Personality disorder is a kind ofPathologies of mental activity. This disorder is a type of personality or behavioral trend, consisting in significant discomfort and waste from the norms established in this cultural and social environment. Personality disorder is considered a severe pathology of a person's behavioral tendencies or a character's constitution, usually involving several personality structures. It almost always accompanies social and personal disintegration. Usually this deviation occurs at the older children's age stage, as well as in the pubertal period. Its manifestations are noted and in the mature period. The diagnosis of personality disorder is not made in the presence of isolated social abnormalities without the presence of personality dysfunction.
Causes of personality disorders
Severe pathology of models of perception of individuals andTheir response to various conditions that make the subject incapable of social adjustment, is a disorder of personality disorder. This disease can manifest itself spontaneously or be a sign of other mental disorders.
Describing the causes of the emergence of personalPathologies, first of all, it is necessary to emphasize functional deviations in the main spheres of the individual: mental activity, perception, relations with the environment, emotions.
As a rule, personal defects areCongenital and manifest all life. In addition, the described disorder can originate in the puberty period or the older age. In case of a similar kind, the ailment can be provoked by the transfer of a strong stressful effect, other abnormalities in mental processes, and brain diseases.
Also, personality disorder can occurDue to the child's transfer of violence, abuse of an intimate nature, neglect of his interests and feelings, the living of crumbs in the conditions of parents' alcoholism and their indifference.
Numerous experiments indicateThe fact that in the light manifestations of a personality disorder is observed in ten percent of adults. Forty percent of patients in psychiatric institutions show this deviation either as an independent disease or as an element of another pathology of the psyche. Today, the reasons provoking the development of personality deviations have not been clarified to the end.
Also, numerous scientific studiesDemonstrate that the male part of the population is more susceptible to the pathology of the individual. In addition, this ailment is more prevalent among disadvantaged families and low-income groups of the population. Personal disorder is a risk factor for committing a suicidal attempt, willful self-mutilation, drug or alcohol dependence, in some cases, provokes the progression of specific pathologies of the psyche such as depressive states,
, Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Contrary to the fact that manifestations
And impulsiveness weaken with age, the inability to build and maintain close contacts is characterized by greater persistence.
Diagnosis of personality disorders is characterized bySpecificity due to two reasons. The first reason is the need to clarify the period of the onset of the disorder, that is, whether it occurred at an early stage of formation or was maintained at an older age. It is possible to clarify this only when communicating with a close relative of the patient who knows him from birth. Communication with a relative gives an opportunity to make a complete picture of the nature and model of relationships.
The second reason is the complexity of evaluationFactors provoking a violation of the adaptation of the individual and the degree of manifestation of deviations from the norm in the behavioral response. Also, it is often difficult to draw a clear boundary line between the norm and the deviation.
Usually a diagnosis of personality disorderIs exhibited when in the behavioral response of the individual there is a significant disparity in his socio-cultural level or it causes significant suffering to the environment and the patient himself, and also complicates his social and labor activity.
Symptoms of personality disorders
People with personality disorder, often,Are characterized by an inadequate attitude towards the manifested problems. What provokes difficulties in building harmonious relationships with relatives and significant surroundings. Typically, the first signs of personality disorder are found in the puberty period or in early adulthood. Such deviations are classified by severity and severity. Usually a slight degree of severity is diagnosed.
Signs of personality disorder are foundManifestation, in the first turn, with respect to the individual to others. Patients do not notice in their own behavioral response of inadequacy as well as in their thoughts. As a result, they seldom independently seek professional and psychological help.
Personality disorders are characterized byPersistence of flow, involvement in the structure of behavior of emotions, personal features of thinking. Most individuals suffering from personality pathologies are unhappy with their own being, have problems in social situations and in communicative interaction at work. In addition, many individuals have a mood disorder, increased anxiety, eating disorders.
Among the main symptoms are:
- Presence of negative feelings, for example, sensation of trouble, anxiety, uselessness or anger;
- Difficulty or inability to manage negative feelings;
- Avoiding people and feeling emaciated (patients emotionally disconnected);
- Frequent confrontations with the environment, threats of reprisal or insult (often escalating to assault);
- The difficulty in maintaining a stable relationship with relatives, especially with children and partners in marriage;
- Periods of loss of contact with reality.
