Psychology of Personality

Affiliation, methodology and motivation for affiliation

Affiliation is the pull, need, aspirationto be in the society of people, the individual's need for creating close, trusting, warm, emotionally colored relationships. This is an aspiration to rapprochement with other individuals through friendship, communication, love. The nature of interaction with parents in childhood, in adolescence with peers is the basis for the formation of this type of need. Tendencies to the formation of this need are disrupted when there are various provoking factors such as: anxiety, self-doubt. Proximity and communication with other people helps to remove anxiety situations.

Motivation for affiliation

Affiliation motive is motivation,mental activity, which aims at establishing or terminating specific interpersonal relationships. Such a motive consists of different forces of separation or approach to individuals. For example, an individual may have good communication skills that are facilitated by informal relations quickly, but he may fear misunderstanding, failure and rejection. In addition, such an individual may have a high need to establish not superficial (external) acquaintances, but deeper, intimate, reliable, and trustworthy.
The motivational factor the need for communication (affiliation) with a certain amount of time becomes characteristic of the individual and "degenerates" into personality traits.
Affiliation motives become morerelevant in the process of communication of people. Such motives are often manifested as the aspirations of the individual to establish positive, good relations with other individuals. Inwardly, it acts in the form of loyalty and a sense of attachment, and its external manifestation is communication, the desire to cooperate with other individuals, the desire to be constantly close to the partner in affiliation.
Love for another person is the highest spiritualthe manifestation of such motives. The prevalence of the affiliation of the individual determines the style of communication with other individuals, which is characterized by ease, confidence, courage and openness. The pronounced motivational affiliation can externally manifest itself in the concern of the subject by establishing, maintaining friendly relations or restoring frustrated relationships with other subjects.
The affiliation motive comes into relationship withthe individual's craving for receiving approval from others, with a thirst for self-affirmation. Subjects with a dominant affiliation motive are more likely to relate to other subjects and themselves enjoy increased sympathy and respect for others. Relations between them are built on the basis of mutual trust. The opposite motive of affiliation is the rejection motive, which manifests itself in fear of being rejected, not accepted by people relevant to it. The prevalence of such a motive leads to stiffness, uncertainty, tension, awkwardness.
Affiliation motif is a complex motive,It consists of structural elements that can be actualized at different periods of ontogenesis. The level of intensity of the structural element of the affiliated communications (the need for a relationship, the emotionally confidential nature) depends on the individual characteristics of the subject, his characterological characteristics, the style of interaction in the family, the protective mechanisms, the histories of his relationships with certain people, the degree of satisfaction with the relationship.
The need for communication,emotionally-confidential character, and a focus on affiliate behavior are two components of the affiliation motive. And the "fear of rejection" (rejection) is a fairly independent variable. It can itself determine the specificity of communication and has a closer interconnection of anxiety, insecurity, level of psychological protection.
The motive of affiliation is directly related toparental upbringing of the child and his style. For example, with a trusted style of upbringing, the child develops such affiliated types as: self-sufficient, balanced, sociable. And it manifests itself in adult states, like activity, openness, social courage, lack of social vulnerability, anxiety and emotional instability.
In the process of the dynamics of the development of relations changeshierarchical structure of the main characteristics of affiliated mutual activity. In the beginning acquaintance the basic value is given to ease and emotional appeal of the partner. Further, in the process of further development of relations, understanding is formed and confidence is developed. Over time, understanding and trust begin to occupy a dominant position. Along with this, the joint activities and common interests have a great influence on the development of relations.
The central motivational moment of communication isThe choice of a situational or permanent partner for communications. The most common condition for choosing an unchanging partner for communication is external attractiveness and attractiveness for business and moral qualities.
Today, many different techniques have been developed to determine the motivations for affiliation. So, for example, the most popular method is the motivation for affiliation, developed by Mehrabian.
Measuring the motivation of affiliation is important for determining the level of formation and the degree of its development of motives such as "striving for people" and "fear of being rejected, rejected."

