Psychology of communication

Means of communication of people - non-verbal and verbal

Communication means are methods of coding,transformation and decryption of the information transmitted during the communication interaction. Communicative means are divided into two large blocks: speech and non-speech blocks, i.e. verbal and non-verbal means of communication. Speech is a process of exploiting the language for the purpose of communicating the interactions of individuals. A language is a sign system, the main function of which is to ensure communication between people, thinking, by expressing the individual's self-consciousness. Speech as a method of verbal communication acts in parallel as a source of information and as a method of influencing communication partners.

Language as a means of communication

The means of communication include, first of all, language, intonation of speech and emotional expressiveness, facial expressions and gestures, postures.
Language as a means of communication between individuals is closely interrelated with the society, its culture and individuals who live and work in it, while using the language diversely and extensively.
Communication or communication is called translation fromone individual to another with any information for a different purpose. Communication is a consequence of the communicative interaction of two or more persons in specific circumstances and with a universal means of communication.
The main means of human communicationis seen language. The purpose of a language to be a communication mechanism is called its communicative function. Interacting with each other, individuals broadcast their own thoughts, worldviews, emotions and emotional unrest, influence each other in a certain direction towards each other, reach a common understanding. With the help of the language, subjects of interpersonal interaction understand each other. It enables them to organize collective work in all areas of human activity. Language - this is the force that determines the existence, development of individuals and society as a whole. A communicative function is the leading social function of language. However, it is far from being its only function. Its specialized functions include cognitive, expressive, nominative and accumulative.
Ability to express information, broadcast it andto influence the interlocutor is called the expressive function of the language. This function is considered as the unity of the expression and translation of data, feelings and emotional experiences, the will of the speaker.
Cognitive function is interrelated withpresence in the linguistic signs of human consciousness. Language is an original instrument of consciousness, reflecting the results of cognitive activity of the individual. Linguistic bickering about what is primary, thinking activity or language, will not stop, probably never. The only true proposition is the assertion that language has an indissoluble connection with thinking, since mankind not only expresses its own ideas in words, but also thoughts are formulated in the form of words - the person thinks in words. The cognitive function of the psyche is designed to fix the consequences of cogitative activity and their application in communication. This function helps to know the world and its verbalization.
Personality thinks through categories, and in the course ofcognition, she discovers and calls new phenomena and concepts that are new to her, which is a nominative function of language. It has a close relationship with the cognitive, since all the known must necessarily have its own name. She also has a connection with the ability of linguistic signs to give a designation to things. It is this ability that allows an individual to create a world of symbols. However, in the modern world there are many things that have no names.
The accumulative function has a close relationship withcollection and preservation of information. After all, it is not a secret for anyone that the language exists much longer than people and people. A vivid example of this is the dead languages ​​that survived their carriers. Language, regardless of whether it exists today or not, preserves the memory of generations and the centuries-old history of mankind. After all, even with the loss of oral speech, one can learn ancient writings and draw definite conclusions about the past life of the nation.
Language is also sound and written. The leading form of language is its sound component. Non-literate languages ​​can also exist. When there is only a written fixation, and there is no sound, the language becomes dead.

