especially if they were engaged in money. The growth of debts, outstanding loans, theft can cause problems with the law. In today's world, shopaholics have the opportunity to purchase things without leaving home through online stores. Shopaholic is always perceived as a frivolous, irresponsible spendthrift, but in fact it is a very sick person. Perhaps he did not find joy in life, or he suffered psychological trauma, after which he found his happiness only in the acquisition of new things. The course of psychotherapy can save a person from the obsessive need to make purchases.
Food addiction - a fixation on food, includes two forms of overeating and starvation. They are called intermediate types. There are also other forms of food addiction:
, Compulsive overeating.
Internet addiction among adolescents was ahead ofThe spread of chemical dependence. Therefore, the attitude towards it is very ambiguous. On the one hand, the fact that children are sitting on the Internet is better than if they were sitting somewhere on the street and taking drugs. But on the other hand, children are not interested in anything else, except for the Internet and everything they find in it, they completely fall out of reality, they have virtual friends, but they forget about their duties (to learn, to help their parents).
Internet addiction has several forms of manifestation: game addictions; programming; Compulsive switching on sites; Gambling on the Internet, casino; Pornographic Internet addiction.
Computer addiction is expressed in the following psychological symptoms: a condition bordering on
; The impossibility to stop, the increase in the time spent for escorting computers, neglecting relationships with close people.
Physical symptoms of computer addiction: Intense pain in the wrist of the working arm, due to damage to nerve endings, which is caused by overexertion; headache; Dry eyes; Violation of sleep; Disregard for personal hygiene.
In adolescence, computer addictionCan lead to sad consequences. So the person as a result can completely fall out of life, lose loved ones, break off relationships with friends, worsen his academic performance. Return to real life addiction can only with the help of a specialist (psychiatrist, psychotherapist).
A person who spends a lot of time at a computer reduces the efficiency of cognitive processes - thinking loses its flexibility, attention is dissipated,
Deteriorates, quality deteriorates
At a time when the computer helps to solveMany tasks, the intellectual abilities of a person are reduced, which leads to the degradation of the mind. Personality characteristics of a person also change. If previously he was cheerful and positive, then after a constant stay at the computer, he gradually became pedantic, irritated and detached. In the motivational structure of the Internet-dependent person, destructive motives, primitive motivations, aimed at a constant visit to social networks, computer games, hacking, and others predominate.
Possessing unlimited access to the Internet andThe information contained therein exacerbates dependence. However, in the modern world, even if parents try to restrict access to the Internet at home, the child still finds a way how to access the Internet. For example, by replenishing your account on the phone, gets megabytes or asks for a friend's phone, sits in a computer class, goes to the Internet club.
If the Internet is the only way to communicate with the world, then the risk of Internet addiction can increase and the sense of reality will be lost forever if not helped in time.
Internet games are the most commonInternet addiction in adolescents, which also has very negative consequences. Children and adolescents who devote enough time to games, gradually develop a negative perception of the world, there is aggression and anxiety if there is no opportunity to play.
Communication in social networks and other services,Created for communication, is fraught with a lot of danger. In the network, absolutely everyone can find for themselves an ideal interlocutor in all respects, something that you will never meet in your life, and with which there is no need to constantly maintain communication in the future. This happens because people in virtual communication can imagine themselves as they are not, they too idealize their image, try to be better and more interesting than they really are. Communicating with such an interlocutor, people develop dependence and disregard for communication with people in real life. Together with a negative attitude toward the real world, there is a depressed mood, insomnia, boredom. Other activities after hobbies like the Internet and a computer, go into the background, are given very hard and are accompanied by a negative mood.
Nutritional addiction has several forms of expression - overeating, fasting, anorexia nervosa and bulimia.
Food addiction is bothPsychological dependence and physical. As food acquires a great addictive potential, an artificial stimulation of a feeling of hunger is made. Thus, every person prone to overeating, can create a zone of increased exchange balance. After eating, the feeling of hunger arises immediately and to transfer this state calmly, it is very difficult for an addictive person. The physiological mechanisms of the body are mismatched, so the addict starts everything without parsing indiscriminately. At some point a person has a feeling
, Which increases after eating. Under the influence of this feeling, the addict begins to diligently hide his dependence and takes food secretly, an alarming situation causes an even greater sense of hunger.