Need for affiliation

Formation and maintenance of relations withother individuals pursue completely different goals. For example, the goal is to impress or dominate others, the goal is to provide or receive help. By the term affiliation is understood as a specific type of social interaction, which has a fundamental and at the same time, everyday character. It consists in communication with other individuals (well-known or not, or at all unfamiliar) in such a manifestation that enriches all aspects of communication and brings satisfaction. The level that can be achieved depends not only on the individual seeking affiliation, but also on the communication partner.
The individual seeking to satisfy the needin the affiliation, should achieve very much. Initially, such an individual should give an opportunity to understand his intention to make contact, while notifying the alleged contact about his attractiveness in the eyes of such an individual. He must make sure that the future partner understands that he is treated as an equal and offers a relationship based on reciprocity. In other words, an individual does not just strive for affiliation, but at the same time acts himself as such an affiliate partner for the respective needs of the individual with whom he comes into contact.
Unequal division of roles or aspirationto turn an affiliate partner into a means that satisfies individual needs, such as the need for derogation or superiority, depending on or independence, weakness or strength, in obtaining or providing assistance, harm the affiliation, thereby destroying it altogether.
An individual whose goal is affiliation,should achieve a specific harmony in the consonance of his worries and experiences with the experiences of the partner, which would be a motivating factor for interaction on both sides, for feeling satisfaction and maintaining a sense of personal value.
The goal of affiliation of an individual who aspires to it,is the search for love or acceptance of oneself, friendly support, sympathy from the partner. However, in this striving, only one variant of the manifestation is emphasized: receiving, and neglecting the other, giving. Therefore, the aim of the affiliation motif should be a mutual and trustworthy relationship in which each of the partners of such a relationship loves another or treats it with sympathy, sympathy, and friendly support.
There are many non-verbal and verbalways of behavior, the purpose of which will be the achievement and preservation of such relations. The motivation for aspiration to affiliation is determined by the number and positive content of speech, by the duration of eye contact, by friendliness, by the number of headings, by gestures and postures, etc. Attraction can be both positive and negative. And depending on the ratio of these types of attractiveness, the motives of affiliation of individuals can be characterized as mainly related to the hope for such affiliation (HA) or fear of rejection (CO).
Characteristics of unsuccessful or successfulthe result of the action of affiliation is not only a negative or positive attractiveness of a particular value. Any of the alternative outcomes of an action can also be expected in advance with some probability. Therefore, each individual based on past personal experience in the field of communication, has generalized hopes as to whether he will be able to establish the relationship of affiliation with a stranger or not, in other words, the generalized hopes of affiliation or rejection. The close relationship between hopes and actions highlights the motive of affiliation among the other motives, similar to the reasons for achievement. When an unfamiliar person acts as a possible affiliate partner, the following situation is obtained: the greater the expectation of luck, the stronger the positive attractiveness and, on the contrary, the greater the expectation of failure, the stronger the negative attractiveness. Such a manifestation is called feedback. In other words, the feedback loop can be represented as follows: any expectation affects the course of behavior, the course of behavior - to its outcome (result), repeated failures and successes form the corresponding expectations, generating differences in the course of behavior (actions) that predetermine an unfavorable or favorable outcome affiliations. On this basis, the attractiveness of an unsuccessful or successful affiliation becomes, in the final analysis, a constant value that determines the personal profile of the negative and positive attractiveness, in other words, the fear of rejection and the expectation of affiliation. Thus, if there is a linear relationship between attraction and expectation for the personal motive of affiliation, if the object of affiliation is an unfamiliar person, the more the generalized hope for success prevails over the expectation of failure, the more positive attractiveness prevails over the negative one, and vice versa. This attitude of attractiveness to expectation is distinguished by the affiliation motive from the motive of achievement, which is characterized by the opposite correlation of such parameters - the greater the possibility of success, the less the success becomes attractive, the greater the possibility of failure, the higher the attractiveness of luck.

It is necessary to distinguish between general expectations ofprivate, connected with a specific individual, which the subject, entering into the affiliation, already knows well. In this case, the attractiveness and expectation can vary regardless of each other. Thus, the adequate motive of affiliation is the attractiveness of communication with any well-known individual is relatively small, but it is accompanied by a significant expectation of quick and easy establishment of this contact, maybe vice versa. This can happen in such cases, when the subject is familiar with the future partner in close relationships, but he has information to predict the ease or difficulty of coming into direct contact. For example, a prospective partner has a more significant social status than a subject seeking affiliation. The stability of the linear dependence of attractiveness on expectations in the case of motivational affiliation, which is aimed at an unfamiliar individual, has not been tested empirically.
Need for relationship emotionallyconfidential nature is relevant throughout the life course of the individual. However, the focus on affiliation has a tendency to decrease with age, especially in men.

