The psychology of conflict

The causes of conflicts - social, interethnic, in the organization

Causes of conflict. Conflictologists usually distinguish common typical causes of conflict and a universal source of confrontation, which consists in the mutual exclusion of the parties' claims because of the limited potential for their satisfaction. Among the reasons of a general nature, sociologists distinguish: the opposite perception by the subjects of attitudes, goals, inclinations, values, styles of behavior, the different status of individuals, the discrepancy between expectations and real actions of people, lack of information or its substandard quality. The key element of all economic confrontations is the lack of funds necessary for existence. Most conflictologists are convinced that the satisfaction of all human needs solves the problem of the emergence of conflicts, but the absence of any conflicts stops the development of society.

Causes of conflict

The emergence and formation of various confrontationsIs due to the influence of four groups of causes. Below are the main causes of conflicts: organizational and managerial, strictly objective, personal and socio-psychological.
The first two groups of the listed reasons are mostly characterized by objective orientation, while others are mainly subjective.
Objective reasons include conditionsSocial interaction of individuals that caused a conflict of their opinions, interests, beliefs, etc. They lead to the formation of a pre-conflict event - an objective component of the pre-conflict situation. Subjective factors that provoke confrontation are characterized by a connection with the individual characteristics of the opponents' personality, leading to the choice of a conflicting way to resolve the objective confrontation that has formed. In other words, subjective reasons lead to a subjective way of responding.
Strict classification of objective reasons is notExists because they are quite diverse. One can distinguish among the most common among the following causes of conflict between human subjects:
- a natural divergence of the significant spiritual values ​​and material aspirations of human subjects in the course of their existence;
- low preparedness of regulatory and legal procedures that allow to regulate and adequately resolve the contradictions arising in the course of human interaction;
- Deficiency of important for normal interaction and vital activity of individuals of material goods and spiritual values;
- the way of life of most people;
- stable stereotypes of interpersonal interaction and intergroup relations of citizens, provoking the emergence of collisions.
As a rule, objective reasons lead toFormation of a pre-conflict microclimate. The objective causes of conflict psychology divides into imaginary, that is, on an artificial occasion invented by the individual, and real.
When a pre-conflict situation develops into aDirect confrontation, subjective psychological causes of the conflict begin to act. It is believed that in almost all pre-conflict situations
There is a choice of ways to resolve: Constructive or destructive, conflict or non-conflict. The subject chooses one or another behavioral style, proceeding from the subjective features of the personality temperament and its character. There is no guilty and innocent in the conflict. Always both parties contend.

Causes of social conflicts

A prerequisite for social developmentIs a social confrontation that acts as a result of the incompatibility of the beliefs of individual individuals. Confrontation can bare problems with the society, which in turn contributes to their resolution or leads to anarchy.
The heterogeneity of society, differences in status, differences in well-being - all this inevitably leads to the emergence of confrontations and, consequently, to the escalation of social confrontation.
The foundation of every single encounterThere are always various obvious and hidden psychological causes of conflict. Among the main social prerequisites for the emergence of contradictions are, in the first turn, social inequality, since every society is rich in poor people and oligarchs, and cultural heterogeneity, consisting in the existence of different value interests, behavioral systems in society.
Factors that provoke social confrontations, there are many. Below are the social causes of conflicts briefly.
The ideological causes of confrontation areThe existence of a certain value-ideological system that determines the prevalence and subordination in any society. The views of participants on such a system can vary considerably.
Different values ​​are also consideredQuite a frequent cause of social confrontation. Any participant in a confrontation, whether it is a social group or an individual, has an individual set of value goods. Each such set is strictly subjective, and is often opposed to the recruitment of another participating party. The ultimate goal of the described type of conflict is the satisfaction of its own needs. This is what causes the interaction of oppositely directed interests that generate confrontation.
Economic and social factors are associated withSeparation of power and wealth. Conflicts of this kind appear when one of the participating parties seems to have been ripped off. This kind of causes of social contradictions is considered the most common.
Social confrontations can be classified byThe number of opposing sides (inside and interpersonal, intergroup), according to the source of origin (subjectively and objectively conditioned), in terms of functions (integrative and disintegrative), in form (outwardly directed and internal), in spheres of social life (political, ethnic, economic, family -home).
In turn, each of the listed types of confrontations is characterized by separate reasons provoking their occurrence. For example, the main causes of family conflicts are
, Established stereotypes in an intimate life,The commitment of one of the partners to the abuse of meeting their own needs (alcohol, financial spending solely on themselves), differences of opinion and, consequently, the needs for joint leisure, selfishness, everyday problems. Not all the causes of family conflicts are listed, since in each individual cell of society there are specific problems and individual causes.