As a result of such nutrition, in humansFormed compulsive overeating, weight gain, metabolic disorders, failure of the internal organs, digestive system. Man absolutely ceases to control his meals and uses such amounts of food that can provoke problems potentially life-threatening.
The second disorder, which is a formFood addiction is starvation. Dependence on fasting can be caused by one of two main options: medical and non-medical mechanisms. The medical mechanism is used with the help of unloading diet therapy.
In the first phase of a hunger strike, a person may have certain difficulties with a constantly developing appetite and the need to suppress it.
During the next phase, the state of the bodyChanges. The person has lost uncontrolled craving for food, appetite decreases or completely disappears, a person feels that he has new powers, a second wind, the mood rises and there is a desire to feel physical exertion. Patients who have reached this stage become very positive. They are satisfied with this condition, they even want to extend it, so that they can feel the lightness of the body and organism longer.
Repeated starvation without the supervision of physicians,Yourself. As a result of repeated fasting, a person at a certain moment has a state of euphoria from abstinence from eating and how good it feels when he feels light. At such a moment, control is lost and a person does not begin to eat even when he should have left the hunger strike. The additive is starving, even if this poses a danger to his health and life, a person completely loses a critical look at his condition.
None of the addictions do not pass independently,Neither physical nor psychological. Inaction, lack of control, unwillingness to fight addiction, can lead to very sad consequences, which are sometimes simply irreversible. In very rare cases, a person who has an addiction is able to ask for help, but most can not critically assess their current status. Especially patients with psychological addictions - game, food addictions, shopologism do not understand the real scale of their frustration.
In some cases, it is observed thatA few signs of addictive behavior, but it is only a psychiatrist competent in the field who can determine whether it is true. As a result of a detailed conversation with the patient, having collected a family history, detailed information about the life and personality of the patient, the doctor concludes that there is addictive behavior. In the process of such diagnosis, the doctor closely observes the behavior of the client during a conversation, in which he can notice, characteristic markers of addictive behavior, such as sticking in speech or reactivity, negative statements to oneself and others.
The main method of treatment of addictions ispsychotherapy. If the addiction is very serious and long-term, for example, narcotic or alcoholic, the hospitalization of the patient with the detoxification of the organism may still be required.
The familyPsychotherapy (strategic, functional, structural), since the manifestation of addictive behavior arises most often under the influence of the factor of an unfavorable growing environment, in particular, family unhappiness. The psychotherapeutic process is aimed at determining the factors that led to deviant behavior, the normalization of relations in the family, the development of an individual treatment plan.
Prevention of addictions will be much more effective,If you start it on time. The first stage in the early warning of the occurrence of addiction is the diagnostic stage, which reveals the propensity of children to deviant behavior, it should be conducted in educational institutions.
Prevention of addictions is of great importance,If it is carried out at school. Children need to talk about what types of addiction exist, the reasons for their occurrence and the consequences. If the child is aware of the destructive consequences that can result from a chemical addiction, he most likely will not want to consume alcohol, cigarettes or drugs.
An important role is played by the example of parents. If parents do not have bad habits, but lead a healthy, full-fledged way of life, and in the same spirit educate their children, the likelihood of addictions to the child is low. If a child is brought up in a dysfunctional family, where alcohol is abused, he has a greater likelihood of becoming an addict.
Conversations of parents with children about problems, support in difficult situations, understanding and acceptance of the child as he is will help to avoid the child's desire to leave the real world in the imaginary.
At the second stage of prevention of addictiveBehavior is preventing the involvement of children, in particular, adolescents in various forms of dependence, both chemical and non-chemical. At the same stage, information is provided on methods of combating anxiety, bad mood and stress, and training in communication techniques.
The next in rehabilitation is correctionalThe stage at which there is a correction and destruction of bad habits and addictions. Corrective work should occur under the supervision of a qualified specialist (psychotherapist).
Prevention of addictions can be individualOr group. In group sessions techniques and trainings of personal growth are used, which assume correction of certain negative characteristics of the person and her behavior.
If a person after the course of treatment got rid ofAddictions, it is necessary to take measures for its social adaptation in society, to teach techniques of interaction with people, to conduct active life, to prevent relapses.