Psychology of Personality

Conformism and nonconformism - concepts, the phenomenon of conformism

Conformism is a moral-psychological andA moral and political concept that implies an adaptive position in society, an ineffective acceptance of the existing social standing, the political regime. In addition, it is a willingness to share the dominant views and beliefs, to agree with the general mood prevalent in society. Also, the rejection of the struggle against prevailing tendencies, even with their internal rejection, rejection of the condemnation of various aspects of political reality, and socio-economic realities, the unwillingness to express one's own views, the reluctance to bear personal responsibility for the acts committed, blind obedience and the unconscious Adherence to all requirements and directives coming from the state apparatus, religious organization, family.

Social conformism

Every society consists of groups thatRepresent an association of entities that share common moral values ​​and goals. Social groups are classified into medium, small and large, depending on the number of participants. Each of these groups establishes their own norms, behavioral rules, attitudes.
The phenomenon of conformism modern researchersConsider from four points of view: psychological, sociological, philosophical and political. Because they divide it into a phenomenon in the social environment and conformal behavior, which is a psychological personality trait.
It is believed that the social conformism of the individualIs a slavish (uncritical) acceptance and thoughtless follow-up of worldviews prevailing in a particular society, social standards, mass stereotypes, authoritative beliefs, customs and attitudes.
Do not try to go against the prevailing tendencies,Even without internally accepting them. The human subject perceives socio-economic and political reality is absolutely uncritical, does not show any desire to express one's own views. Thus, social conformism refers to the refusal to bear personal responsibility for actions taken, thoughtless submission and unconscious follow-up to public attitudes, the demands of the party, the religious community, the state, the family. Such subordination is often explained by the mentality or traditions.
E. Aronson and S. Milgram believe that human conformism is a phenomenon arising in the presence or absence of the following conditions:
- it is amplified when the task necessary to perform is rather complicated, or the individual is ignorant of the task in question;
- the degree of conformism depends on the size of the group: it becomes greatest when the individual is confronted with the same worldview of three or more subjects;
- individuals who have
Are subject to the impact of the collective to a greater extent than people with overpriced;
- if there are specialists in the team, its members are significant people, if there are individuals in it who belong to the same social circle, then conformity is increasing;
- the more united the collective, the more power it has over its members;
- if a subject defending his ownPosition or doubting the opinion of the other members of the group, at least one ally is found, then conformism is reduced, that is, the tendency to subordinate to the onslaught of the group falls;
- The subject with the greatest "weight" (social status) is also characterized by the greatest influence, since it is easier for him to pressure others;
- the subject is more inclined to conformism, when he needs to speak to the rest of the collective, than when he states his position in writing.
Conformism is characterized by a connection with certainTypes of behavior. According to S. Ashu, the concept of conformism implies a conscious refusal of the individual from an important worldview and dear views for improving the adaptation process in the group. Conformal behavioral response shows the degree of obedience to the majority opinion of the individual, the pressure of individuals with the greatest "weight" in society, acceptance of the established stereotype of behavior, moral values ​​of the collective. Opposite conformism is considered to be an independent behavior that is resistant to a group onslaught.
There are four types of behavioral response.
External conformism A person is a behavior whenWhich the individual accepts only externally the attitudes and opinions of the group, at the level of self-awareness (internally), he does not agree with them, but does not speak out loud about it. This position is considered true conformism.
Internal conformism Personality occurs when the subject inHe accepts reality, assimilates the opinion of the group and absolutely agrees with it. Thus, there is a high degree of suggestibility of personality. The type described is considered to be adaptable to the group.
Negativism Is found when the individual by any meansResists the group onslaught, actively defends one's own position, expresses independence in every possible way, leads arguments, argues, focuses on the result, in which his own views will become the world outlook of the majority. This behavioral type indicates the unwillingness of the subject to adapt to a social group.
Nonconformity Manifested in the independence of norms, opinions,Values, independence, immunity to group pressure. This behavioral type is inherent in self-sufficient individuals. In other words, such individuals do not change their own worldview and do not impose it on the environment.
There is such a thing as socially approvedBehavior, that is, pure conformism in society. People who belong to the category of "pure conformist" tend to conform to group norms and social attitudes. If, due to a number of circumstances, they can not do this, they feel they are inferior personalities (inferiority complex). Often such norms and regulations are contradictory. One and the same behavior can be permissible in a certain social environment, and in another - is punishable.
As a result, there is confusion, which leads to a whole series of destructive processes for
. Therefore, it is believed that the conformists inMost of them indecisive and insecure people, which makes their communication with others very difficult. It must be understood that every individual is, in varying degrees, a conformist. Often the manifestation of this quality is very good.
The problem of conformism lies in the choice of people,When they make it a style of their own behavior and way of life. Thus, the conformist refers to a person who is subject to the social principles and requirements of society. Starting from this, it can be concluded that any individual has to do with the concept described, because he adheres to group norms and social principles to varying degrees. Therefore, it is not necessary to consider conformists as disenfranchised members of the society. The conformists themselves chose this behavioral model. At any time they can change it. Proceeding from this - the following conclusion: conformism in society is a life model of behavior, a habitual style of thinking that is subject to change.
The conformism of a small group is characterized by the presence of pluses and negative aspects.
Group conformism is positive:
- the strong cohesion of the group, especially in crisis situations, because the conformism of a small group helps to cope more successfully with dangers, collapses, catastrophes;
- Simplicity in the organization of joint activities;
- Reducing the time of adaptation in the team of the new person.
However, group conformism also carries negative aspects: - the individual loses the ability to make independent decisions and the ability to navigate in unfamiliar conditions;

