Aggressiveness is a stable characteristicA subject that reflects his propensity for behavior, whose goal is to cause harm to the surrounding world or an expression of anger, anger directed at external objects. Psychologists argue that aggressiveness was not inherent in mankind from the very beginning, and kids learn a model of aggressive behavior from the first days of their lives.
Aggressiveness from the Latin language means to attack and characterizes the property of the individual, giving preference to the use of violent methods in achieving his goals.
The reasons for aggression
Personal characteristics that affect the development of man's aggressiveness are as follows:
- propensity to impulsiveness;
- thoughtfulness, absent-mindedness;
- emotional susceptibility, as well as feelings of vulnerability, dissatisfaction, discomfort;
- hostile attribution, which refers to the assessment, as well as the interpretation of intentions, actions as aggressive.
Aggressiveness in humans is noted in a number of nervous and mental disorders.
The reasons for the aggressiveness of a person are: Various kinds of conflicts, intimate problems, alcohol abuse, psychotropic drugs, narcotic drugs, unsettled personal life, personal problems, feelings of loneliness, mental trauma, strict upbringing, thriller viewing, overwork, and refusal to rest.
The term "aggressive" with respect to athletes was used as a characteristic, which means perseverance in overcoming obstacles, as well as being active in achieving the set goals.
Signs of aggression
Aggressiveness is expressed in such features as conflict, dominance, lack of social cooperation.
Signs of man's aggressiveness are manifested in the morbid attitude of perception of one's self with surrounding people.
Signs of aggressiveness in children are their physical actions: slamming the doors, trying to beat others, tearing, biting, spoiling things with anger, smashing dishes.
Types of aggressive reactions Bass-Darkey questionnaire:
- physical aggression, marked by the use of physical force against other persons;
- indirect aggression, is characterized by a directed roundabout path to other persons or not directed at anyone;
- irritation, it is marked by readiness to show negative feelings at insignificant excitation (rudeness, hot-temperedness);
- negativism, marked by an oppositional manner of behavior (from passive resistance to active struggle);
- resentment, marked by envy, as well as hatred of others for fictitious and real actions;
- suspicion, which is characterized by mistrust, caution about people who are allegedly planning and doing harm;
- a sense of guilt, expressed in the possible persuasion of the subject that he is a bad person, doing bad deeds, and therefore experiencing remorse;
- verbal aggression, which is expressed in negative feelings (screaming, screaming, threats, curses).
Aggressiveness in men
Passive aggression in men is notedPostponing cases and hesitating before making important decisions. Such men are not responsible, extremely disdainful of terms and do not fulfill promises. This type looks for any excuses for quarreling with relatives, while keeping distance and not allowing to personal space. The reason is the fear of dependence, so the man, by coping independently with fear, tries to manage and command others. Such a man does not admit his mistakes, but accuses only the circumstances surrounding him, demanding to find the guilty.
The reason for this behavior is social andFamily atmosphere, where they keep silent about their desires, needs, considering it a manifestation of selfishness. At the subconscious level, this education inculcates the idea that wanting something for yourself is wrong and unacceptable in principle.
Passive aggressiveness in men is corrected only by a calm, gentle attitude and gradual pushing towards the desired behavior pattern.
Aggression among men is differentSettings from female aggression. Men often resort to an open form of aggression. They are not worried by anxiety, guilt, it is important for them to achieve their goal, so aggressiveness is a kind of model of behavior.
Increased aggression in men is marked by a lack of culture of behavior, demonstration of confidence, strength, and independence.
Aggression associated with sexual arousal -This is an attack or a series of violent acts between sexual partners. Aggressiveness is in contrast to a love-erotic relationship. Individuals experience erotic pleasure from sexual aggressiveness (masochism, sadism, sadomasochism).
Psychological concepts provide such an explanation for the appearance of sexual aggressiveness: it arises from the experience
, T.E deceived expectations in obtaining satisfaction. This does not apply only to intimate desires or needs. Aggressiveness is explained by compensatory character. For example, the repetition or continuation of the violence, or the testing of violence, which is practiced in other spheres.
Research in this area confirms thatSexual brutal violence, as well as the beating of women by men, often occur among those where the woman is discriminated against and oppressed, and is dependent. Simultaneously with this majority of clients, prostitutes, who are fond of sadomasochism, are men from the upper strata, who thus implement the staged aggression.