Nonverbal means of communication

Means of communication of people, as mentioned above,are verbal, i.e. connected with the speech apparatus of man, and non-verbal (non-verbal). In situations of language deficiency (for example, the lack of universal language facilities), interpersonal interaction can occur through non-verbal means. After all, through them, humanity has been communicating since time immemorial.
Nonverbal means of communication appeared much earlier than language systems. That is why they are sometimes called natural, that is, given to mankind from nature, and not invented by people.
Non-verbal means of communication are: facial expressions, postures, various gestures, the style of movement of subjects, etc. They replace and supplement speech, convey the emotional mood of partners in communication. The main detail of such communications is the human body, which has a wide range of means and methods of information transmission and contains all the categories of the individual's self-expression. Psychologists argue that a correct interpretation of non-verbal signals is the main condition for effective communication.
Knowledge of the non-verbal "language" helps not only to better recognize and understand the partner, but also to anticipate what impression the heard information will have on it, even before the moment of its scoring.
Mimicry originated from the Greek word mimikos, thatin translation means imitating. Mimicry is called the movement of the facial muscles. The main element of mimicry is the mimic code, which consists in a special combination of elements and components of the face. These elements and parts include: the position of the lips and eyebrows, the shape and brightness of the eyes, transmitting emotional states, etc. Psychologists have identified six main codes of facial expressions and a lot of nuances of transition from one code to another. The main mimic codes include: suffering, anger, fear, contempt, surprise, joy.
An additional important source of data onmood and intentions of the interlocutor is the body of the subject, its dynamics or static state. The pose in translation from French means the position of the body. It means a more or less stable spatial position of a person. Today there are more than a thousand such provisions, the satisfactory or unacceptable nature of which is dependent on nationality, gender, age category, cultural characteristics and religious preferences of people. The main semantic essence of the posture as a means of communication is the expression of openness or closeness, readiness for communication or unpreparedness for it.
Gestures are divided into rhythmic, emotional,pointing and inventive. With the rhythm of speech associated rhythmic gestures. They emphasize the logical stress, the acceleration or slowing down of the tempo, the place of the intervals, that is, everything that usually
conveys by intonation. For example, it can be: beating a musical step with a foot, rocking the body or head, etc. Various shades of feelings convey emotional gestures. Most of them are fixed in persistent combinations - phraseological units. For example: slapping yourself on your own forehead means an unexpected guess or recollection.
For the selection of items from a number of the same type,indicating the location of their order, are indicative gestures. Often speech without the use of the index gesture becomes absolutely incomprehensible. There are phrases of a certain type that involve the use of index gestures. For example, please give me this book. You can specify not only with the help of hands and fingers, but also through a look, a nod of the head, a turn of the trunk. Gestures of an indicative nature are multi-valued; under different conditions, similar gestures acquire completely different meanings. For example, pointing fingers at the wrist, where the watch usually wears, can mean the question of how much time is left before the end of the lecture, seminar, pair, etc. or a hint that there is little time left, or you need to hurry.
When there is not enough time or no opportunityquickly express their own thoughts, you can depict an object, phenomenon, or action using visual gestures. They increase the impact on the interlocutor, while giving him a clearer and clearer idea of ​​the topic of the conversation or the subject of speech.
Typical situations in communication are servicedsymbolic gestures. For example, you can greet a colleague by nodding your head or waving your arm. Each of the symbolic gestures is selected in accordance with the situation and depends on gender, age category, social role and status, the level of cultural communication.
Kinesic means of communication are stylemovement of the subject and his gait. Studies of psychologists show that the emotional state can affect the gait of the individual, so that you can, without approaching the interlocutor, to assess the potential effectiveness of communication.
Non-verbal means of communication includealso prosodic means, and extralinguistic. Prosodika in Greek means an accent or a refrain. In other words, the prosody is responsible for the rhythmic-intonational characteristics of the speech, such as: loudness and height of the voice tone, the intensity of the stress and the timbre of the voice. Individual prosodic features in the individual are inherent in nature, but much can be corrected through systematic work. Extralinguistic means of communication are closely intertwined with the prosodic. They include: intervals, sighs, coughing, laughing, crying, etc. Prosodic and extralinguistic non-verbal means of communication regulate speech streams. They supplement and at the same time save language communications, replace and foreshadow speech utterances, demonstrate emotional states.
Dynamic touching with the body, in the form of patson the back, shoulder, knee, handshakes, kisses, are called tactical means of communication. The choice of one of the forms of tactical means is conditioned by a variety of factors, such as: nationality, gender, age, degree of acquaintance, social status.
Proxemic means of communication arein the distance that interlocutors use with each other. Anthropologist E. Hall introduced the main zones of comfort of interpersonal interaction. Their distance depends on the degree of proximity of individuals to each other.
The intimate distance is intended for communication of close people and relatives and makes an interval from a touch to 45 cm.
The personal distance is intended for communicating with familiar subjects and ranges from 45 cm to 1.20 m.
The social distance is intended for official communication and communication with strangers and ranges from 1.20 to 4 m.
The public distance is intended for communication with the audience and ranges from 4 m to 7.5 m.
Violation of the established boundaries in certain conditions of communication can cause misunderstanding, misunderstanding and even lead to a conflict situation.

Verbal means of communication

The means of communication mainly refers to the source of information, the way to influence the interlocutor, communicate through words, exchange of information.
Verbal means of communication areinteraction of the parties by means of words, and are realized through the use of sign systems. The core of such systems is the language. Languages ​​as sign systems are the best means of expressing human thought activity and a means of communication. Language finds its own embodiment in life in speech. Thus, language is present in individuals stably in a state of opportunity. The concept of "speech" is used in several meanings. The first meaning is the representation of speech as one of the types of communicative interaction of the individual. Those. in this sense, speech is a specific activity of the individual, which is expressed orally or in writing. Also, the speech refers to the results of activities that are dependent on the circumstances and tasks of communications. For example, business or official speech. Speech from the language is different in that it has specificity, uniqueness, relevance, activity, it unfolds in time, is realized in space. Also, speech, unlike a linguistic system, is much less conservative, but more dynamic and mobile. It reflects the experience of the speaking individual, is determined by the context and conditions, is variable, and can also be spontaneous and disordered.