Causes of Interethnic Conflicts

Increasingly, in the modern worldInternational conflicts. To establish a dominant position with respect to the rest of the people of the planet, people usually resort to the use of various means. And often such weapons are weapons and brute force. Rivalry between human subjects of different nationalities, confrontation, sharp competition in the struggle for the prevalence of their own interests, which are revealed in various demands, is called interethnic conflict.

In interethnic confrontations, twoParticipating parties, advocating their own point of view and seeking to achieve personal goals. When both parties are tantamount, in most cases, the parties seek to solve the problematic issue peacefully. However, as a rule, in the confrontation of people of different nationalities, there is a prevailing side, that is, superior in some parameters, and weaker, and therefore more vulnerable.
Conflicts of an ethnic nature can arise for various reasons. One can single out the most common causes of conflict between peoples:
- social dissatisfaction of people within one state or different;
- expansion of the boundaries of business interests that go beyond the borders of one country;
- economic superiority;
- disagreement with the geographical determination of the boundaries of settlement of different peoples; Cultural and linguistic claims of peoples;
- political forms of behavioral response to the powers that be;
- numerical prevalence of one nationality over another;
- the historical past rich in contradictions in the mutual relations of peoples;
- struggle for natural resources of nature and the possibility of using them for the purpose of consumption by one nation to the detriment of another;
- Confessional discrepancies and religious.
The causes of conflicts psychology explains on the basis ofStudying the experience accumulated in various parts of the world. Differences in social significance, scale, genesis, "age", tension, ethnic confrontations are characterized by a single "finite nature" that promotes ethnic mobilization. The deep roots of all interethnic confrontations are hidden behind the violation of the rights of a particular ethnic group, the lack of equality and justice in inter-ethnic relations.
The main causes of conflicts can be briefly describedIn a few words: interethnic confrontation provokes the presence of economic, territorial, political, social and psychological contradictions between states. In addition, the presence of several causes is often considered to be a phenomenon for the emergence of confrontation between nations. It should also be noted that the subjective factor plays a crucial role in the emergence of confrontation between ethnic groups, which significantly complicates its course and resolution. Actually, the subjective factor affects the escalation, intensity and "explosiveness" of interethnic confrontations.

Causes of conflicts in the organization

It so happened that the relationship between people can not line up smoothly, and as a result they are complicated by confrontations.
Below are the main causes of conflicts that occur in the organization:
- distributive relations (confrontation arises from the distribution of various benefits, while the occurrence of conflicts is not affected by the fairness of the distribution);
- the difficulties arising in the process of jointLabor (often people working within the same department, working in the same shop, the office conflict with each other and the more responsible and complex the work, the more inevitably will be characterized by contradictions);
- divergence of interests (individuals in some organizations often pursue purely personal goals and personal interests, due to which the organization can not develop fully);
- struggle for leadership (often the nature of confrontations in organizations is of a nature
, Which generates rivalry due to overstated
- poor conditions for work (this factor is an irritant for people and gives rise to intolerance of other difficulties and problems).
Typical causes of conflicts in organizations are often associated with personal experiences and individual psychological characteristics of working people.
In social collectives confrontationArises when one subject begins to think that the intentions or actions of another are threatened to him, create an unequal position, discriminate against him, diminish the importance of his role.
For confrontation to begin to mature, it is necessaryAn incident that consists in the actions of one party aimed at infringing the interests of the other party. When the second party responds with similar behavior, the conflict is transformed from a potential confrontation into a real one (actual).
However, it should be borne in mind thatConfrontations often arise not because of real actions, but because of the suspicions of one individual that another entity is planning against it something unfavorable.

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