Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder.disease characterized by frequent changes of mood swings of energy, non-typical, which can lead to serious consequences. It is a chronic disease that affects adults in the quality of work in children - the deterioration of school, in extreme cases, leads to suicidal tendencies. According to the symptoms of bipolar disorder is similar to a psychological disorder, the consequences of which are delivered not only the suffering of a sick person, but also to all others. However, bipolar disorder is curable, and a person suffering from this chronic disease needs constant prevention. In rare cases, the disease manifests itself at an early age. In the main group of risk are teenagers and older students.
Bipolar disorder is very difficult to determineand sometimes it happens that the disease is determined already at retirement age. This disease has two opposite poles of disturbance of emotional behavior. Absolutely all people is frequent changes of mood, seemingly without reason: we laugh, then cry. And this is normal. For a patient with bipolar disorder, mood swings such reach the extreme limits of a depressive or manic states and sometimes last years.
Bipolar affective disorder
This condition is a serious disease,expressed depressive and manic periods, which alternate with the normal condition of the human psyche. Bipolar affective disorder is inherent in almost 1.5% of the population. It is very difficult to recognize and correctly diagnose this disease. From the moment of treatment the patient to the doctor sometimes passes 8 and more years. The symptoms of bipolar disorder in some can manifest themselves 1-2 times a year, while others - daily, change of the excited state of manic depressive.
Bipolar affective disorder is known fromThe whole world. It affects a huge number of people, reducing their standard of living, limiting their ability to work. Mental instability, mood swings - severe symptoms of bipolar disorder.
Bipolar affective disorder, known as
Manifests itself in the form of manic andDepressive states, and sometimes in two forms simultaneously. The patient is a frequent change of behavior from the symptoms of mania, manifested in keyed, euphoria to severe depression with obvious signs of lethargy. Between these conditions the patient is calm and healthy, behaving like a person with a balanced mind. Mania can be expressed in over-excited man, an excess of energy, in which it is in a euphoric state, mindlessly spending money, he decides to "global challenges". The patient is disturbed sleep, seen distraction, speech becomes jerky, fast, smash it nearly impossible. There is no strict order of manifestation of these phases of morbidity.
People suffering from bipolar affectiveDisorder, may also suffer from other nervous disorders. Overnight, the condition of mania turns into bipolar depressive disorder, in which a person falls in the spirit, loses his physical strength, displays anger, hatred of everything around him. Sometimes the thoughts of suicide flash, there is a predilection for drugs.
Bipolar depressive disorder is noted inThose who fell into depression within 2 to 3 years three or four times. And every attack lasted for several weeks or months. At the same time, the time at which a person led a normal, measured lifestyle was very small.
Relatives of the patient sometimes do not understand the behavior of a loved one, do not consider his strangeness as a mental illness. They write off everything for a harmful character, a bad mood.
Bipolar disorder of the cause
The causes of this chronic disease beforeThe present time is so thoroughly and not studied. There is no one single reason for this. There are a number of factors. Scientists tend to think that hereditary genes play one of the defining roles, being transferred from one generation to another. Plus the individuality of a person is added.
Now scientists are studying the brain, the structureA person who was overtaken by bipolar disorder. And we can already say that it is significantly different from the brain of a healthy person. In the future, scientists will be able to understand the origin of the causes of the disease, make a diagnosis as soon as possible and prescribe the right treatment.
Bipolar disorder and its causes are often recurring stressful situations, side effects from the use of certain drugs during the treatment of other diseases.
Bipolar disorder symptoms
In a patient with bipolar disorder, a lifetimePeriods of mania and depression are repeated. In "light" intervals, the symptomatology of the disease is absent. But residual symptoms are present in one third of patients. Most often the disease manifests itself in a depressed state, the main symptoms of the disease are usually seen in the morning and afternoon, fading to the evening.
Patients lose their appetite, the sense of taste of food disappears, a significant weight loss is possible. Older people have constant anxiety, a premonition of some exciting event.
Regular recurrence of episodes of mania and depression is called bipolar disorder type I, in which these symptoms manifest themselves in mild form.
Bipolar disorder of type II is definedMore pronounced symptoms of mania, sometimes hypomania, and depressive state. Some patients experience a change of mood several times during the day. Women more often than men have symptoms of type II.
Bipolar disorder is noted in severalPhases and for each ill, their number varies. Sometimes the symptoms of the disease can manifest in an acute form only once in a lifetime, but last for a long time.
In the manic phase of the disease, there are five stages.
1. Hypomaniacal manifests a heightened mood, repeated periods of physical vigor. In this case, the speech of a person is fast, often intermittent, the topics of conversation change rapidly, attention is dissipated.