- it contributes to the formation of totalitarian states and sects, the emergence of genocide or massacres;
- gives rise to various prejudices and prejudices directed against the minority;
- reduces the ability to make a significant contribution to scientific and cultural development, as the creative idea and originality of thinking is uprooted.

The phenomenon of conformism

The described phenomenon of conformism was discovered inFifties of the last century S. Asham American psychologist. This phenomenon plays a key role in the social structure, as it represents one of the tools responsible for the formation and adoption of a collective decision. Any social group has a certain degree of tolerance, which has to do with the behavior of its participants. Each member of a social group can depart from the established norms to a certain framework, in which his position is not undermined, and the feeling of common unity is not damaged. Since any state is interested in maintaining control over the population, it refers to conformism positively.
Often in the totalitarian states, conformismIs characterized by the cultivation and implantation of the prevailing ideology by means of mass information and other propaganda services. At the same time, in the so-called "free world" (democratic countries), where individualism is cultivated, stereotyping of perception and thinking is also the norm. Every society strives to impose its life standards and behavior model on each member. In the conditions of world political-economic and cultural-religious unification and integration, the concept of conformism acquires a new meaning: it begins to act as a stereotype of consciousness, which is embodied in one phrase: "The whole world lives like this."
It is necessary to distinguish conformism as a phenomenon fromConformity, which is a personal quality, revealed in the desire to demonstrate dependence on group opinion and pressure in different situations.
Conformism is characterized by a close relationship withThe importance of the conditions under which the group effect on the subject is carried out, the importance of the group for the individual and the level of group unity. The higher the level of severity of the listed characteristics, the brighter the effect of a group attack.
In relation to the society, the phenomenon of negativism, thenThere is a pronounced firm resistance to the society and the opposition of oneself to it, does not represent the opposite of conformism. Negativism is considered a separate case of dependence on society. The opposite of the concept of conformism is the independence of the individual, the autonomy of its attitudes and behavioral responses from society, the resistance to mass impact.
The following factors influence the level of expression of the described concept of conformism:
- the sex of a person (more women are affected by conformism than men);
- age (the features of conformism are more often observed in the young and senile age);
- social position (individuals who occupy a higher status in the society are less subject to group influence);
- physical condition and mental health (fatigue, poor health, tension of the psyche increase the manifestation of conformity).
Examples of conformism can be found in a largeThe number in the history of wars and mass genocides, when ordinary people become cruel killers, due to the fact that they can not resist the direct order to kill.
A special attention deserves such a phenomenon asPolitical conformism, which is a way of adaptation and is characterized by passive recognition of existing foundations, the lack of one's own political position, thoughtless copying of any political behavioral stereotypes that rule in this political system. The adaptive consciousness and conformist behavior is actively formed in the conditions of some political regimes, such as: totalitarian and authoritarian, in which the common feature is the desire of individuals not to stick out, not to differ from the basic gray mass, not to feel themselves personality, because they will be thought and done for them As you need good rulers. Conformist behavior and consciousness is typical of these political regimes. The result of this consciousness and adaptive model of behavior is the loss of the individual's own uniqueness, identity and individuality. Due to habitual adaptation in the professional sphere, in the activity of parties, in the polling station, the individual's ability to make independent decisions is deformed, creative thinking is disrupted. Result - people are accustomed to mindlessly perform functions and become slaves.
Thus, political conformism and adaptive position are destroying the nascent democracy and are an indicator of the lack of political culture among politicians and citizens.