Each phrase in the course of communications plays eithera different role - establishing contact, attracting interest and attention, translating messages, etc. Private roles of certain phrases can be combined into common ones, which are called the function of speech.
The source of data for verbal communicationsan individual speaking or writing information acts. And the information channel is the voice apparatus of the individual, which transmits the message. The code in cases of verbal communication is speech. At the same time, encoding is the transformation of information into units of language, and decoding is the opposite process of understanding and understanding replicas. The choice of the code for the translation of verbal communication, first of all, occurs automatically. Basically, this code is the native language of the speaking subject. However, along with this code can also be perceived as a means of encrypting information.
The next most important nuance of theThe pattern of verbal communication is distortion and interference. Distortions can appear due to linguistic, extralinguistic and acoustical-pronouncing reasons or graphic appearance of information in written communication. Distortions of a linguistic nature are associated with a lack of clarity of utterances, incorrect syntactic design, excessive complexity of communication,
Extra-linguistic disturbancesare conditioned by the "luggage" of the knowledge of the addressee of the message. Also, many psychologists note that the protective mechanisms of the psyche of the individual choose such information that will correspond to the inclinations of the individual, and will not perceive the information that contradicts the point of view and the views of the person. To impart information to noise immunity, any message should be slightly redundant. Excessive information refers to the full or partial repetition of information, which is accompanied by the receipt of new messages and is intended for control and correction of human representations. It is believed that the redundancy in communications should be at least 50% and not more than 95% of the "luggage" of knowledge in the area under discussion.
An important feature of verbal communicationsis considered a value, which is understood as new information obtained from the implementation of informativeness, which is contained in the linguistic sign. Novelty and surprise causes the value of a message of a meaningful nature.
Select dialogical and monologiccommunication, depending on the direction of the speech flow during communication. Dialogue is a form of speech that contains the exchange of phrases and is characterized by dependence on speech conditions, conditioned by previous replicas, a small degree of organization.
In a verbal communication a special position is takendetection and encouragement of the individual potential partner. The ability to speak beautifully and kindly has an attractive power and forms the circumstances for the formation of relationships with the subjects, based on mutual dispositions, which is necessary for a psychologically favorable climate in social groups.

Speech as a means of communication

The main function of the speech of an individual lies inproviding thinking. Speech is a peculiar tool of thought activity. It is a historically developed form of communicative interaction through language constructs. The word is the basic structural unit of language systems. The word as a concept contains much more information, data than itself carries an elementary combination of sounds.
The process of thinking with words and theircomprehension, inevitably causes deformation of the message's semantic load. However, individuals understand each other. Comprehension is always amenable to adjustment, since the means of communication of people is not just the translation of information, knowledge, messages through verbal and nonverbal instruments, but the exchange of data that involves feedback.
Replicas without targeting a partner forcommunications are in the form of a monologue. In the case of monologic translation of messages, the sum of information content losses can range from 50% to 80% of the amount of initial information. Psychologists say that the most effective form of communication is dialogue. He assumes free and fluent speech, the ability to distinguish sincere and honest responses from untruthful and evasive, sensitivity to non-verbal signals.
The foundation of dialogic communications isability and ability to ask questions to oneself and other subjects of the communication process. In comparison with monologic communication, dialogic communications are considered more effective. After all, it will be much more effective to transform your own ideas into questions, and to conduct their approbation in an interview with colleagues and colleagues. The use of questions makes it possible to understand whether the speaker's ideas are supported or not. The very fact of the matter shows the desire to take part in communication interactions, ensuring their further direction and deepening.
Any interaction is unthinkable without following the rules of verbal etiquette, which is related to the forms and style of speech, vocabulary.
Message translation can take a variety of forms. Information can be transmitted in the form of conversation, conversation, lecture, or even dispute.
Speech as a means of communication is basic,peculiar only to people's way of communication. It is mainly divided into internal - a mental conversation of an individual with himself, through which the motivation of his behavior is understood, and the external, ie, aimed at the interlocutor. Inner speech is the foundation of external speech. The transformation of the essence of inner speech is outwardly directed to the appearance of the difficulty of pronouncing out loud. External speech is oral and written.