The listed symptoms can worsen under stress, for example, as a result of stress, various experiences, menstruation.
People with personality disorder often have differentProblems in mental health, most often they have depressive symptoms, abuse of psychoactive drugs, alcoholic beverages or narcotic substances. Most of the personality disorders are of a genetic nature, manifested as a result of the influence of upbringing.
Formation of the disorder and its growth fromEarly age period is manifested in the following order. Initially, a reaction is seen as the first manifestation of personal disharmony, then development occurs when personality disorder is clearly expressed by interaction with the environment. Then comes the disorder of personality disorder, which is decompensated or compensated. Personal pathologies usually become pronounced at the age of sixteen.
Typical stable personalityDeviations, typical for persons deprived of their liberty for a long period, who suffered violence, deaf or deaf and dumb. So, for example, deaf-mute is characterized by light delusions, and those who were in prison - explosiveness and basic distrust.
Personal anomalies in families tend toAccumulation, which increases the risk of development in the next generation of psychoses. The social situation can contribute to the decompensation of implicit personal pathologies. After fifty-five years, under the influence of involutional transformations and economic stress, personal anomalies are often brighter than in middle age. This age period is characterized by a specific "pension syndrome", expressed in the loss of prospects, a decrease in the number of contacts, increased interest in their health, increased anxiety and a feeling of helplessness.
Among the most likely consequences of the described illness are:
- The risk of dependence (for example, alcohol), inappropriate sexual behavior, suicidal attempts are possible;
- Offensive, emotional and irresponsible type of child education, which provokes the development of mental disorders in children of a person suffering from personality disorder;
- Because of stress, mental disruptions occur;
- The development of other disorders of mental activity (for example,
- A patient subject for his own behavior does not take responsibility;
- Distrust is formed.
One of the pathologies of the psyche is the multiplePersonality disorder, which is the presence in a single individual of at least two personalities (ego states). In this case, the person himself does not suspect about the simultaneous existence of several persons in him. Under the influence of circumstances, one ego state is replaced by another.
The causes of this ailment are seriousEmotional traumas that occurred to the individual in early childhood, repeated sexual, physical or emotional violence. Multiple personality disorder is the extreme manifestation of psychological defense (dissociation), in which the individual begins to perceive the situation, as if from the outside. The described mechanism of protection allows a person to protect themselves from excessive, unbearable emotions. However, with excessive activation of this mechanism, dissociative disorders develop.
With this pathology, depressive conditions are observed, suicidal attempts are not uncommon. The patient is prone to frequent sharp changes in mood, anxiety. Also, he may have various phobias and
, Sleep and nutrition disorders, less often
Multiple personality disorder is characterized by a close relationship with psychogenic
, Characterized by loss of memory without availabilityPhysiological pathologies in the brain. This amnesia is a kind of protective mechanism by means of which the person acquires the possibility of displacing from his own consciousness traumatic memories. In the case of multiple disorders, the described mechanism helps to "switch" ego states. Excessive activation of this mechanism often leads to the formation of common everyday problems with memorization in people suffering from multiple personality disorder.
Types of personality disorders
According to the classification described in the international manual on mental diseases, personality disorders are divided into three basic categories (clusters):
- Cluster "A" - is an eccentric pathology, they include schizoid, paranoid, schizotypic disorder;
- Cluster "B" - is emotional, theatrical or hesitant violations, which include borderline, hysterical, narcissistic, antisocial disorder;
- Cluster "C" is anxious and panic deviations: obsessive-compulsive disorder, dependent and avoiding personality disorder.
The described types of personality disorders are differentEtiology and way of expression. There are several types of classifications of personality pathologies. Regardless of the classification used, various personality pathologies can exist simultaneously in one individual, but with certain limitations. In this case, the most commonly diagnosed is diagnosed. The following describes in detail the types of personality disorders.