2. At the stage of severe mania, there is an increase in symptoms of bipolar disorder. The patients are laughing ever louder, the speech is more and more incoherent, there is no attention. Manic megalomania is showing up. The person thinks that he can "turn mountains", express unrealistic ideas, reduce the duration of sleep. 3. During the stage of manic frenzy, the symptoms of the disease reach their maximum level: behavior becomes uncontrollable, the chaotic movements of the body increase, speech incoherent, consisting of scraps of phrases or words.
4. The fourth stage is the stage of calming the movement while maintaining a euphoric mood.
5. The reactive stage is characterized by a return to the normal state of man and even possible retardation.
The depressive phase is distinguished by the following four stages:
1. At the initial stage of depression in a person, physical performance is gradually reduced, the mood is lost, the general vitality weakens, there is a slight difficulty in falling asleep.
2. The next stage is the growing
. Sharply noticeable decrease in mood, a blockage in movement, a drop in efficiency. The uncomfortable sleep grows into insomnia, the appetite decreases.
3. The third stage is marked depression, in which the periods of the disease have reached the maximum level. The patient becomes quiet, uncommunicative, responds in monosyllables, almost in a whisper. Can be in a stationary state, for a long time without looking down from one object. There are thoughts of self-deprecation, of own uselessness.
4. The fourth stage is reactive. The patient comes to, the behavior returns to normal.
The duration of the phases is not exactly determined, butThe patient himself can feel the approach of one of the conditions and accurately determine his symptoms. Sometimes such people listen to their behavior and, as if, wait for the appearance of symptoms of the disease bipolar disorder.
Bipolar disorder of the mind
In rare cases in the last stages of the diseasePsychosomatic symptoms appear. This is primarily a hallucination in any of their manifestations: sound, delusional or visual. The patient has a megalomania in manifestations of manic symptoms. He sees himself at the head of the state, in the guise of a very influential person.
Bipolar disorder of the human psyche in the stageDepression is expressed in the denial of the good around, everything is seen in a distorted form, there is a sense of uselessness for others, burdening them. The patient is confident in his economic insecurity, especially if problems with money at the moment are taking place. With such symptoms, an erroneous diagnosis of a serious mental illness, schizophrenia, is sometimes put.
Bipolar disorder of the psyche is often not relatedWith diseases. Alcohol abuse, drug dependence, work-related failures or personal problems are the causes of the disease.
Bipolar personality disorder
Bipolar personality disorder is manifested whenFrequent change of manic, depressive and mixed states, sometimes one state flows into another. Bipolar personality disorder is often called a hereditary disease. The age of the patients varies from 18 to 30 years. The descendants of these people also have a tendency to this disease.
Bipolar personality disorder is divided intoSeveral types. The first type is people who had at least one manic episode of the disease in their lives. To the second - people with a depressive episode of the disease. There is often a depression in which a person can spend most of his life.
During the disease, mixedEpisodes arising at different stages of the disease. Most noticeable are the periods when the patient exhibits symptoms of bipolar disorder 4 or more times a year.
Treatment of bipolar disorder
The most important thing in the treatment of bipolar disorder is to choose the right regimen and clearly adhere to it. Thus, mood changes and accompanying symptoms of the disease are stabilized.
Treatment of bipolar disorder must necessarily take place in a complex: medical and psychological, which is the best option for controlling the course of the disease.
Treatment of bipolar disorder should proceedWithout interruption of the course prescribed by the doctor. If the mood changes again during treatment, you should contact your doctor to change the prescription medication and treatment plan. The more detailed and frankly discussing with the doctor-psychiatrist the problems that arise, the more effectively the healing process will go.
If the disease is not started, then you can refer toTherapist. But it is best to be under the supervision of a psychiatrist, preferably a graduate with a large practice of treatment in this area.
First of all, a psychiatrist prescribes such aMedicine like Lithium. This drug stabilizes the mood. Lithium is an effective remedy for the disease bipolar affective disorder, prevents the development of symptoms of manic and depressive disorders.
Together with the main drugs prescribedAdditional, such as Valproate, Carbamazepine, which are anticonvulsants. Another drug prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorder is aripiprazole. Produced in tablets, in liquid form or in the form of injections. When problems with insomnia are prescribed drugs such as Clonazepam, Lorazepam, but they are prescribed in the first stage of the disease, so as not to cause addiction.
In combination with medical treatment is recommendedpsychotherapy. It is very important that relatives and friends of the patient with bipolar disorder treat the seriousness of the disease with understanding and help them to adapt quickly to normal life.