The crisis of 3 years in a child is relativelyA short stage of life, which can be characterized by a duration of several months, and sometimes up to two years. The child changes markedly during this stage, moving a step higher in his own way of life. After overcoming the turn of three-year-old by a toddler, his adult environment begins to mark serious changes in him: the child becomes stubborn, changeable, capricious, absurd.
The causes of the crisis of 3 years in children
Unfortunately, the absolute majority of adultsDo not realize that this period of development is characterized by a very important psychological process for the baby, consisting in the emergence of the first vivid expression of one's own "I". Thus, the behavior of children is an attempt to learn to do many things on their own and find a solution to their own problems.
There are several manifestations, the knowledge of whichWill help parents to determine that the baby is approaching the crisis stage. Children have a keen interest in repelling their own person in the mirror, they start to be puzzled by their own appearance and reveal an interest in what they seem in the eyes of the environment, and children begin to react intensively to the failures.
Vygotsky considered the crisis to be the most difficult for three yearsStage in the way of growing up of kids. The new needs of the three-year-old are no longer satisfied with the previous model of interaction with him and the previously established way of life. Therefore, in order to defend his own "I" he behaves in defiance of his parents while feeling the contradiction between his "I want" and "I need".
Thus, the child develops. Any developmental process, except for slow changes, is accompanied by abrupt crisis transitions. Gradual accumulation of personal changes are replaced by turbulent turning points.
Symptoms of the crisis 3 years
During the crisis, children are characterized by a specialSensitivity to evaluating one's own person and his actions. They become more touchy, slightly vindictive (they remember a long period of time undeserved, in their opinion, punishment), cunning (show feelings and attitudes that do not feel).
As a "seven-star of symptoms," Vygotsky described the crisis of three years. The first signs of a three-year crisis are the appearance of negativism and an increased desire for independence.
Negativism is an attempt of a toddlerTo manifest one's own independence. In other words, a crumb on any sentence heard from parents responds negatively - "no" becomes his favorite word. For example, the mother calls the child to eat lunch, but what gets "no" in response, but after 10 minutes the baby can come by himself. By this behavior, he demonstrates that he decides whether he needs to eat lunch or not. Such actions are not a response to the content of the proposal. This reaction is directed to the sender of the proposal. A child experiencing a crisis stage of development, only seek to do the opposite, even if it goes against his wishes.
The crisis of 3 years of hysteria becomes permanentA satellite of a crisis stage that can puzzle and upset parents, as a result of which they will look for the causes of such actions in deviations of mental development. Children's attempts to separate their own "I" from their parents are progressive trends of development.
Crisis 3 years symptoms and main manifestationsWas first described by E. Kohler. She singled out such symptoms of the three-year crisis: negativism, obstinacy and stubbornness, self-will, protest-rebellion, depreciation of adults, aspiration for despotic behavior. However, for this composition of negative characteristics, the parent must try to discern the child's attempts to establish qualitatively new forms of relationships with the environment and to single out his own "I".
Often three-year-olds do their actions in returnOn the proposals of parents accompanied by the words: "I myself." The phenomenon of the phrase "I myself" means not only independence in actions, but also psychological isolation of the baby from an adult. And the sooner the parent understands the need to transform relationships with the crumb and rebuild them, the less negative the manifestations of the crisis will be. Stubbornness and negativism in childish behavior arises from the fact that children do not yet know how to evaluate their own condition, they are not able to understand and explain their intentions. That's why their behavior seems to be senseless confrontation with adults.
Children in the crisis period of three years are characterized by excessive persistence, which sometimes reaches the level of persistence, if the kid wants to achieve something specific from an adult.
Crisis of 3 years
In cases where children do not get what they want,Are observed quite often. To avoid their parents should try to shift the attention of the crumbs from the situation that provokes the conflict to an object or phenomenon that will be of interest to him. The main thing is to behave in a balanced way. Since parental cries can only aggravate hysterical manifestations.
Stubbornness is also a feature inherent in babiesIn the crisis period of three years. It manifests itself not because the kid wants a particular thing, but because he needs that what he demands is fulfilled. The kid is simply bound by his own original decision. The obstinacy in the behavior of children is directed against the system of education, the way of life that has settled down to three years. A kid can begin to indulge when parents watch television or prepare to eat.
Self-will is manifested in the desire to do everythingYourself. The child himself wants to make himself a sandwich, tries to fill the bed or tie the laces. This behavior is the first manifestations of his adulthood. At this stage, the crumb already begins to realize the difference between adults and children, and as a result tends to look like an adult environment.
