Depression in a child in the diagnostic senseMeans a mental illness, the main criterion of which are emotional disorders. Depression is often perceived both by the child and by the parents, as a manifestation of laziness, bad character, selfishness, natural pessimism. Parents should remember that depression is not just a bad mood, it is a disease that needs treatment by specialists. The earlier the child is diagnosed and the appropriate treatment is started, the higher the probability of a quick recovery. To date, doctors have a wide range of different methods of psychotherapy, phytotherapy, physiotherapy, thanks to which the depressed state is removed.
For a long time, psychiatrists argued: Is the child capable of experiencing depressive manifestations? After all, the feeling of melancholy, grief, reduction in general tone, weakening of interests, inhibition and withdrawal from contacts are signs typical for adult depression. In children it is difficult to distinguish such manifestations because of their indistinctness, as well as the child's ability to describe in detail about their emotional experiences.
Depression in children and adolescents is often masked and includes anxiety, school failure, anxiety for health, violation of relationships with peers,
For loved ones.
Causes of depression in children
The development of the depressive state is facilitated by the following factors:
- family climate: Conflicts in the family, an incomplete family, over-raising by mothers, complete absence of parental care, parents' lack of sex education. Often in single-parent families, children can not tell the parent about their personal problems, this applies to families where, for example, the father brings up a daughter. Frequent conflicts in the family lead the child to think that it is a burden and without it life would be easier. The presence of a maternal superhero does not give the child the opportunity to adapt to society and the environment and without the necessary support children become helpless. Lack of sex education can negatively affect the adolescent, which will lead to isolation;
- pathology in the early neonatal period: Intrauterine fetal hypoxia, the presence of neonatal encephalopathy, the birth of children with asphyxia, intrauterine infections leading to brain damage;
- structural and hormonal restructuringOrganism in adolescence (girls have a monthly appearance, boys have nocturnal pollutions); Changing the shape of the body, the appearance of adolescent pimples. The surplus of hormones makes children more aggressive, among the teenagers there are leaders dictating a way of life. In the case of not matching this particular image, the adolescent falls out of this group of communication, which leads him to alienation, as well as the appearance of thoughts that he is not like everyone else;
- Frequent change of residence does not allow the child to manage to make friends, with whom he would spend all his free time and share secrets;
- problems with schooling, as well as lagging behind the school curriculum, distances them from their peers, making them psychologically vulnerable;
- the achievements of technology - computerization and the Internet combined the whole world, narrowing it down to the computer monitor, which had a very bad effect on the ability to communicate.
Depression can also develop for a reasonThe impact of chronic or acute stress (serious illness or death of loved ones, family breakdown, conflicts with peers, quarrel with close people, etc.), and may arise against the background of complete social and physical well-being, which is associated with violations of the course in the head Brain biochemical processes. Such depressions include, for example -
Among other reasons for the development of depression is the collapse of ideals and illusions, a sense of powerlessness and helplessness over insurmountable difficulties.
The causes of depression can be a strongMental trauma, overexertion, brain metabolism disorder, headaches, inadequate intake of sugars, allergies, stomach, thyroid, nutritional disorders, mononucleosis. Almost 50% of children with depression had both or one parent who had recurring episodes of depression.
Symptoms of depression in a child
The depressed state is most vulnerable to adolescence. Psychologists distinguish early depression (12-13 years), moderate depression (13-16 years), late depression (over 16 years).
The depressive state manifests itself as a classic triad of symptoms: decreased mobility, decreased mood, decreased thinking.
During the day, a decrease in mood occursUnevenly. Often in the morning the mood is upbeat, children quite willingly go to school. Then the mood gradually decreases and the peak of low mood falls on the evening time. Children are not happy about anything, they are not interested in, the headache worries, the temperature of the body rises occasionally. They complain about constant problems in school, conflicts with students and teachers. Even in good things only negative things are seen. There are children and flashes of a very good mood, when they have fun, joke, however, this mood does not last long - not more than an hour and then again gives way to a decrease in mood.
Reduction of mobility is noticed by reluctanceMove: the children either constantly sit in one pose, or lie. Physical labor is of no interest. Speech is quiet, and the thinking process is slowed down. It is difficult for children to find the right words, it is problematic to answer immediately to the questions, often they answer with only one nod of the head. Children have a loop on one thought with a negative connotation: everything is bad or nobody loves me. Children lose appetite, they refuse food, sometimes do not eat for several days. Sleeping is not enough, because it disturbs insomnia because of a fixation on one thought, which interferes with the process of falling asleep. Sleep itself is restless, superficial, not allowing the body to fully rest.