Affiliation in Psychology

Today, the leading role is played by interpersonalattitudes, skills effectively, quickly and competently interact with different people. Understanding the basic principles of communication, especially emotional-trust, is of great importance not only for obtaining more optimal results of the activities of various social groups and collectives, improving the relationships between their members, but also has great significance for each participant in such a process. This is due to the fact that through an emotionally confidential communication the individual has the opportunity to learn more about himself, to understand and, as a consequence, to become less lonely in our volatile world. Subsequently, the quality of contacts, rather than their quantity, is of paramount importance.
Interaction of an affiliated nature isthe sum of behavioral reactions expressed in actions, development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships, the main purpose of which will be the formation of fairly close and trusting relationships. Such interaction is different from the behavior of the affiliated nature by the presence of a clearly manifested need for affiliation, including the need for trusting and emotionally colored communication.
The main characteristics that accompanyaffiliation, trust, ease, emotional attractiveness and understanding. These components are important for the formation of confidential and intimate relationships, but depending on the development of the relationship the significance of each component varies. In business communication, these components may be present, but the main thing is not their combination, but the dominance (significance) of one of them. For example, in interaction with the authorities, an important component will be understanding, and in cooperation with the doctor - trust. So, affiliation is the emotional relationship of individuals with other subjects, which is characterized by reciprocity of acceptance and disposition.
Scientists carried out studies that wererevealed that students who prefer professional success and high income to interpersonal relationships, twice as often, considered themselves very unhappy. In turn, closer and closer relations relieve stress, depressive states. The feeling of being happy is closely connected with a trusting relationship with a large number of people, i. people who have a trusting relationship with 5-6 individuals feel more happy than people who have a trusting relationship with one person. Also, the need for affiliation increases when there is a danger to the individual or in a stressful situation.
In psychology, the term affiliation meansthe original desire of the individual to be accepted by other people who surround him, to gain favor. The blockage of this need can cause a feeling of estrangement, loneliness, and causes frustration. And, conversely, relationships that have confidence, cause mental satisfaction, increase the viability of subjects and groups. Therefore, people spend so much money and energy to maintain and establish close and trustful relationships, and then suffer greatly if they are forced to break such relations.
The paradox of this situation is thatclose people in the aftermath can act as a source of stress and frustration for affiliate partners. It has been proven that people who have close and trusting relationships have better health and less susceptibility to premature death than individuals with weaker links.

