Deviant behavior is behavior,deviating from the most common, generally accepted, as well as established norms and standards. Deviant, negative behavior is eliminated by applying certain formal as well as informal sanctions (treatment, isolation, correction, punishment of the offender). The problem of deviant behavior is the central problem of the chained attention from the time of the emergence of sociology.
Sociology does not evaluate in judgmentswith respect to deviation. Since deviation in sociology is a deviation from the generally accepted social standards, and it does not qualify as a systematic disease. There are different definitions for deviant behavior.
Sociology under deviant behavior understandsa real threat to the physical, as well as social survival of a person in a particular social environment, a team or a close environment. Deviations are marked by violations of social and moral norms, cultural values, the process of assimilation, as well as the reproduction of values and norms. It can be a single action of an individual that does not conform to norms. As an example, this is the criminalization of society, divorce, corruption of officials. The concept of norm and deviation is determined socially.
Medicine refers to deviant behaviordeviation from the generally accepted norms of interpersonal interactions. These are actions, actions, statements, made in the forms of neuropsychological pathology, as well as within mental health and the borderline state.
Psychology to deviant behavior relatesdeviation from socio-psychological, as well as moral norms. Deviations are characterized by a violation of socially accepted norms or self-harm, public welfare, and others.
Causes of deviant behavior
In adolescents, the causes of social deviations arelack of education. From 25% -75% of children are single-parent families, 65% of adolescents have serious personality disorders, 65% are accentuated. Patients with delinquent deviations up to 40%. Half of them have such a status as
. Vagrancy and runaways from home in mostcases are explained by delinquency. The very first shoots are carried out from fear of punishment or act as a reaction of protest, and then turn into a conditioned reflex stereotype.
Causes of Deviant Delinquent Behavioradolescents lie in insufficient supervision, lack of attention on the part of relatives, in anxiety and fear for punishment, in dreaming and dreaming, in wanting to get rid of the care of educators and parents, in cruel treatment on the part of comrades, in an unmotivated craving to change a boring environment.
Separately, I would like to note the early alcoholization andaddiction to adolescents. Among delinquent teenagers, most of them are familiar with drugs and abuse alcohol. The motives for such use are the desire to be in the company of your own and become an adult, satisfy curiosity or change your mental state. In the next times, people take drugs and drink for a cheerful mood, as well as for self-confidence, relaxedness. The emergence of a group addiction to get drunk at a meeting of friends carries a threat of alcoholism. And the adolescent's desire for narcotization is an early sign of dependence on the drug.
Signs of deviant behavior
Deviant behavior is determined by the deviantsigns that do not conform to officially established, as well as generally accepted social norms. Unnormal behavior causes negative evaluation in people. Deviant behavior has a destructive or autodestructive orientation, which is characterized by persistent repeated or prolonged repetition.
Signs of deviant behavior: social disadaptation, age-sex and individual identity. It is very important to differentiate deviant behavior (unlawful and immoral) from strangeness, eccentricity, eccentricity, an existing individuality that does not cause harm.
Deviant behavior of adolescents
At present, the number of children has increased,who see the goal of life as achieving material prosperity, while they strive for this at any cost. Studies, work lost public significance and value, began to have a pragmatic character. Adolescents aspire as much as possible to receive privileges, benefits, less to learn, and also to work. This position of youth is gaining in the course of time militant and open forms, giving rise to new consumerism, which often provokes behavioral deviations. Deviant behavior of adolescents is conditioned and aggravated also by the economic situation in the country. This is indicated by an increase in the level of juvenile delinquency, where the object of crime is often property.
Deviant behavior of adolescents is noteda characteristic orientation to material, personal well-being, and also to life on the principle of "as I want," asserting itself by any means and at any cost. In most cases, young people are not guided by the desire to satisfy needs and self-interest through criminal means, but attracts participation in the company to be known as brave. Deviations of adolescents are a common phenomenon, which is accompanied by the process of maturity and socialization, increasing throughout the adolescent period and decreasing after 18 years.
Deviations are often not realized by children, andThe ability to withstand the negative influence of the environment arises after 18 years and later. Deviant behavior of adolescents is a complex phenomenon, and the study of this problem is multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary. Often, some children pay attention to violations of the norms and regulations of the school, family, and society.