Thoughts on suicide do not appear immediately, often forTheir occurrence requires a long period of the course of the disease (more than a year). One idea of suicide children are not limited, they come up with an action plan, think through various options. This course of depression is the most dangerous because it can lead to death. All these experiences represent the nature of painful suffering, causing violations in interpersonal relationships and leading to a decline in social activity. Symptomatology of the disease is revealed mainly in behavior: the child's activity is changing, interest in friends, games, studies is disappearing, incomprehension, whims begins. Often, a complex situation can be a trigger mechanism for the onset of depression. Despite a rather specific picture of this condition, it is very difficult for parents and doctors to understand the essence of the child's problems and understand his illness. This is due to the fact that because of their age, children can not give a clear description of their condition.
So, the symptoms of depression include:
- a reduced mood for most of the day, a feeling of emptiness, depression, depression;
- Loss of interest and complete indifference to all previous studies, to learning, hobbies;
- the addition or reduction of the child's body weight; - violation of sleep (the child either does not fall asleep in the evening, or falls asleep, but often wakes up during the night);
- psychomotor inhibition or excitation;
- a prolonged loss of appetite;
- a state of impotence, daily fatigue;
- a sense of shame, concern, guilt;
- Decreased ability to concentrate and think (the child is often distracted, it is difficult to concentrate);
- thoughts about
- changes in behavior (not the desire to communicate).
Signs of depression in a child
From a psychoanalytic point of view, a sign of depression is a violation of regulation
. Depression often develops in children's personalities with unstable
. Basis for development
There is a lack of acceptance, as well as an emotional understanding from the maternal side.
A sign of a depressed state is the decline in thinking and the inability to perform home study assignments. Schoolchildren experience a feeling of rustiness, inhibition of mental processes.
Doctors unsuccessfully made repeated attempts to find out which of the components of the symptom-complex: intellectual delay,
Or psychomotor retardation appearsPrimary and underlying the disease. The constant component of the depressive mood is an alarm of varying intensity: from anxiety to an easy degree to the uncertainty and tension of pronounced agitation.
Depressive mood is complexEducation: the sufferer experiences helplessness, depression, hopelessness, obvious or hidden anxiety, despair, inner tension, uncertainty, loss of interests, insensitivity.
When the mood is normal, then it is composed ofSeveral, and sometimes from differently directed emotions. In a healthy person, the mood is the result of a multitude of influences, as well as causes: a feeling of cheerfulness and fatigue, physical health or malaise, pleasant and sad events. In healthy people the mood is to some extent exposed to external influences: it improves with good news and spoils in unpleasant events, and the painfully altered depressive mood is determined by intense, prolonged
, Being a serious health problem, oftenRemains without parental and medical attention. This disease causes suffering and pain not only to those who are sick, but also to their parents. Unfortunately, most parents still consider depression in children and adolescents as a manifestation of weakness.
Depression in a child - how to help? Refinement of the diagnosis necessarily includes a psychiatrist consultation. Psychologists work in schools and, if necessary, they can turn to them for advice. The school psychologist will help to avoid the development of severe symptoms and will give an opportunity to speak out to the student about a painful one.
Depression in the child - recommendations to parents:
- First of all it is necessary to talk with the child, to take an interest in his life, problems at school;
- it is important to pay attention to voice intonation, future plans and views for tomorrow;
- It is necessary to be interested in what their child does after school, what friends he has;
- you need to pay attention, how much timeThe child does not deal with any matters. Some children have laziness, but a lazy child may be bribed with presents and forced to do something, and a child with depression does not enjoy anything and does not care: no encouragement, no gifts.
Treatment of depression in a child
Of the depressed state, the child himself is notIs able to go out, so the task of adults is to seek medical help in a timely manner. Severe cases with the statement of suicidal thoughts, as well as the existence of a specific plan for withdrawal from life are indications for treatment in the hospital: in the separation of borderline states.
Light forms of the disease are treated at home. Throughout the course of treatment, a child can live a normal life: doing homework, going to school, shopping.
Of medical drugs in the pediatricPractice has proved to be well established Adaptol. This medicine is well tolerated, does not cause drowsiness, has no side effects. Adaptol improves mood, normalizes sleep, develops resistance to psycho-emotional stress, removes somatic manifestations - pain, normalizes temperature.
What should I do if my child is depressed? In the treatment of mild forms of depression, a homeopathic drug can be used - Tenoten, which reduces anxiety, improves sleep, normalizes appetite, promotes normalization of memory, and improves concentration. In severe cases, prescribe antidepressants, which are used under the supervision of a doctor.
However, no treatment for depression will not be effective without positive changes in the family. Parents need to accept the child: his aspirations and needs, and help
, Develop the ability to express feelings, teachStep by step to cope with difficulties, problems and constructively influence the current situation. For preventive purposes, the child should be as often as possible to stay in the open air, do not overwork and rest in a timely manner.