Psychological concepts

Catharsis - what is it in psychology, psychotherapy, philosophy

Catharsis is a group or individualThe process in which the release of psychic energy and impulses is accomplished, which helps to reduce internal conflicts of the individual, through their verbalization and bodily expression. From the Greek language catharsis meaning is purification, improvement. It is also a state of sublimity caused by a deep emotional shock. If you look in the literature for what a catharsis definition can be found ambiguous. In ancient Greek aesthetics, catharsis means the aesthetic influence of art on a person's soul.
The concept of catharsis in psychology (symbolism,Psychodrama, body-oriented therapy) is a method by which emotional and sensory discharge occurs, contributing to a decrease in the level of anxiety or to its complete removal, weakening
, Which, ultimately, leads to a better understanding of oneself and performs a general beneficial therapeutic effect on the person.
In psychotherapy, catharsis refers to one of the phases of treatment in which the patient restores in
Events that occurred earlier in life, and influenced the emergence of psychoneurotic disease. Thus, the client cleanses his psyche.

The concept of "catharsis" refers to the reception of a psychotherapeutic influence consisting in the discharge and reaction of a previously displaced in

, Which became the cause of neurotic
.
The meaning of catharsis in religious Greek healing is the process of releasing the body from harmful matter.
In the ancient Greek culture, catharsis meansCertain elements of the mysteries. Catharsis is an emotional state that arose in the viewer of an ancient tragedy, due to empathy with the protagonist, whose fate usually ended in death. Only such a state is caused not by real events, but by symbolic reproduction. So sincere empathy for the person of tragedy, had educational goals.
Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle studied the concept of "catharsis" and used it in his teachings. According to Aristotle, the tragedy is able to evoke in the person a feeling of compassion and
, Forcing the viewer to empathize, which contributes to the purification of his soul, educating and elevating him.
In the philosophy of antiquity, catharsis is a term for the process and effect of facilitation, purification and ennobling influence on a person of several different factors.
In an ethical sense, catharsis is a state of sublime human reason, an experience of sublime feelings and drives towards good.
In the physiological sense, catharsis is relief through a strong sense of tension.
In connection with the versatile use of the term, we can generalize what is meant by catharsis - a spiritual cleansing that occurs due to certain experiences.

Catharsis, what is it?

To understand what is catharsis, the definitionConcepts should be sought in history. In the history of philosophy, the meaning of catharsis occurs many times with a variety of interpretations. But this concept also has a traditional definition and is interpreted as a category in ancient Greek aesthetics and philosophy, which denotes the essence and impact of aesthetic experience, which has a connection with the purification of the soul from affective states. The use of this concept began with ancient Greek culture, in which catharsis characterizes certain components of Greek religious holidays.
Catharsis was endowed with medicinal properties, consideredHis liberation of the body from various painful affects and "filth." The concept of catharsis was perceived by ancient Greek philosophy and was used in various senses - mystery, magic, medical, physiological, aesthetic, ethical, philosophical and in other meanings.

Representations about the essence of the concept were transferredFrom the field of religious and medical to the field of art, which was done even before the time of Aristotle. The philosopher Heraclitus in his doctrine of fire and according to the testimony of the Stoics determined that catharsis is the purification of the soul by fire. The traditional understanding of this concept resembles the times of the ancient Pythagoreans, at that time, they recommended music as a means to purify the soul. This opinion served as the basis for the views of the philosophers of Plato and Aristotle. The first Plato in his teaching put forward the idea of ​​the liberation of the soul and body, or rather the purification of the spirit from the body, bodily passions and pleasures.
In ancient literature, you can see thatMeans catharsis for Aristotle. The philosopher imparted educational and purifying properties to music, through which a person is able to receive relief for the soul and cleanse himself of affects, while experiencing "harmless joy."
According to Aristotle, tragedy through sensationCompassion and fear contributes to the purification of the same affects - compassion, fear and others like them. This can be read in the author's work "Poetics".
To give an accurate and unified interpretation of these words is notPerhaps, since Aristotle himself does not give an explanation of his understanding of the concept of "purification." Since the "catharsis of affects" from the Greek translates, as in the first case - the purification of affects from any defilement, in the second - the purification of the human soul from affects, providing for a non-permanent liberation from them.
But a systematic analysis of the use of the concept of catharsisAristotle and the rest of the ancient philosopher points out that he should be understood not in the ethical sense, as a moral liberation from affects, but in the medical sense.
Everyone is vulnerable to weakeningAffect, and according to Aristotle, one of the tasks of art is the painless excitation of affects leading to detente, which temporarily removes affects from the soul.
The tragedy is viewed in an exciting wayOn the viewer, inducing compassion and fear in it, discharges these affects, while guiding them with a harmless flow of aesthetic emotions, and creating a sense of relief. Similarly, the way Greek religious physicians treated enthusiastic states with the execution of enthusiastic music, which aroused the increase of affect and the development of catharsis. The connection of spiritual purification with tragedy in Aristotle's theory is part of the definition of the tragedy itself, around which there is a large number of disputes.
Next, consider what it means to catharsis inDefinition of a new time. The idea of ​​the Aristotelian "purification" received a new impulse in the development of the Renaissance. At the same time, another trend emerged - the hedonistic, according to which catharsis is the perception of an aesthetic experience for the sake of personal pleasure.
A little later, the philosopher G. Lessing gave this concept an ethical meaning. The German scientist J. Bernays interpreted it as a relief (on a medical model). E. Zeller attributed a purely aesthetic significance. The philosopher V. Shadevaldt understood under him the shock. A. Nichev spoke of this concept as a release from false considerations.
In the late nineteenth century, the termUsed in psychology and psychotherapy. Catharsis is in the psychology of I. Breyer and Z. Freud - a method that they actively used in their psychotherapeutic practice. This method consisted in introducing a person into a hypnotic trance state, through which one can obtain information about traumatic experiences and pathological memories. From the emergence of the patient's reaction to the emerging memories, liberation from pathogenic affects and elimination of symptoms
.
In Freud's theory, catharsis is a methodResponse, with the help of which the human psyche clears from internal deep conflicts, which as a result leads to the alleviation of the patient's condition. In his studies on the cure of hysteria by the method of reaction, Sigmund Freud became convinced that he himself
Can not be a cure, because, despite the positive effect, no sustained result was observed and the percentage of repeated appeals remained too high.
Refusal of Z. Freud from hypnosis was the condition that not all patients were equally well suited to the influence of hypnosis, most of them only partially, and the rest are not at all. Stopping the treatment with hypnosis, he began to engage in other psychological techniques. Freud developed a method that was based on free associations (when a person calls the first images appearing in the head).
Many modern psychotherapeutic techniquesFocus on achieving catharsis. Such purification occurs through the creation of illusions in the imagination. A person experiencing deep stress and negative emotions should get rid of them. Otherwise, they will sit in it, and increasingly oppress, causing psychosomatic symptoms. Therefore, in psychoanalytic theory, in order to get rid of some disease, it is necessary to go through certain
.
Resumption of negative emotions for the purpose ofTo get rid of them is the essence of psychotherapeutic treatment by the method of catharsis. To release negative psychic energy, it is necessary to revive
Painful memories, again and again experiencingTraumatic situation. The process of remembering is a very strong mental stress, as a person has to get them out of the depths of his soul.
Despite the long history of the concept of "catharsis"And its wide application, the only clear-cut definition is not given. Its boundaries still range from a general cultural understanding, like "enlightenment" to medical understanding, as "relief."

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