Aggressiveness in women
Women use psychological implicitAggression, they worry about the resistance that the victim can make. Aggression in women is noted with outbursts of anger to relieve nervous and mental stress.
Increased aggression is observed in elderly women and is explained by manifestations
In the absence of other negative character traits and reasons for such behavior. Increased aggressiveness in women is characterized by a change in character traits in a negative direction.
Aggression in women is provoked by such factors:
- hormonal, congenital insufficiency, provoked by pathology in early development;
- negative emotional experience from childhood (abuse, sexual violence);
- mental pathologies (
- hostile relationships with the mother, as well as childhood mental trauma.
Aggressiveness in children
Causes of child aggression: Condemnation and rejection by adults; Destructive emotions of the inner world, with which the child is unable to cope on his own. A lack of understanding and ignorance of the causes of aggression in children leads to open dislike in adults.
How to reduce aggression in children?
Working with aggressive children, a teacher,A psychologist should be sensitive to internal problems. Aggressiveness in children is removed by positive attention from the adult to the inner world of the baby.
Only positive attention and acceptanceAggressive personality on the part of the psychologist, educator, parent, or else all correctional work will be reduced to zero and the child will most likely lose confidence in the psychologist and will show resistance in further work.
To all working with such a category of children it is importantTake into account the non-price position. This means not making estimates of this type: "so you can not behave yourself," "it's not good to say that." These observations will only alienate the children from you and will not facilitate the establishment of contact.
Correction of aggressiveness in preschool children
Children's aggressiveness is eliminated by the following principles and correctional work:
- contact with the child;
- non-price perception of the individual, as well as its acceptance as a whole;
- Respectful attitude to the child's personality;
- a positive attitude towards the inner world.
I would like to note the directions of corrective work with the aggressiveness of children:
- training in control skills, as well as managing one's own anger;
- lowering the level of personal anxiety;
, The formation of awareness of their own emotions, as well as the feelings of others;
- development of positive self-esteem.
Exercises to reduce aggression:
1. Acquaintance. "Show your name."
Children call their name and come up with a thought-out movement.
2. The game "Magic Balls."
Purpose: relieve emotional stress.
Children are in a circle (sit, stand). The adult asks them to close their eyes and make a "boat" of hands. The psychologist puts all the children in the palm of a colored ball, and then asks him to warm him or roll, give him a piece of affection, warmth, breathing on him. Next, it is suggested to open your eyes and look at the ball, telling about the feelings that have arisen during the exercise.
3. The game "Good Ghosts". Purpose: to teach how to splash accumulated anger in an acceptable form.
Leader proposes to lose the role of goodGhosts that are a little hooligan and slightly scary of each other. At the command of the presenter, the children flex their arms in the elbows, while spreading their fingers and pronouncing with a loud, terrible voice the "y" sound or any other sound.
4. Draw the mood.
Purpose: expressing your mood in the drawing.
Discussion of drawings includes guessing where the mood is.
5. Game: "The dragon bites the tail."
Purpose: to relieve tension, neurotic states, fears.
Sounds merry music, the children stand behind each other, holding each other firmly by the shoulders.
The first baby is the "dragon's head", and the last one is the "dragon's tail". The first baby "the head of the dragon" tries to catch the "tail", and the latter in turn dodges from it.
6. The game: "My good parrot."
Purpose: to develop a sense of elegance, as well as the ability to work together in a group.
Children are in a circle. The psychologist says: a parrot came to visit and wants to play with the children. You need to think about what you need to do in order for the parrot to like it at a party, and he necessarily flew to them again. The psychologist gives the children a parrot - a toy, offering to pat, talk kindly, caress.
7. The game: "Blots".
The goal: the removal of aggressiveness, fears, the development of imagination.
Prepare white sheets of paper, gouache. Children take a paint brush on the brush of the color they want to paint a blot. On the white sheet of paper, children splash out their color and fold the sheet in half, but so that the blot makes a print on the second half of the sheet.
Leaf unfold and try to understand what blob looks like or to whom. If you want, you can finish the blot.
8. Relaxation "In the Cloud".
Purpose: the removal of emotional, physical stress.
9. Exercise "I'm a blade of grass".
Purpose: To teach children to express their feelings.
Children imagine themselves a blade of grass flying in the wind.
10. The game: "Two queen quarreled."
Purpose: relieve muscle tension, emotional discharge.
