Claustrophobia is a pathological symptom,Meaning a phobia of enclosed spaces and a fear of tight spaces, such as an elevator, small rooms, showers, solariums and others. In addition, fear can also cause limited places with a large number of people, for example, claustrophobia in an airplane. This type of phobias, along with the fear of height, are considered the most common pathological fears.
The subject suffering from this disease is afraidThe fact that he can become bad, that's why he always seeks to take a place closer to the exit. Claustrophobia is also manifested by attacks of uncontrolled unconscious panic. It accompanies neuroses of different etiology.
To date, scientists have not been able toIdentify a single list of causes leading to the development of this fear. The only thing that is for certain is that fear of confined spaces and tight spaces is accompanied by serious internal conflicts. Quite often, the disease occurs as a result of a previously suffered mental trauma, for example, a fire in the theater.
Many experts are inclined to such a pointView, which is based on the origin of claustrophobia from the childish sense of danger that children experienced in infancy. In general, the propensity for claustrophobia and
Is transmitted genetically and is conditionedEducation in the family. In addition, the scientists derived the following pattern. Subjects who are afraid of stability and strive for discoveries and changes, most often suffer from claustrophobia, and subjects who are afraid of everything new, any changes, innovations - agoraphobia. After all, the difference between claustrophobia and agoraphobia lies in the fact that people with phobia of enclosed spaces are more developed instinct of discovery, and in subjects suffering from agoraphobia - territorial instinct, the instinct to protect their own territories, stability in life.
Claustrophobia is usually frightened by any restriction of freedom. It should be noted that all people who are passionate about changes, but who are afraid of stability, have signs of claustrophobia.
The subject of phobias for claustrophobia often becomesConcern about objects that pose an immediate threat to the survival of the individual. Claustrophobia is not innate, but the fears of enclosed spaces are easily assimilated, in particular, with respect to things posing a health hazard directly to survival and personal security. So, for example, if the mother of the child suffers from claustrophobia (afraid of elevators), then she will most likely give this fear to her child. Since she will constantly say that the elevator is dangerous, that it is better to walk and when the child will be with her mother, he will always have to walk with her. As a consequence, the baby will not be able to figure out how dangerous the elevator is.
According to many psychologists, the triggerClaustrophobia becomes the last experience experienced - the strongest feeling of fear, transferred, as a rule, by a child in a confined space. This may be a basement, a storage room in which the child was locked up as a child in the form of penalties. Or the closet in which the kid played hide and seek and was accidentally locked up in it. Also, the reason may be a fall into the pool, if the child does not know how to swim, the loss of parents in a large crowd of people, falling into a hole and the inability to get out there independently for a long time.
Statistics argue that the chances increaseThe emergence of claustrophobia in children, due to difficult births, if during the passage through the birth canal the child gets stuck. Since this situation affects the subconscious of the baby. Also among the common causes are brain trauma and various diseases.
There is a theory that states that claustrophobia can cause a reduced tonsil (part of the brain that controls the reactions of the human body during periods of fear).
Based on many studiesWe can conclude that absolutely all phobias are present in the body of a living person, but are in resting states. They are called evolutionary mechanisms of survival. Previously survival instincts were of primary importance for people. Today, this property remains in the genetic memory and does not develop due to lack of necessity.
Psychologists believe that the two main symptoms are fundamental: the fear of suffocation (it seems that there is not enough air in the room) and the phobia of restraint of freedom.
An attack of claustrophobia is characterized by the appearance of such symptoms as:
- fear of lack of oxygen in a limited space;
- fear of illness or accidental injury;
Heart palpitations and shortness of breath;
- Increased blood pressure;
- the appearance of dizziness;
- increased sweating;
- the condition resembles a pre-fainting condition, a syncope is possible; - a feeling of insurmountable danger;
- Pain in the chest;
- a feeling of perspiration in the throat and dry mouth;
- The strongest cough;
However, mostly patients with claustrophobia scareNot a self-enclosed space, but the fact that oxygen can end. This panic can usually be caused by rooms that are not equipped with windows, of a small size. These rooms include: small rooms, locked spaces, basements, airplanes and other transport, elevators.
Anxiety and panic attacks can manifest themselvesNot only in enclosed spaces, but also can be provoked by the need for a long stay in some place (standing in line). With the passage of magnetic resonance therapy, there may also be an occurrence of an attack of claustrophobia.