Deviant behavior of adolescents includesantisocial, anti-disciplinary, delinquent unlawful, as well as auto-aggressive (self-damaging and suicidal) actions. Actions are caused by various deviations in the development of personality. Often, these deviations include the reactions of children to difficult circumstances of life. Such a condition is often at the borderline (the verge of disease and the norm). Therefore, it should be evaluated by the teacher and the doctor.
The causes of deviance of teenagers are associated with conditionsupbringing, features of physical development and social environment. A teenager, assessing his body, ascertains the norm, physical superiority or inferiority, concluding his social significance and value. A child may have either a passive attitude toward his physical weakness, or a desire to compensate for shortcomings, or he will try to eliminate them by physical exercises. Sometimes the delay in the formation of the neuromuscular apparatus disrupts the coordination of movements, which is manifested in clumsiness.
Reproaches and hints of others aboutappearance, as well as embarrassment provoke violent affects and distort behavior. The grown-up boys are confident in their strength and masculinity. For them, there is no need to fight for the respect of others. Thanks to confidence, other children perceive them as very sensible. Their behavior is more obedient, natural and needs less attention. Thin, lagging behind in development, short boys for others appear as immature, small and unadapted. They need guardianship because they are rebellious. To change the unfavorable opinion about them, one should show enterprise, ingenuity, courage and stay constantly in sight, and personal achievements to prove usefulness, as well as indispensability to the belonging group. This activity provokes emotional tension and communication difficulties, which creates all conditions for violations of generally accepted standards.
Sexual maturation plays an important role inbehavior. Premature sexual development in some is manifested in emotional disorders, in others it provokes a violation (quick temper, pretentiousness, aggressiveness) of behavior, there are disorders of drives, in particular sexual impulses. With a delay in sexual development, non-assortment, sluggishness, uncertainty, difficulties of adjustment, impulsiveness arise. The emergence of deviant behavior is determined by psychological characteristics. Features of deviant behavior in younger adolescents include disproportions in the pace and levels of personality development. The emerging sense of adulthood provokes an overestimated level of aspiration, unstable emotionality, differs in mood swings, and rapid switching from exaltation to mood reduction. When the younger teenager collides with a lack of understanding in his aspirations to independence, there are flashes of affect. A similar reaction also arises in criticizing external data or physical abilities.
Features deviant behavior of adolescentsare noted in the unstable mood of boys in 11-13 years, and in girls at 13-15 years. At this age he teaches strong stubbornness. Older children are interested in the right to independence, because they are looking for their place in this life. There is a separation of interests, abilities, a psychosexual orientation is determined, a world outlook is developed. Often, purposefulness and perseverance coexist with instability and impulsiveness. Excessive self-confidence of adolescents and categoricality are combined with insecurity in their abilities. The desire for expanded contacts is combined with the desire for solitude, unceremoniousness with shyness, romanticism with cynicism and pragmatism, and the need for tenderness with sadism. The development of the adolescent's personality is influenced by society and culture and is directly related to the economic situation, as well as gender.
Forms of deviant behavior
Forms of abnormalities in adolescents includehyperkinetic disorder, non-specialized disorder; behavior disorder, confined to the family; socialized disorder; delinquency violation.
Characteristics of deviant behavior of adolescents withhyperkinetic disorder includes insufficient perseverance, where mental stress is required, and the tendency to switch from one activity to another leads to a non-completion of a single case. The child is characterized by impulsiveness, recklessness, the tendency to get into accidents, and receive disciplinary punishment. Mutual relations with adults are marked by a lack of distance. Behavioral disorders are observed in children, as well as low self-esteem.
The behavior disorder, confined to the family,includes antisocial as well as aggressive behavior (rude, protesting), which manifests itself at home in personal relationships with relatives. There is theft, destruction of things, cruelty, arson at home.
Unsocialized disorder is noteda combination of antisocial as well as aggressive behavior. The disorder is characterized by the lack of productive communication with their peers, as well as the manifestation of isolation from them, the rejection of friends and empathic mutual relationships with peers. With adults, adolescents display cruelty, disagreement, indignation, there are much less frequent good relationships, but without trust. Emotional emotional disorders can occur. Often the child is lonely. Such frustration is noted by extortion, fighting, hooliganism or assault with violence, as well as cruelty, rudeness, disobedience, resistance to authority and individualism, uncontrolled rage and severe outbursts of anger, arson, destructive actions.
