Anorexia is a commonA mental disorder characterized by a failure to eat and a significant weight loss. Anorexia is more common in girls who knowingly induce this condition to lose weight or in order to prevent excess weight gain. The causes of the disease include a distorted perception of personal, physical form and nothing unsupported concern about weight gain. The general prevalence of the disease is as follows: 80% of patients with anorexia are girls from 12 to 24 years old, 20% are men and women of mature age.
Anorexia and its history stretches from ancient Greece. Literal translation means that there is no need to call for food. Often young people, in order to achieve the standard in the figure, sat on a diet. The diet gave the desired result and eventually came anorexia - exhaustion.
Anorexia is an insidious disease, notWishing to let out from the clutches of the person who got into it. The request of the society for the emaciated bodies also provoked anorexia and men's disease. To bring myself to exhaustion has become not so difficult. The Internet is full of deadly diets.
Victims of anorexia are torn between resuscitation and a psychiatric hospital. Their life is devoid of all colors, and the painful perception of oneself is thick, slowly killing, turning people into skin and bones.
The causes of the disease include biological,Social, psychological aspects. By biological, understand the genetic predisposition, psychological include internal conflicts and the influence of the family, by social understand the influence of the environment: imitation, the expectations of society.
Anorexia first appears in adolescence. The risk factors include genetic, biological, family, personal, cultural, age, anthropological.
Genetic factors are understood as the connections of genes,Related to the neurochemical, specific factors of food behavior, and one of the provoking genes is the HTRA of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor. Another gene of the neurotrophic, cerebral factor (BDNF) is also involved in the occurrence of anorexia. Often, a genetic vulnerability is associated with a certain type of personality, which is associated with a mental disorder or with dysfunctions of neurotransmitter systems. Therefore, the genetic predisposition is able to prove itself under adverse conditions, which include an incorrect diet or emotional stress.
Biological factors include excess weightBody and the onset of early first menstruation. In addition, the cause of the disorder may be in the dysfunction of neurotransmitters regulating eating behavior, such as dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline. The conducted studies clearly showed the dysfunction of these three mediators in patients with eating disorders. Biological factors include food deficiencies. For example, a deficiency of zinc provokes depletion, but is not the main cause of the disease.
Family factors include the occurrenceEating disorder in those who have close or related relationships with those suffering from anorexia nervosa, obesity, or bulimia. Family factors include the presence of a family member, as well as a relative who suffers from drug use, depression, and alcohol abuse.
To the personal include a psychological factorRisk, as well as a tendency to obsessive type of personality. Feeling of own inferiority, low self-esteem, uncertainty and inadequacy to requirements act as risk factors in the development of the disease.
Cultural factors include accommodationIn an industrially developed country, where the emphasis is on slenderness, as the main sign of feminine beauty. Also, stressful events (death of a loved one, physical or sexual violence) can contribute to the development of eating behavior.
The age-specific factor in domestic psychology refers to the basic of the conditions that determine predisposition to the disease. The risk group includes adolescence and adolescence.
Anthropological factors are associated with the search engineActivity of the person, and the main motive is active struggle against obstacles. Often, girls struggle with their own appetite and all those who try to force them to eat normally. Anorexia acts as an active process in everyday overcoming, peculiar search behavior or struggle. A desperate, ongoing struggle restores self-esteem to the patient. Each uneaten piece is a victory, and so it is more valuable than the harder it is gained in the struggle.
Symptoms of anorexia
Signs of anorexia include: a patient's feeling of fullness, a denial of the problem of anorexia, a breakdown of food into several receptions, standing meals, sleep disorders, fear of getting fat,
, Anger, resentment, enthusiasmDiets and cooking, collecting recipes, manifesting culinary abilities without joining meals, changes in family and social life, refusal to participate in common meals, long visits to the bathroom, fanatic sports.
Symptoms of anorexia include reduced activity, sadness, irritability, followed by periodic euphoria.
Anorexia and its symptoms manifest themselves in social fears and are therefore confirmed by the inability to share with others their attitude to food.
Physical disorders include problems withMenstrual cycle, cardiac arrhythmia, muscle spasms, permanent weakness, algodismenorea. The weight of the patient depends on his self-esteem, and the evaluation of weight is biased. Weight loss is perceived as an achievement, and a set as a lack of self-control. This ratio is maintained until the last stage. The danger to health is self-targeting and taking hormonal drugs. These cases are not amenable to treatment.
