Amnestic syndrome is a dysfunction of the psyche,Characterized by serious violations of the cognitive process, such as memory. In this disease, there are false memories, loss of ability to navigate in space or time. Amnestic syndrome occurs when the limbic system of the brain is affected. The causes of this disorder include the transfer of various infectious diseases, which are accompanied by damage to the nervous system, hypoxia of the brain. Also, this condition can occur as a consequence of the transfer of head trauma and cerebral blood flow disorders. The most frequently diagnosed amnestic syndrome in alcoholism is due to the insufficiency of vitamins of subgroup B.
Causes of the Amnestic Syndrome
A number of organic states can be distinguished andPathological factors, which are possible causes of development of the ailment under consideration. But mainly amnestic syndrome occurs when the medial and diencephalic temporal formations (for example, papillary bodies, the cerebral vault) are affected.
Often a factor generating the development of thePathology, is thalamic insufficiency, caused by chronic alcoholism. Other factors that cause this disorder can be brain trauma, degenerative changes, tumor processes and cerebral hypoxia.
Below are the factors that provoke the development of the amnestic syndrome:
- tumor processes in the brain;
- Thiamine deficiency caused by prolonged starvation, carcinoma of the stomach, alcohol intoxication;
- Wernicke-Korsakov syndrome;
- damage to the head with damage to the cerebral cortex;
- subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture, hypertension, arteriovenous malformation;
- Vascular pathology (bilateral hippocampal necrosis, which occurred due to blockage due to embolism of the artery or as a result of thrombosis);
- intoxication with isoniazid oxide, carbon, arsenic, lead;
- degenerative cerebral diseases, for example, senile
Or a pathology called
- Hematomas or hypoxia of the brain, which has arisen due to various causes;
- bilateral lesion of the limbic system (hippocampus) region, caused by surgical intervention;
- due to insulin-co-therapy;
- transfer of intracranial infections, encephalitis, meningitis.
Development of short-term amnestic episodes is observed with fainting, transient pathologies of cerebral circulation and strokes.
Organic amnestic syndrome
The following main symptoms of the amnestic syndrome are noted, which are always present, but may differ in severity. They include retrograde
, Consisting in the disorder of abilityRemember the recent facts (that is, the patient forgets the events that before the onset of the disease, remembered) and anterograde amnesia, which is a disorder of the ability to receive new information, in other words, the patient is unable to form new memories. Other cognitive processes that depend on
, Are violated to a lesser extent. Cognitive processes that depend on the normal functioning of memory include spatial orientation, the ability to concentrate, auditory and visual abstraction.
, Suffering from this pathology,Become dependent on other individuals, non-initiative and mostly complacent. Amnestic syndrome, what is it? The main feature of the ailment under consideration is the deep destruction of short-term memory. In this case, the severity of the disorders depends on the etiology and severity of the disease. At the same time, "immediate" memory is not violated, that is, patients retain the ability to reproduce sentences or series of numbers immediately after their utterance.
An individual suffering from an amnestic syndrome,Can remember the events immediately after their accomplishment, but after ten minutes or after a couple of hours is no longer able to recall. Also, the ability to recall distant events remains. According to a number of studies, memory dysfunction does not always consist in an absolute violation of memorization.
In addition to the above manifestations, you canTo identify the accompanying symptoms of the amnestic syndrome, such as confabulation, which consists in inventing ready-made responses by patients or in a detailed description of fictitious events, reducing critical abilities, disorientation in one's own personality and in time. Violations from the emotional-volitional sphere, such as
And emotional flatness. Thus, in the present ailment the memory disorder in the form of retrograde, anterograde and fixation amnesia is noted not only against the background of dementia or
The prognosis of the described pathology depends, first of all, on the course of the underlying ailment.
Amnestic syndrome with alcoholismCorresponds to the main manifestations of an organic amnestic disorder. It is also characterized by a chronic memory disorder in recent events, a disorder of the order of events, a sense of time, the ability to assimilate new information.
In order to diagnose the amnestic syndrome, the following manifestations are necessary:
- the presence of memory dysfunction for events that happened recently;
- Anterograde and retrograde
- a decrease in the ability to reproduce the events that occurred in the reverse order;
- Anamnesis, indicating the transfer of a stroke or brain damage;
- absence of violations in the immediate reproduction of data, disorders
And attention, generalized intellectual violation.
The pathology under consideration is characterized byAge specificity, as it is extremely rare to occur in children. In a child, this disease is more likely to manifest spatial and temporal disorientation, young people are also disoriented, and amnesia is manifested in the form of replacing the "gaps" of memory with earlier memories.
Amnestic Syndrome Treatment
The ailment in question can be acute or occur chronically.
Alcoholic amnestic syndrome withoutIntervention of specialists and adequate therapy can last from two to fifteen years. The severity and duration of the flow depends on the amount of alcoholic beverages consumed and the support of the alcoholic's vital activity by a close environment.
To treat the amnestic syndrome wasEffective, it is necessary, first of all, to completely abandon the consumption of alcohol. That is, the treatment must begin with the elimination of alcohol dependence, which usually occurs in the hospital.
It is especially important when diagnosedAmnestic syndrome with alcoholism, try to prevent the occurrence of encephalopathy Wernicke. To prevent the development of this pathology in a patient with alcoholism can be through the appointment of high doses of thiamine chloride and a number of other vitamins.
Therapeutic massive doses of thiamine constitute50-100 mg per day. Also, the appointment of courses of Cerebrolysin and nootropes to improve the brain metabolism, on which the adequate functioning and performance of the brain depends. Vitamins are usually prescribed in the form of intramuscular injections for rapid achievement of the goal and in the form of tablets (orally) as supportive measures. Therefore, the treatment takes quite a long time.
However, this type of treatment has a number of disadvantages,Namely, the inability to restore the destroyed neurons, the lack of influence on pathogenetic mechanisms. Even massive vitamin therapy is ineffective due to the impossibility of restoring affected neurodynamic functions. In addition, the use of large doses of thiamine can lead to allergic reactions, for example, skin itch, Quinck's edema, urticaria, until the development of anaphylactic shock. In addition to the above activities, it is also recommended that the diet be observed to restore the memory as soon as possible. The daily diet should include foods rich in vitamin B levels.
Alcoholic amnestic syndrome is necessaryMust be treated, since the human brain, due to the presence of "failures," will tend to fill the missing fragments with fictitious events or other memories. And the fiction will be so realistic that a person with alcoholism believes in him. If the disease is caused not by abuse of alcohol-containing beverages, is caused by acute trauma, transfer of an infectious disease or a negative consequence of an operation, then it must be treated in parallel with the underlying pathology. The patient suffering from the amnestic syndrome is prescribed specific drugs that "activate" the active functioning of the brain, stimulating the effect on metabolic processes.
Treatment of organic amnestic syndrome as well as therapy of pathology caused by alcoholism should include large doses of nootropics, neuroprotectors and vitamins. In the presence of
Recommended the appointment of antipsychotics inSmall doses. Drugs for memory improvement are ineffective. Also helps pharmacotherapy, aimed at alleviating anxiety and against agitation, structuring the surrounding space.