Psychology of Personality

Debriefing - in psychology, in training, in critical moments

Debriefing is a one-off, specific conversationPsychological orientation with a subject who survived a psychological trauma or an extreme situation. Most often the purpose of such a conversation is to minimize the psychological harm inflicted on the victim by listening to the victim's point of view and explaining to him exactly what happened to him.
Debriefing is a learning process thatHelps all participants to talk about past experiences, make discoveries useful for themselves, reveal new fascinating ideas and share with other participants. Debriefing is a kind of method for working with a group with a trauma of the psyche.

Debriefing in Psychology

Debriefing in psychology is called a techniqueConducting conversations with people who have shared a tragic event or a catastrophe. It refers to measures of urgent psychological assistance and should be conducted immediately after the event occurred. The optimal time for debriefing is 48 hours after a tragic event or a stressful situation has occurred. Since after 48 hours the period of specific reactions will end, and the participants in the events themselves will be in a state in which the possibility of reflection and the ability to self-analysis return. In the event that there will be a lot of time from the moment of the event, the memories will become more vague and vague. Then use video or video recordings of an event.
The process of debriefing involvesSafe and confidential conditions. This process provides an opportunity to share experiences, feelings, reactions that are associated with the event, with the other participants. Due to the fact that the participants in this event meet other people similar feelings and reactions, it becomes easier to go through what happened. It also reduces the feeling of abnormality and its uniqueness reactions internal stress. People receive support from the other participants in the group. Actions coaches in this process are to mobilize and focus internal resources survived the tragedy, and in preparation for the appearance of reactions or symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms or disorders.
The goal of debriefing is to minimize anyPsychological manifestations after the transferred stress. A common goal of collective discussion is to reduce psychological distress, suffering and tension. In order to achieve these goals, it is necessary: ​​to work out impressions, feelings and reactions, explain the structure and meaning of events that have happened and reactions to them, minimize group and individual tension, and reduce the feeling of abnormality and uniqueness of individual reactions.
Debriefing can not be protected from everyoneConsequences of trauma or from their possible manifestation. However, with its help it is possible to prevent the development of such consequences and their strengthening. This process can help to understand the causes of the condition and to understand their actions, which should be taken to facilitate the consequences. Therefore, a one-time specific conversation is also considered a method of psychological anti-crisis intervention, and prevention.
This method is also considered to be one of the mostWidespread procedures for conducting group prevention of occupational stresses of extreme profile workers (for example, for employees of the Ministry of Emergency Situations).
For the most optimal and effective reduction of undesirable consequences of occupational stresses, it is necessary to follow the strict procedure of this specific conversation.
There are other areas of debriefing. For example, debriefing in advertising can be used to provide an opportunity for participants to discuss and consider all the advantages and disadvantages, potential solutions for such tasks that do not imply the only correct solution. It is widely used as a way of training personnel in general, and not only during social and psychological trainings. This method can also be used to assess the effectiveness and optimality of training. During this procedure, participants and facilitators change their roles. In this case, there is a feedback that comes from participants to those who conduct a one-time specific conversation, and directly the topic of debriefing is the effects of training, the training process and its result. Social and psychological trainings are a kind of dialogue, in which feedback is key.

Debriefing and developing feedback areThe equality of the psychological positions of all participants in the process, the establishment of a partnership, the adoption of a communication partner, the initiation of work on self-knowledge, the formation of a new understanding of the subject of communication as a result of dialogue.

Debriefing in training

Any training is meaningless withoutDiscussion of its results; Without debriefing. It consists of teaching that helps to reflect on past experiences or experiences, discover new ideas and discoveries. There are several periods of the process of debriefing: the period of experiencing experience, the separation of such experience, interpretation, generalization, application, procedural period.
Literally debriefing is translated as a poll afterHow the job is done. Debriefing in the training is the analysis and analysis of the experience that was acquired by the participants in the process of performing the task or the exercise during the training. The objectives of debriefing can be: the withdrawal of all participants in the training from the analyzed or played roles, the reduction of the emotional stress obtained after the exercises, an analysis of why the events evolved so, and not otherwise, the identification of the emerging attitudes, feelings and changes, the ratio of gaming experience to real Life situations; Analysis of the effectiveness of participants' actions and outline possible "growth zones", outline new topics for reflection and prepare for the next training, establish links with previous and subsequent training.
Debriefing is the mandatory key phase of the exercises. Without qualitative debriefing, training will be a simple set of exercises and games. Practical benefit from the training will not be.
Technically, debriefing is a whole series ofCertain questions that are asked by the facilitator or coach after the exercise is completed. Such questions should be drawn up, taking into account the goals and subjects of the exercises. There are trainings in which the same exercises can be used for different purposes.
Debriefing in advertising is the introductionResults and results of the training. Debriefing and development of feedback is to collect comments and information: what was interesting and effective during the training, which was not effective. Then the coach generalizes what he has learned, and creates a motivation for further independent further study.

Debriefing the stress of critical incidents

As a method of combating the results of groupTrauma of the psyche in employees of potentially dangerous objects (VET), a method for debriefing the stress of critical incidents has been developed. This technique was developed in 1983 by American D. Mitchell. Psychological debriefing of the stress of critical incidents as a way of providing assistance in the event of crisis conditions or situations is conducted with a team of people who have experienced tragic situations together or experienced stress.
The purpose of this debriefing is to minimizeUnwanted psychological reactions and consequences, preventing the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms or disorders. Such a goal can be achieved by exchanging emotions or impressions (ventilation); Cognitive organization of experience; Minimization of tension and anxiety; Understanding the universality of the characteristics of subjective personality reactions, which is achieved in the course of an intensive exchange of sensations and feelings in the group; Mobilizing funds for support, multiplying collective cohesion and group solidarity; Preparation of all participants of the process to the correct acceptance of their forthcoming state and application of different psychological assistance strategies.
The process of debriefing the stress of critical incidentsShould be conducted by two people: the facilitator and his assistant. The process itself can include from 5 to 7 mandatory phases. Through such phrases must pass all the participants, which should not be more than 12 subjects.
Debriefing consists of three parts: Study of the main feelings and feelings of participants and assess the intensity of stress; Detailed discussion of symptoms, manifestation and provision of sensations of security, safety and support; Providing information, mobilizing resources and making plans for the near future. During debriefing, the presence of extraneous subjects that are not directly related to a situation or event is strictly prohibited.
Time of stress debriefing procedureCritical incidents are strictly regulated and at first makes no more than two and a half hours without breaks. This restriction is due to the fact that for 2.5 hours a very intense and sufficiently strong study of the experience with the involvement of strong emotions takes place. There are certain requirements for the facilitator. The head of the debriefing must necessarily be familiar with the collective work, with problems that are directly related to trauma, anxiety and loss, must be self-confident, must be able to manage their emotions and be emotionally balanced.

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