Ethnic affiliation

Ethnic affiliation (group affiliation)consists in the need of representatives of the ethnos to be in the community of representatives of complementary ethnic groups and orientation to their support. So, for example, the inhabitants of Belarus seek an alliance with the inhabitants of Russia. Group affiliation is a relationship between some groups that think that one of them is part of another. In other words, this is the interaction of groups of different scale and volume, when a smaller group is absorbed larger, and begins to function according to its rules and laws.
In accordance with the current theory of affiliation,any individual is more or less expressed, there is a need to belong to a certain group. For a large number of people in an unstable situation of a transitional society, ethnic and family affiliation (the perception of oneself as a member of a society or a "family") becomes a more acceptable method to feel again as a part of the whole, to find psychological help and support in traditions. Hence, there is an increased interest in ethnic identification, the need to consolidate the ethnic community, attempts to form an integrating national idea and ideal in the new social conditions, isolate and preserve national mythology, history, culture, etc. from the impact of other ethnic groups.
Identification of an individual occurs not only by ethnic signs and signs, so that ethnicity itself can be located on the periphery
. On the Importance of Ethnicitynot only impartial social reality (conflicts, migrations, etc.), but also some subjective factors, for example, the level of education of the individual.
The meaning of ethnic identity depends onof the situation. Basically, the ethnic consciousness of the individual and groups is not actualized in conditions of existence in a monoethnic environment or permanent ethnic relations. A factor that can increase the possibility of ethnic conflicts and increase the importance of ethnic identification is migration. The fact is natural that the sense of ethnicity is mainly developed in non-predominant communities.
An important feeling is the ethnicUnity that arises spontaneously and is formed purposefully. Belief in the existence of natural links between members of one ethnic society is much more important than the real presence of such links.
So, ethnic identity is the most importantpart of the social identity of the individual, comprehension of his belonging to a particular ethnic society. In the structure of ethnic identity, two main components usually stand out: affective - the assessment of the qualities of their group, the importance of membership in the group and the immediate attitude towards membership; cognitive - representations and knowledge about the characteristics of their group, comprehension of themselves as a member of such a group.
Ethnicity begins to formfrom 6-7 years. At this age, children acquire some fragmentary knowledge about ethnicity. At the age of 8-9 the child already clearly identifies himself with the ethnic group, based on the place of residence, language and nationality of the parents. In 10-11 years - ethnic identity is formed in full.
Soldatova and Ryzhova developed a technique,It is intended for the study of ethnic tendencies towards affiliation. For the empirical basis for the study of the intensity of the motive of ethnic affiliation, they used three criteria that were previously singled out by Triandis as the basis of the allocentric personal type. The first criterion is the subordination of one's own goals to a group one. The second is a pronounced identification with the ethnic group to which the individual belongs. The third is the perception of oneself as part of a group, not directly as a group, as its continuation. According to the listed criteria, they selected nine pairs of evaluative opinions in accordance with the principle of opposing the focus on the group and the focus on the individual.

Affiliation questionnaire

The method of motivation for affiliation proposed by Mehrabian is designed to diagnose two generalized motivators that are stable and are part of the motivation for affiliation.
The questionnaire proposed by Mehrabian, in contrast toOther questionnaires were developed on the basis of the establishment of theoretical principles. He built such a questionnaire, mainly on the difference between the two tendencies of the affiliation motif: the tendency toward affiliation (R1) and the sensitivity to rejection, rejection (R2). Mehrabian interprets such trends as generalized expectations of the negative or positive supporting influence of the partner in the affiliation. In cases where partners have not previously been familiar - not based on variables that reflect the attractiveness, but the hopes (expectations). In those cases when both partners were previously quite familiar - the basis was taken by a specific attractiveness. For the first case, a questionnaire was developed. To determine the affiliation in the second case, a special sociometric method was used, consisting of 15 scales. In the factor analysis of its results, two structural components were distinguished: a negative and positive supporting meaning of the partner in affiliation.
Upon closer examination of the Mehrabian questionnairewe can conclude that the concept of "expectation" in this questionnaire is practically identified with negative and positive reinforcing actions of contact with the partner and communication situations in general.
Waiting according to Mehrabian is predictivethe factor is not what limit the subject will burn or will not be able to achieve a positive outcome of the affiliation, but more than how much is preferred in a given situation, so that a less or more positive and negative outcome comes of itself or that certain actions are taken. For example, the subject is offered the following statements: "It is important for me to have friendly relations" (the desire for affiliation) and "Sometimes I can take critical remarks quite close to my heart" (fear of rejection), which outlines the situation with the alleged reinforcing sense. With such statements the subject may agree or disagree. Thus it is necessary to use a nine-point rating scale ("very strongly" - ... "weakly" ...). The degree of expression of consent-disagreement determines the magnitude of the expectation of a reinforcing value.
In this questionnaire, the term "expectation"is understood: the number of different situations that have a reinforcing effect, and the degree of manifestation of such an effect. Thus, it should be concluded that the author of the questionnaire, based on a limited set of specific situations, seeks to determine in the field of affiliation the general possibility of reinforcement, which the surrounding world hypothetically holds ready for a particular individual.
In order to carry out data processingof the conducted study on the Mehrabian questionnaire in each of the scales, the number of balls that the test person received is counted separately. For this there is a special key. To derive the results for each scale, the following method is used. Points of the questionnaire with a plus sign are assigned a certain number of points in accordance with the transfer scale, with a "-" sign, a certain amount is also attributed. Measuring the motivation for affiliation by Mehrabian was subsequently modified by M.Sh. Magomed-Eminov.

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