Stages of anorexia
There are three stages of anorexia: dysmorphomanic, anorectic, cachectic.
The dysmorphic stage is characterized byThe predominance of thoughts about inferiority and inferiority, in connection with apparent completeness. Characteristically the presence of constantly depressed mood, anxiety, as well as a long stay near the mirror. There are first attempts to limit oneself in food, the desire to reach the figure through the diet continues.
The anorectic stage appears after persistentFasting. Weight reduction occurs at 20-30% of the total weight. The patient is characterized by euphoria, tightening the diet for even greater weight loss. The patient persistently convinces himself, as well as others in the absence of appetite and continues to exert more physical stress. Distorted perception of the body gives the patient an underestimated degree of weight loss. The volume of circulating fluid in the patient's body is constantly decreasing, which provokes hypotension, as well as bradycardia. This condition is accompanied by dry skin, chilliness, and also alopecia. The main clinical signs include the cessation of menstruation in women, spermatogenesis in men and in both sexes, a decrease in sexual desire. Characteristic is also a violation of adrenal function and a natural decrease in appetite.
The cachectic stage is marked irreversibleDystrophy of internal organs, which occurs approximately in 1,5-2 years. At this stage, the weight drops to 50% of the original weight. In the body, protein-free edemas occur, the level of potassium drastically decreases, and the water-electrolyte balance is disturbed. Often this stage is irreversible. Such dystrophic changes can lead to irreversible inhibition of all functions, as well as death.
How to get sick with anorexia is of interest to very many young girls who do not understand the seriousness of the disease and its consequences.
Anorexia patients have the following consequences: Cardiac arrhythmia, dizziness, fainting, cold sensation, slow pulse, hair loss, dry and pale skin; On the face, back the appearance of fine hair; The structure of the nails is broken, there are convulsive pains in the stomach, constipation, nausea, indigestion, endocrine system diseases, metabolic slowdown, inability to have children, amenorrhea, osteoporosis, vertebral fractures, bones, brain mass reduction.
It is easy to get sick with anorexia, but how to get rid ofPsychic consequences - that's the question? Mental consequences include an inability to focus, suicidal tendencies, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Anorexia in children
Refusing food from children is a problem for moms. Mostly it is characteristic for early, as well as pre-school age, in the absence of a specific disease. Anorexia in children is expressed in total refusal to eat or a slight decrease in appetite to offer the baby food.
Anorexia in children is often primaryCharacter and is caused by neurotic disorders. The psychotraumatic effect that causes child anorexia is the inappropriate upbringing of the baby, insufficient attention to it, and also hyperopeak. Also, the baby's appetite is negatively affected by the irregular eating habits and the intake of excessive amounts of sweets.
Anorexia in children will only be aggravated ifFor the period of feeding the baby the whole family will gather and use all the methods of encouragement, so that the food can be taken safely. A temporary effect from this comes, but the child's aversion to food is cultivated. Baby, the proposed amount of food eats with great difficulty, swallows heavily and the meal ends with nausea, vomiting, anxiety. Parents often resort to tricks to feed the child.
External signs of anorexia in children are veryThe same: initially the baby eats his favorite food, while refusing the usual meals, eating slowly, swallows with difficulty, wanting to finish the unpleasant procedure as quickly as possible. The mood of the child is sad, stubborn. So to the reception of food, a negative reflex is gradually developed, in which the reference provokes nausea, as well as the urge to vomit. This condition is delayed for weeks, as well as months, while the child is able to lose some weight in weight.
It has been established that anorexia in children is oftenOccurs in wealthy families with no more than one child. Most cases of anorexia are due to the fault of the parents themselves. Prerequisites arise from the first year of life in the period of transfer to artificial feeding
Treatment of anorexia in children includes an exceptionForced feeding, as well as various maneuvers, so that more was eaten. If you have any worries, the baby should not be dragged to the table on the eve of feeding. It is important to eat food strictly at one time, as well as in a certain place. You can not feed your baby at other times. It is necessary not to allow violence, as well as various methods of distraction and persuasion. Drug treatment is indicated for obvious secondary neurotic disorders or for delayed psychomotor development.
Many children in the pubertal period haveComplexes, doubts, unsuccessful attempts of self-affirmation. Initially, teenage anorexia occurs with a simple desire to change for the better. For a teenager it is important to like the opposite sex, parents and just the environment.
Disease in adolescents is often provoked by the media, which promotes the standards of a beautiful body.