Game as a means of communication

Game from time immemorial was considered universalmeans of learning, development and recreation. The game as an unproductive activity of individuals, brings emotional excitement, pleasure from the process of free expression of the physical and mental forces of the individual.
The game is a kind of school of social relationships in which the individual comprehends the standards of social and cultural behavior.
The game as a means of communication is considereda fundamental activity not only for kids, but also for the elderly. Only by taking into account the individual age characteristics of the individual game can acquire a slightly different focus. With its help, there is a development of communicative abilities, their projection onto the imitationally created circumstances of the interaction existing in the real world.
Games not only promote development and expressionown communication skills and skills, but also help to correct emerging problem situations and communication difficulties. Understanding each other's individuals is one of the most acute problems that arise throughout the life of a person.
Play as a means of communication allows a teenagerbuild a system of interpersonal relationships, personal interactions, show their leadership qualities and abilities. It provides a solid foundation for the further development of children. The game is a simulation of future situations, conditions, circumstances that individuals can meet in real life.
Ability of the individual to independent,independent decisions, defending one's own position, develops with the help of the acquired in the games experience of obedience and playing out various social roles, situations. After all, the game is a continuous change of positions. The ability to correctly behave in certain roles, forms in individuals adequate self-evaluation, the ability to recognize and perceive their real position in the system of communication interactions, which develops the flexibility of perceptions and communications,
, fast switching from one activity to another. During the game, children seem to absorb the experience of communicative interaction of older comrades.
The game as a means of communication is aimed at developing its own point of view on various issues. It helps the child to give reasoned arguments to "fairness" of his own position.

Development of means of communication

Verbal and non-verbal means of communicationdevelop in several directions. Formed organs, which are special means of communication, for example, hands, lips - this, firstly. In the processes of ontogenetic development, the development of expressive configurations of movements, namely all sorts of gestures, pantomimics, facial expressions, etc., is done, secondly. Thirdly, the invention and application of sign systems, which are means of encryption and translation of messages, occur. Fourth, the development and improvement of technical tools for storing, transforming and broadcasting information that is used in people's communication interactions, namely broadcasting, printing, telephone, television, etc., is developing and improving.
Transformation of the essence, tasks and means of humancommunication is of a historical nature, while the development of communication in animals is due to the natural course of the biological evolutionary process.
Children already at 3 months show an ability toemotional communication with individuals, and by one year their expression is so rich and pronounced that it allows them to quickly comprehend verbal communication tools and apply sound speech.
The development of means of communication occurs in proportion toformation of speech, which makes it possible to diversify the essence of messages that are broadcast and perceived during communication, and due to the progress of learning, the child begins to use various means of communicative relationships. As a result, the instrumental aspects of communication are enriched.
In the future, the formation of communication looks like a step-by-step accumulation of the culture of communication interaction by an individual on the basis of
, inverse relationship and
.

Means of business communication

Business communication is complex anda multifaceted process for the establishment and further development of professional and business contacts between entities that are established as a result of the emergence of the needs of joint activities, and contains the exchange of information and experience.
Business communication today is considered the mostmass kind of social communicative interaction. It starts with the appearance. The correspondence of the image in the whole place and time is a unique card of the individual, a presentation of his success and professionalism.
Image as a means of business communication isThe most important aspect of any professional communication between the subjects. It has special requirements, which include mandatory compliance with the specifics of the activity, time and place of business communication. He must testify about the reliability, competence, intellectuality of the individual, leaving only a favorable impression about the partner, invoking respect and trust from the interlocutor.
When forming your own image, you needconsider several types of qualities: natural, vaccinated by upbringing and education, acquired through life and professional experience. Natural qualities include the individual's communication skills, his empathy, reflexivity and eloquence. Grafted by education and upbringing qualities include moral guidelines, psychological health and a set of means of communication.
The image as a means of business communication is formed initially from trifles - various accessories, for example, a belt, phone, hours, manners and directly the ability to conduct a conversation and
the interlocutor.
Logical and semantic part of businesscommunication forms communication through verbal and non-verbal means, which complement the conversation. It contains two interrelated processes: the production of messages by the interlocutor and the perception of information by him. The means of verbal communication is speech and its semantic load. It consists of words and can be spoken or written.
To means of nonverbal business communicationcarry the same communication tools as with other types of interpersonal interaction, namely: facial expressions, gestures, visual contacts, proxemics, para- and extralinguistics.

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