Schizoid type of personality pathologyIs characterized by the desire to avoid emotionally bright contacts through excessive theorizing, flight into fantasy, closure in oneself. Also schizoid personalities are often characterized by neglect of the prevailing social norms. Such personalities do not need love, they do not need tenderness, do not express great joy, strong anger,
Or other emotions that alienates themSurrounding society and makes it impossible for a close relationship. They have nothing to provoke increased interest. Such individuals prefer a solitary kind of activity. They have a weak response to criticism, as well as praise.
Paranoid pathology of the individual isHeightened sensitivity to frustrating factors, suspicion, is expressed in constant dissatisfaction with the society, rancor. Such people tend to attribute everything to their own account. In the paranoid type of personality pathology, the subject is characterized by an increased distrust of the surrounding society. It always seems to him that everyone is deceiving him, plotting against him conspiracies. He tries to find the hidden meaning or threat to himself in any of the simplest statements and actions of others. Such a person does not forgive offenses, is spiteful and aggressive. But it is able temporarily to the right moment not to show their emotions, what would then take revenge very cruelly.
The schizotypal disorder is aA deviation that does not correspond to the diagnostic diagnosis of schizophrenia: either all the necessary symptoms are missing or they are poorly manifested, erased. People with the type of deviation described differ in the anomalies of mental activity and the emotional sphere, with eccentric behavior. In the case of schizotypal disorder, the following symptoms may be noted: inadequate affect, detachment, eccentric behavior or appearance, poor interaction with the environment with a tendency to alienate from people, strange beliefs that change behavior to incompatible with cultural norms, paranoid ideas, obsessions,
In the case of an antisocial type of personality deviationThe individual is characterized by ignoring the norms that have settled in the social environment, aggressiveness, impulsiveness. In sick people, the ability to form attachment is extremely limited. They are rude and irritable, very conflict, do not take moral and moral norms and rules of public order into account. These people always blame the surrounding society in all their failures, constantly find an explanation for their actions. They do not have the ability to learn from personal mistakes, are not able to plan, are characterized by falsehood and high aggression.
Borderline personal pathology is a disorder involving a low
, Impulsivity, emotional instability, unstable connection with reality, increased anxiety and a strong degree
. An essential symptom of the described deviationSelf-damaging or suicidal behavior is considered. The percentage of suicidal attempts, completed by a lethal outcome, with this pathology is about twenty-eight percent.
A frequent symptom of this disorder is the many attempts of low-risk
Due to insignificant circumstances (incidents). Predictably, the trigger for suicidal attempts is interpersonal relationships.
Differential diagnosis of personality disordersOf this type can cause certain difficulties, since the clinic is similar to type II bipolar disorder, because bipolar disorder of this type lacks easily detectable psychotic signs of mania.
Hysterical personality disorder is characterized by an endless need to gain attention, a reassessment of the importance of sex, an unstable
, Theatrical behavior. It is shown by very high emotionality and demonstrative behavior. Often the actions of such a person are misplaced and ridiculous. At the same time, she always strives to be the best, however all her emotions and views are superficial, as a result of which she can not draw attention to her person for a long time. People who suffer from this kind of ailment are prone to theatrical gestures, are subject to foreign influence and easily instilled. They need a "visual hall" when they do something.
Narcissistic type of personality anomalyIs characterized by conviction of personal uniqueness, superiority over the environment, special position, talent. Such persons are characterized by overestimated self-conceit, an obsession with illusions about their own successes, the expectation of an exceptionally good attitude and unconditional obedience from others, inability to express sympathy. They invariably try to control public opinion about themselves. The sick, often, devalue almost everything that surrounds them, whereas all they associate with their own person, they idealize.
Avoiding (anxious) personality disorderIs characterized by the constant aspiration of a person to social isolation, a sense of inferiority, heightened sensitivity to negative evaluation by others and evasion from social interaction. Individuals with a similar personality disorder often think that they can not communicate communicatively, or that their person is not attractive. because of
Be ridiculed, outcastSocial interaction. As a rule, they present themselves as individualists alienated from society, which makes social adaptation impossible.
Dependent personality disorder is characterized byAn increased sense of helplessness, impracticability due to lack of independence, incompetence. Such people constantly feel the need for the support of other people, they are trying to shift to other people's shoulders the solution of important issues of their own lives.