People prone to bouts of claustrophobia canUnconsciously make any decisions and act so that by any means avoid a frightening situation or panic. So, for example, when entering a room, the subject will subconsciously look for an exit and stop next to it. With closed doors, such people have anxious states. Sick people do not get into their own car at rush hour, when heavy traffic and a large crowd of people to avoid being trapped.
Often an attack of claustrophobia can be accompanied by a panicky desire to take off all the clothes.
There are general signs of claustrophobia with otherPhobias, such as the emergence of a pronounced reaction from the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. This reaction is characterized by heavy sweating, the appearance of dryness in the oral cavity, a violation of the heart rate in some cases, shortness of breath and weakness throughout the body. When there is fear, the adrenal glands begin to produce a huge amount of adrenaline, which contributes to a sharp expansion of blood vessels, so that patients are often prone to dizziness and fainting.
Treatment in general has a positive outcome,If it occurs in a complex. This means that in the treatment of claustrophobia, medication, psychological and psychotherapeutic effects should be used. As a drug therapy, antidepressants are usually used. They are appointed to relieve an attack of panic fear, which manifests itself in an acute form, with the aim of making the patient calm and resting his nervous system.
To treat claustrophobia, manyVarious methods, but the main ones are the introduction of the patient into the hypnotic trance, the techniques of neurolinguistic programming (NLP), regular desensitizing therapy and some logotherapeutic techniques.
Direct treatment is as followsWay. The therapist introduces the patient, suffering from claustrophobia, into a state of hypnotic sleep, for maximum comfort and relaxation. Then the doctor tries to identify and eliminate the cause that caused claustrophobia, and inspires the patient with information through which he finally and irrevocably forgets his obsessive irrational fears, while self-confidence and self-confidence are strengthened.
The method of systematic desensitizing therapyIs based on teaching the patient to various ways that promote relaxation. The techniques of independent relaxation are indispensable in the sudden occurrence of acute attacks of claustrophobia.
Often for the therapy of claustrophobia applySpecial exercises with the following names; "Injection," "flood," and "inconsistency." Equally popular are physical exercises. So, for example, the most effective method of muscle relaxation by the method of Jacobson.
Increasingly widespread in the treatment of variousPhobias have recently received neurolinguistic programming. It is based on the inclusion in the therapeutic practice of various speech revolutions, with the help of which the patient reprograms himself. However, in the beginning, the patient must realize the degree of his fear and try not to allow full seizure of himself by panic conditions that deprive a person of the ability to think and act reasonably. The psychologist should teach the patient how to get out of such conditions correctly in such situations and without harming the nervous system.
In those moments when a person suffering fromClaustrophobia, feels the approach of the attack and understands that to avoid it there is no possibility, it is recommended to force oneself to relax as much as possible. It is for this purpose that psychologists and psychotherapists teach patients the right techniques of relaxation based on special breathing, in which inhalation of air occurs through the nose and all emphasis is on how the air passes. In no event, and under no circumstances is it recommended to succumb to panic. It's just forbidden. Do not look around to find an unexpected escape or escape. The most optimal option is to focus on a particular object, which is approximately at the eye level and carefully studied it.
Subjects susceptible to attacks of claustrophobia,Should learn to manage and control their own behavior, the flow of their thoughts. An important role in this is given to the ability to think abstractly, to create all kinds of images and fantasies. The most correct is an attempt to keep in the imagination a nice image or a vivid picture that causes exceptionally positive emotions. If you try to follow all the recommendations listed above, then the claustrophobia attack goes on fairly quickly, within a few minutes. And the state that foreshadowed the panic disappears without a trace. However, this does not mean that there is no need to treat claustrophobia. Therefore, before making any recommendations, you should first visit a specialist.
The main task of any psychologist isTraining of a person suffering from claustrophobia, to look into one's own eyes in fear. Immersion in a situation that causes uncontrollable fear should be done gently so that the patient can relax and more calmly accept the situation that causes him irrational fear. A positive result is when the patient perceives a frightening situation calmly and naturally. The psychologist should try to help the person to relax as much as possible, since it depends on it, whether the patient can be distracted from fear. The maximum relaxation, in addition to bright images, is also facilitated by memories of the experiences of ridiculous moments or situations, listening to pleasant and calm music. Success is treated with such fear as claustrophobia in an airplane by recreating a situation involving a frightening aspect on a special simulator.