Conformism and Nonconformism

The group, putting pressure on the subject, forcesTo follow the established norms, to obey the interests of the group. Thus, conformity is manifested. The individual can resist such pressure by manifesting nonconformism, and can submit to the mass, that is, to act as a conformist.
Nonconformism - this concept includes aspirationIndividual to observe and fight for their own views, the results of perception, to defend their own model of behavior, which directly contradicts the prevailing in the given society or collective.
It can not be stated unequivocally that one of theseTypes of the relationship of the subject with the team is correct, and the other is not. Undoubtedly, the main problem of conformism is the change in the model of the behavior of the individual, because the individual will carry out the actions, even realizing their incorrectness, because the majority do it. Simultaneously, it is obvious that the creation of a cohesive group without conformism is impossible, since a balance in the relationship between the group and the individual can not be found. If the person stays in rigid nonconformist relations with the collective, then he will not become a full-fledged member. In consequence he will have to leave the group, as the conflict between them will increase.
Thus, the main features of conformism areCompliance and approval. Compliance manifests itself in the external compliance with the requirements of society with internal disagreement and rejection of them. The approval is found in a combination of behavior that corresponds to social pressure, and the internal acceptance of the latter's demands. In other words, compliance and approval are forms of conformism.
The impact that the masses have on the behavioral model of individuals is not an accidental factor, since it comes from the weighty socio-psychological prerequisites.
Examples of conformism can be seen in the experimentSociologist S. Asha. He set a task for himself to find out the nature of the peer group's impact on its member. Ash used the method of the crocheting group, which consists in providing incorrect information to the members of the group in the number of six individuals of both sexes. These six people gave incorrect answers to the questions asked by the experimenter (the experimenter had agreed on that in advance with them). The seventh member of this collective of individuals was not informed about this circumstance, since in this experiment he played the role of the subject.
In the first turn, the experimenter asks the question to the first six participants, then directly to the subject. The questions pertained to the length of the different segments that were suggested to be compared with each other.
Participants in the experiment (fake six people) claimed, by agreement with the researcher, that the segments are equal (despite the undeniable difference in the length of the segments).
Thus, the individual under test was placed in conditionsThe origin of a conflict between one's own perception of reality (the length of segments) and the evaluation of the same reality by the surrounding members of the group. As a result, the subject was faced with a difficult choice, unaware of the experimenter's agreement with his comrades, he must either not believe his own perception and assessment of what he saw, or refute the group's point of view, in fact opposing himself to the whole group. In the course of the experiment, it was revealed that, in the main, the subjects preferred "not to believe their own eyes." They did not want to oppose their own opinion to the point of view of the group.
This acceptance of clearly erroneous assessmentsThe length of the segments that other participants in the process gave him was considered as a criterion for subordination of the subject to the group and was denoted by the concept of conformism.
Conformists are subjected to individuals with average status, poorly educated persons, adolescents, people in need of social approval.
Conformism is often contrastedNonconformism, but with a more detailed analysis between these models of behavior, many common features are revealed. Non-conformal response, like conformal, is caused by group pressure, it is dependent on the pressure of the majority, although it is implemented in the logic of "no".
The reactions of nonconformism and conformism are much more opposed to the phenomenon of self-determination of the individual in society.
Also, scientists note that the non-conformal andConformal behavioral responses are more often found in social groups with a low level of social development and psychological formation, and, basically, is not inherent in the members of highly developed prosocial groups.

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