Protest riot is expressed in a stateConfrontation with others, often even, can be manifested "military actions" towards them. Children tend to be rude to their grandparents, to argue with their mother. Often children who have crossed a three-year boundary, quarrel with peers, take away their toys or do not want to share their own, often even fight.
The depreciation of adults is expressed in the fact that the child begins to scold, tease, often even, to call his parents. Children refuse to admit their own wrong and do not ask for forgiveness for harshness.
Child despotism forces parents to doAll that babies require. They try to manipulate their parents with unrestrained roar, rude treatment, capriciousness. In relation to younger kids in the family
Is a despotic manifestation.
Thus, the crisis of three years of symptoms and majorManifestations help parents understand what is happening to their children so that they can correct their behavior in a timely manner, so that the three-year crisis will be least appreciable for crumbs.
Crisis of 3 years - recommendations to parents
Children who have overcome a three-year boundary, beginExpect from adult participants in family relations to recognize their own independence and independence. They want their opinions to be considered and consulted with them. Children can not wait for their desires to be self-fulfilling. They do not understand the future of the future. They need everything immediately, as a result of which children seek at any cost to achieve independence and assert themselves in victory, even if such a victory brings inconvenience due to a quarrel with a close environment.
Parental care can be presented in the form ofEgg shell, protecting the chick embryo. The baby is safe, warm and comfortable to be under it, but at some point it builds obstacles on the way to its growth. Therefore, the child does not instinctively but consciously breaks the "shell" in order to know the vicissitudes of fate, to learn the unknown and the unknown. And his main discovery is the discovery of himself. The child begins to feel independent, and in some ways omnipotent, but due to his age, he can not do without his parents. Therefore, he begins to be angry with them and take revenge with the only means available to him - tears.
The crisis of three years of psychology characterizes howThe driving force of child development, which represents a change in the leading activity. The end of this stage marks the beginning of a new period - preschool childhood.
At the age of three, the role-playing game becomes the leading activity. Kids practice games in which they portray an adult environment and imitate him.
Child crises can have adverseConsequences such as increased cerebral sensitivity to environmental effects, the vulnerability of the central nervous system due to disorders in the restructuring of metabolism and the transformation of the endocrine system. In other words, the culmination phase of the crisis of 3 years in a child is a combination of a progressive evolutionary leap and a functional imbalance that is unfavorable for children's health.
This imbalance is also fueled by the activeThe growth of the physical body of the crumbs, respectively, and of its internal organs. As a result, the adaptive capabilities and compensatory potential of the child's body are reduced, the kids become more susceptible to various ailments, especially of a neuro-psychic nature.
The crisis of 3 years in a child - how to cope with it? It is possible to judge the affections of the toddlers, revealing to whom its crisis is directed. Basically, such an object is the mother. Therefore, the responsibility for a competent favorable exit of the child from the crisis is assigned, in the first turn, to it. We must understand that the child itself suffers from crisis manifestations.
The crisis of 3 years of psychology argues that one of theThe most significant periods of the child's mental development, which marks his transition to one more step of childhood up. That is why it is recommended that parents, if they begin to notice abrupt changes in the behavior of their own children, try to work out the right strategy in cooperation with him, become more loyal in educational measures, expand the rights and responsibilities of crumbs, give him self-esteem within reason, Could enjoy it.
It must be understood that the baby does not agree withParents, not out of simple stubbornness, he tries to test the character of adults and finds weaknesses in him, in order to influence them in the future when defending their own independence. Therefore, the kid can double-check the parental prohibitions several times a day. And if he sees at least the slightest possibility that "can not" be transformed into "it is possible", he will achieve his, if not his parents, then certainly grandmothers grandfathers. To be angry for such behavior is not recommended to him. It is necessary just to competently balance the system of rewards and the order of punishments, to observe the sequence of actions by all participants in family relations. After all, these adults have systematically accustomed him to the understanding that the desires of crumbs are the law for a close environment. Therefore, it should not be surprising when a child does not pay attention to adult prohibitions. The child can not understand why this suddenly changed the requirements system. Therefore, in retaliation, he will repeat his "no" to the parents. To be offended at the crumbs for it does not follow.
In situations where the desires of crumbs far exceed his real capabilities, it is necessary to find a way out of the situation through a role-playing game.
If parents have noticed a crisis of 3 years in a child andHow to deal with it - this is an urgent issue, then they are encouraged to do everything possible to make the baby feel like his close adult environment.