When the first signs of adolescent anorexia appear, you should immediately seek help from doctors.
Anorexia in men
Recently, talking about the maleAnorexia. Men are basically set up categorically and often do not recognize their problems. Their obsession with their forms takes on a maniacal character. They are more often engaged in physical exercises in order to achieve their goal; Control the amount of calories consumed, refuse consciously from food, arrange hungry days, and also constantly weigh. The age of morbidity of men also became younger. The medical staff beeps because of a significant decrease in the muscular musculature of the students.
Anorexia in men is noted by adherenceSchizophrenia, psychosis, neuroses. Exhausting sports can also lead to terrible exhaustion. The modeling business also touched on male anorexia. In the treatment it is important to return a positive attitude to food and its forms. If there are difficulties in self-treatment, you should contact a specialist.
Bulimia and anorexia
These two conditions are caused by the desire to keep weightOn constant monitoring. The patient artificially provokes vomiting after each meal with improvised means. The desire to get rid of a full stomach appears in patients with anorexia immediately after ingestion.
And anorexia - these conditions are related to the nervousBreakdown. It seems to the sick that they ate a lot during the meal. Each act to release the stomach is accompanied by a sense of guilt, which contributes to the development of psychosomatic disorders. The family should be attentive to patients, show tolerance and help solve psychological problems.
Diagnosis of anorexia
The disease is diagnosed with the following symptoms:
- body weight is kept below the expected level of 15%;
- Weight reduction is caused by the patient consciously, anorexic restricts itself in eating, because it seems to him that it is full;
- the patient induces vomiting and therebyLiberates the stomach, takes a considerable amount of laxatives; Uses appetite suppressants; Intensely engaged in gymnastic exercises;
- distorted perception of personal body shapesTakes a psychopathological, specific form, and fear of obesity is present as an obsessive or overvalued idea, when the patient considers only low weight to be acceptable for himself;
- endocrine disorder, amenorrhea, loss of sexual desire in men, increase in the level of growth hormone, as well as growth of cortisol, anomaly of insulin secretion;
- in the pubertal period, growth arrest, delayIn the development of mammary glands, in girls primary amenorrhea, in boys the safety of juvenile genital organs. Diagnosis of anorxia includes physical instrumental examination, (gastroscopy, esophagomanometry, X-ray, ECG).
Proceeding from the signs of the disease, the following types are distinguished.
Types of anorexia: mental anorexia, primary pediatric anorexia, drug anorexia, anorexia nervosa.
Treatment of anorexia is aimed at improvingSomatic state, as a result of behavioral, cognitive and family psychotherapy. Pharmacotherapy is an addition to other psychotherapeutic methods. Inherent in the treatment are rehabilitation methods and measures aimed at increasing body weight. Behavioral psychotherapy is aimed at increasing body weight. Cognitive psychotherapy corrects cognitive, distorted education, gives the individual his own value, removes the perception of himself as fat. Cognitive therapy produces cognitive restructuring, in which patients take their specific, negative thoughts away. Solving problems is the second element of cognitive therapy. Its goal is to identify a specific problem, and also help an anorexic patient develop different solutions. An essential element of cognitive therapy includes monitoring, consisting of daily records of eaten foods, and meal times.
Family psychotherapy has an effect in youngPeople under 18 years. Its purpose is to correct violations against the family. Pharmacotherapy is used in a limited and acute manner. Effective is Cyproheptadine, which contributes to weight gain, acting as an antidepressant.
Chlorpromazine or olanzapine weakens the obsessive,Excited or compulsive behavior. Fluoxetine reduces the incidence of eating disorders. Atypical antipsychotics effectively reduce anxiety and increase weight.
Alimentary rehabilitation includes emotionalCare, as well as support and behavioral techniques of psychotherapy, providing a combination of reinforcing incentives. It is important during this period to adhere to bed rest, to perform feasible physical exercises.
Therapeutic diet of patients with anorexia is a very important part of the treatment. Initially, a low but steady intake of calories should be provided, which then gradually increases.
The outcome of anorexia is different. Everything depends on the timely treatment and the stage of anorexia. In some cases, anorexia has a recurrent (recurrent) course, sometimes a lethal outcome due to changes in the irreversible internal organs. The statistics have data that without treatment the fatal outcome comes from 5 to 10%. Since 2005, the public has paid attention to the problem of anorexia. There were calls to prohibit the shooting of anorexic models and on November 16 declared an international day of fighting anorexia.