The socialized disorder is notedasociality (falsehood, care from home, theft, school absenteeism, extortion, rudeness) or persistent aggression that occurs in sociable adolescents and children. Often they are in the group of antisocial peers, but they can stay in the company of a non-divisional company. These teenagers with adults who represent power have very bad relationships. They are characterized by behavioral, mixed and emotional disorders in combination with antisocial, aggressive or provoking reactions with symptoms of anxiety or depression. Some cases have described disorders in combination with permanent depression, manifested in manifestations of intense suffering, loss of pleasure, loss of interest, self-blame and hopelessness. Other disorders are manifested in anxiety, fear, fears, obsessions and experiences because of their health.
Delinquent offense implies misconduct,small faults, not having a degree of crime. Disputes in the form of missing classes, hooliganism, communication with antisocial companies, bullying of the weak and small, extortion of money, hijacking of motorcycles and bicycles are expressed. Often there is speculation, fraud, home theft.
As a separate form of deviant behavioradolescents is the deviation of the behavior of intimate desires. Adolescents often have insufficiently conscious, as well as increased sexual desire. Since the sexual identification is not completed to the end, for this reason there are deviations in the intimacy of the behavior. Such changes are susceptible to adolescents with delayed and accelerated maturation. The lagging behind in development are becoming the object of seduction by older adolescents.
Deviations of sexual behavior in adolescents depend onoften from the situation and are transitory. These include vizionism, exhibitionism, manipulation of the sexual organs of animals or younger children. As you grow older, deviant behavior disappears, and in unfavorable cases becomes a bad habit, remaining along with normal sexual behavior. Coming teenage homosexuality is often caused by the situation. It is peculiar for closed educational institutions, where teenagers of the same sex are.
The next form of deviant behavior of adolescentsis expressed in the psychogenic pathological formation of the personality. Anomalous formation of immature personality is carried out under the influence of chronic psychotraumatic situations, ugly education, severe experiences of difficulties, chronic diseases, protracted neuroses, defects in the organs of the body and senses. Behavioral violations often lead to a dead end parents and experienced teachers.
Correction of deviant behavior of adolescentsis carried out by a psychologist, since educational measures of teachers are not enough. The task of psychologists to reveal the true causes of deviant behavior, as well as to give the necessary recommendations.
Classification of deviant behavior
Classification includes various types of deviant behavior: criminogenic level, pre-criminogenic level, pre-deviant syndrome.
Pre-criminogenic level, not representingsocial grave danger: violation of morality, minor misconduct, violation of the rules of conduct in public places; use of narcotic, alcoholic, toxic drugs; evasion of socially useful activities.
Criminogenic level, expressed incriminally punishable criminal acts. The nucleus of deviant behavior is crime, drug addiction, suicide, alcoholism. Isolate and preddeviantny syndrome, which includes a set of symptoms that lead the individual to persistent forms of deviant behavior. Namely: family conflicts, affective type of behavior; aggressive behavior; negative attitude to the learning process, antisocial early forms of behavior, low level of intelligence.
Prevention of deviant behavior
Prophylaxis is much easier than somethingchange, but our society still does not take enough measures to prevent deviations. The existing social difficulties (anger, drug addiction, alcoholism) are forced to think about this problem and why this happens. Parents, teachers are concerned: why an open child, striving for good, growing up, acquires antisocial behavioral traits?
The scarcity of such concepts as kindness, mercy,respect cultivates an indifferent attitude to the destinies of children. In educational institutions there is an increase in the formal attitude towards children, it is much easier to refer to an increase in the number of repeaters. Teachers ceased to disturb the definition of children in boarding schools, special schools.
Prevention of deviant behavior shouldinclude monitoring of risk factors. Often the prerequisites for deviant behavior are hidden in the family. The family gives the child basic, fundamental values, behavioral stereotypes, norms. In the family, the emotional sphere of the child's psyche is formed, but the defects of home education are very difficult to correct. At present, the common affairs of parents and children are minimized. Seen on time deviations and properly provided psychological and medical assistance can prevent deformity of the adolescent's personality.
Prevention of deviant behavior includes twodirections: measures of general prevention, as well as measures of special prevention. Under the measures of general prevention we mean the involvement of all students in the school life and prevention of their underachievement. Measures of special prevention provide an opportunity to identify children in need of special pedagogical attention and correctional work at the individual level. Identify such elements of the system of special prevention: the identification and recording of children in need of special attention; analysis of the causes of deviant behavior; determination of corrective action measures.