For obsessive-compulsive personality pathology is characterized by an increased tendency for caution and doubt, excessive perfectionism, obsession with details, stubbornness arising from time to time
Or compulsion. Such people want everything around them to happen according to the rules they have established. In addition, they are unable to carry out any work, because the constant deepening into details and bringing them to perfection simply does not enable them to complete what they have started. Patients are deprived of interpersonal relationships, because they do not have time left. In addition, relatives do not meet their overstated requirements.
Classify personality disorders can not only be based on a cluster or criteria, but also on the impact on social functioning, severity and attribution.
Treatment of personality disorders
The procedure for the treatment of personality disorders isProcess is individual and often very long. As a rule, the typology of ailment, its diagnostics, habits, behavioral response, attitude to various situations are taken as a basis. In addition, clinical symptomatology, personality psychology, the patient's desire to contact a medical worker is of particular importance. To get in touch with a therapist, dissocial personalities are often quite difficult.
All personal deviations are extremely difficult to respond toTherefore, the doctor must have the necessary experience, knowledge and understanding of emotional sensitivity. Treatment of personal pathologies should be comprehensive. Therefore, psychotherapy of personality disorders is practiced in indissoluble connection with drug treatment. The primary task of a medical worker is to facilitate a depressed clinic and reduce it. With this, medication is doing great. In addition, reducing the impact of external stress can also quickly remove symptoms
Thus, in order to reduce the level ofAnxiety, withdrawal of depressive signs and other concomitant symptoms prescribed medication. With depressive states and high impulsiveness, the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is practiced. Outbreaks of anger and impulsiveness correct anticonvulsants.
In addition, an important factor affectingEffectiveness of treatment, is the family environment of the patient. Because it can either aggravate the symptoms, or reduce the "bad" behavior of the patient and his thoughts. Often, the intervention of the family in the treatment process is the key to getting results.
Practice shows that psychotherapy helpsPatients suffering from personality disorder are most effective, since drug treatment does not have the ability to influence character traits.
To understand the individual's own wrong beliefs, the characteristics of maladaptive behavior, as a rule, a repeated confrontation is necessary in long-term psychotherapy.
Disadaptive behavior, manifested inRecklessness, emotional outbursts, lack of confidence, social isolation, can change over the course of many months. In changing the inadequate behavioral response,
Or participation in group self-help methods. Behavioral changes are particularly important for
, Suffering borderline, avoiding or antisocial type of personal pathology.
Unfortunately ways to quickly cure personalThe disorder does not exist. Individuals who have a history of personality pathology, as a rule, are not looking at the problem from the standpoint of their own behavioral response, they are inclined to pay attention solely to the results of inadequate thoughts and consequences of behavior. Therefore, the therapist needs to constantly emphasize the undesirable consequences of their thinking activity and behavior. Often the therapist can impose restrictions on behavioral response (for example, he can say that you can not raise your voice in moments of anger). That is why the participation of relatives is very important, since with such prohibitions they can help reduce the expression of inadequate behavior. Psychotherapy is aimed at helping the subjects in understanding their own actions and behaviors leading to problems of interpersonal interaction. For example, the therapist helps to understand dependence, arrogance, excessive mistrust of the environment, suspiciousness and manipulation.
In changing socially unacceptable behavior(For example, lack of confidence, social exclusion, anger), sometimes group psychotherapy of personality disorders and behavioral correction are effective. Positive results can be achieved after a few months.
It is considered effective at border personalDialectical behavioral therapy. It consists in conducting weekly sessions of individual psychotherapy, sometimes in conjunction with group psychotherapy. In addition, telephone consultations between sessions are considered mandatory. Dialectical behavioral psychotherapy is designed to teach subjects to understand their own behavior, prepare them for making independent decisions and increase adaptability.
Subjects suffering from pronounced pathologies of the personality, manifested in inadequate beliefs, attitudes and expectations (for example, obsessive-compulsive syndrome), the classic
. Therapy can have a duration of at least three years.
Solving the problems of interpersonal interaction,As a rule, takes more than one year. The foundation of effective transformations in interpersonal relationships is individual psychotherapy, aimed at understanding the patient's sources of its troubles in interaction with the society.