Borderline personality disorder refers to an emotionally unstable state characterized by impulsiveness, low self-control, emotionality, a strong level
, unstable connection with reality and highanxiety. Borderline personality disorder, being a mental illness, is marked by a sharp drop in mood, impulsive behavior and serious problems with self-esteem and relationships. Individuals with this disease often also have other health problems: eating disorders,
, alcohol and drug abuse. The first signs of the disease appear in young years. According to available statistics, borderline pathology is observed in 3% of the adult population, of which 75% are representatives of the fair sex. An essential sign of the disease is self-damaging or suicidal behavior, completed
reach about 8-10%.
Causes of borderline personality disorder
Of the 100 people, two have a borderpersonality disorder and experts to this day doubt the causes of this condition. It can be caused by an imbalance of chemicals in the brain, called neurotransmitters, which help in regulating mood. Also, the mood is influenced by the environment and genetics.
Borderline personality disorder is five times more likelyis noted in those people whose relatives suffered from this ailment. This condition is often found in families where other diseases associated with mental ill health are noted. These are problems associated with the abuse of alcohol and drugs, antisocial personality disorder, depressive conditions. Often, patients experienced severe trauma in childhood. It can be physical, sexual, emotional violence; ignoring, sharing with the parent or his early loss. If such trauma is noted in combination with some personality traits (anxiety, lack of stress-resistance), the risk in the development of the borderline state is significantly increased. Researchers recognize that individuals with borderline personality disorder have a worsened functioning of parts of the brain, which still does not allow to know: these problems are the consequences of the condition or its cause.
Borderline personality disorder symptoms
Patients with a borderline personality state often have unstable relationships, problems with impulsiveness,
, which begin to manifest from childhood.
The emergence of a borderline disorderpersonality is due to the efforts of American psychologists from 1968 to 1980, which enabled the inclusion of a borderline personality type in DSM-III, and then in ICD-10. But the studies and theoretical work carried out by psychologists were devoted to justifying and isolating the intermediate personality type between
The sign of the disorder is low-risksuicide attempts due to insignificant incidents and occasionally dangerous suicide attempts due to comorbid depression. Often provoke attempts of suicides interpersonal situations.
Common for this disorder is the
be left alone or abandoned,even if it is an imaginary threat. This fear can provoke a desperate attempt to hold on to those who are close to such a person. Sometimes a person rejects others first, responding to the fear of being abandoned. Such eccentric behavior can provoke problematic relationships in any life sphere.
Diagnosis of borderline personality disorder
This state must be differentiated from
, anxiety-phobic, schizotypic and affective states.
DSM-IV to the signs of borderline disorder includes the instability of interpersonal relationships, pronounced impulsivity, emotional instability, impaired internal preferences.
All these signs occur at a young age and make themselves felt in different situations. Diagnostics includes, in addition to basic, the presence of five or more of the following features:
- applying excessive efforts to avoid the imaginary or real fate of being abandoned;
- the prerequisites to be drawn into tense, intense, unstable relationships characterized by an alternation of extremes: depreciation and idealization;
- personality identity disorder: persistent, marked instability of the image, as well as feelings of the Self; - impulsiveness, which manifests itself in the waste of money, violation of traffic rules; sexual behavior, overeating, substance abuse;
- Suicidal recurrent behavior, threats and hints of suicide, acts of self-harm;
- changeability of mood -
; affective instability;
- a constantly felt feeling of emptiness;
- Inadequacy in the manifestation of strong anger, as well as difficulties caused by the need to control feelings of anger;
- expressed dissociative symptoms or paranoid ideas.
Not every individual with fiveor more of these symptoms, a borderline pathology will be established. For the diagnosis to be established, the symptoms should be marked with a sufficiently long time period.
Borderline personality disorder is often confused with other conditions that have similar symptoms (antisocial or dramatic personality disorder).
Among individuals with borderline pathology oftenthere have been attempts at suicidal behavior, with 10% of them committing suicide. Emerging other conditions along with borderline personality pathology also require treatment. These additional conditions can complicate the treatment.
Conditions that arise with borderline pathology include:
- depression or
- food disorders;
- problems with alcohol and drug abuse;
- attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
In addition to this disease, other disorders can also join. Some of them are:
- dramatic personality disorder, leading to emotional excess reactions;
- anxious personality disorder, which includes avoiding social contacts;
- antisocial personality disorder.
Treatment of borderline personality disorder
This state is included in the DSM-IV and ICD-10. The classification of borderline pathology as an independent personality disorder is controversial. Treatment is often very difficult and time-consuming. This is because it is very difficult to deal with problems that are associated with behavior and emotions. However, treatment can give good results immediately after the start of therapy.
How to help yourself with a borderline disorderpersonality? Psychotherapy plays a significant role in the treatment. Psychopharmacotherapy is used in the treatment of various combinations of pathology, for example, such as depression.
How to live with a person who has a borderpersonality disorder? This question is often asked by relatives, because the patient always has an increased impressionability and a sensitivity to all on the way to obstacles, they often experience a feeling peculiar to the situation of stress, and relatives do not know how to help them. Such individuals experience difficulties in controlling their thoughts and emotions, are very impulsive and irresponsible in their behavior, are unstable in their relationships with other people.
When practicing psychotherapy, the most difficultthe task is to maintain and create a psychotherapeutic relationship. It can be very difficult for patients to maintain certain limits of the psychotherapeutic union, since the leading symptom is their tendency to get involved in intense, intense, unstable relationships marked by alternating extremes. Sometimes psychotherapists themselves try to distance themselves from complex patients, thereby protecting themselves from problems.