Under the merry music, the kids move chaotically and push their shoulders slightly.
11. Game: The Centipede
Purpose: to teach children to interact with peers, to promote the unity of children's collective.
Children (5-8 people) stand up, holding their waistAhead. The leader's command sounds and the "Centipede" moves forward, then squats, crawls between obstacles, jumps on one leg. The main task is not to break the single "chain", and to save the "Centipede".
12. Desktop joint games.
Purpose: development of attention, ability to concentrate, ability to interact without conflicts.
13. Game: The Cat.
Purpose: to establish a positive attitude, to remove emotional, muscle tension.
Children are located on the carpet. Sounds quiet music, the kids come up with a fairy tale about the seal and show how the cat lounges in the sun, washed, stretches, scratches the mat with a claw.
14. The game: "Kicking".
Purpose: emotional discharge, as well as relieving muscle tension.
The child is located on the carpet (lies on his back). In this case, the legs are freely spaced. Slowly he starts kicking and touching the floor with his entire leg. Legs rise and alternate. For each blow with his foot the kid says "no", while increasing the intensity of the blow.
15. The game "Pull yourself together."
Purpose: to teach the kids to restrain themselves.
To explain to babies that when they have unpleasantEmotions: irritation, anger, the desire to hit, it is possible to "pull yourself together" and stop your emotions. To do this, take a deep breath, and then exhale (several times). Then we straighten up, cover our eyes and count to 10, smile, open our eyes.
16. The game "Fortress".
Purpose: The game allows children to show aggressiveness in the game in an adequate form. Of particular interest is the diagnosis: who will choose whom to join the team.
Children at will of children are divided into two teams. Teams build a fortress for themselves (from the constructor). At the command of one team defends the fortress, and the other storms. Arms - balls, inflatable balls, soft toys.
17. The game "Rvaklya."
Purpose: to relieve tension and give the output of destructive energy.
The child is offered to crumple, tear, tamper with paper and do with it whatever it pleases, and then throw it into the basket.
18. The game "Zoo".
Purpose: helps relieve tension.
Children are offered to "turn" into animals byDesire. Initially, the children sit on chairs - "cages". Each individual kid depicts the chosen animal, while others try to guess whom he shows. When all the "learned", the chairs - the cells are released and "beasts" - the children go out to jump, run, growl, shout.
19. Game: Velcro.
Purpose: to relieve muscle tension, to unite the children's group.
All the kids move, jump, run around the room,And two kids, holding hands, try to catch their peers, saying: "I'm sticky-bastard, I want to catch you." Whom they caught, "Velcro" take by the hand and attach it to their company. After all the kids become sticky, all the children dance in a circle under quiet music.
20. Exercise "Cam."
The goal: to shift aggression and exercise muscle relaxation.
During the game, we give the child any small toy in his hand and ask him to squeeze the cam tightly.
Holding the cam tightened, and then opening it, on the palm we see a beautiful toy.
21. Game: Compliments.
The goal: to help the kids see their personal benefits, and also to feel that they are being accepted and other people appreciate them.
The game begins with these words: "In you I like ..." The child says this phrase to all participants of the game, both adults and children. Other participants also tell everyone else compliments. After the game, you should discuss what participants felt that they knew about themselves, whether they liked to play and say compliments.
How to deal with aggression? With own aggression helps to fight
. Effectively use the system of punishments andIncentives, when you personally act as an object, as well as in the role of educator. As a punishment to use deprivation of oneself of certain benefits, and to encourage oneself can be a favorite pleasure. Effective are the actions to change the personal attitude to the situation.
How to reduce aggressiveness? When there is anger and the first signs of aggression - pause. Try to get out of this situation yourself or get distracted. Close your eyes, count to ten, mentally put water in your mouth when talking with an annoying person. It is possible that this will save you from manifestations of unnecessary aggression.
There were and always will be things that you are not inChange or remove from your life. You can be angry with them, but there is another approach: try to accept them and begin to treat them calmly. It is very important not to allow chronic fatigue, as it underlies irritability and aggression. At the first signs of chronic fatigue - give yourself a break (take a day off, time off).
Man turns into evil and aggressive withChronic dissatisfaction with their lives. To aggressiveness has left your life, it is necessary to make positive changes in it. Be attentive to yourself and try to live in your own pleasure, as a satisfied person is more often balanced and calm than a dissatisfied person.