Dogmatism is the concept of human thinking,Which sets him to take concepts, facts, formulations from the standpoint of dogma, using the evidence of what they are talking about, out-of-date data, not taking into account the new and changing. The dogmatic conception has no aspiration to perceive and cognize a new, scientifically predetermined, avoids creative development, contrary to critical perception, is basically detached from reality.
The concept of dogmatism originates in ancient Greece, thanks to the philosophers Zeno and Pirron, who considered dogmatic any philosophy.
What is dogmatism?
The concept of dogma speaks of necessity
Something originally true, without criticism,Scientifically not studying and not substantiating, mainly relying on faith in religion or authority. Initially, this concept looked in the context of religious understanding: in Christianity, it was true to accept the uniqueness of God, his infallibility and omnipotence; In Judaism - the idea of reincarnation and karma is undeniable.
Dogmatism arose simultaneously with the development ofReligious concepts that urged believers to accept unconditionally for the truth all creeds, categorically forbade the free interpretation of the proposed religious dogma and was considered in the eyes of the church heresy.
Dogmatism in science is viewed not so much asA certain concept of views, its characteristics and characteristics, but as a necessity to preserve these views and conclusions in a stable, unchanged form, without giving in to criticism. From the epistemological point of view, the concept of dogmatism arose from the unconscious ignorance of changes and dynamism of development, an exaggerated perception of the truth of the asserted, avoidance of verification and logical explanation.
Psychological roots of the dogmatic conceptionLie in the fact that the brain is inert, it is easier for him to accept the truth than to explain it. There is a tendency to stereotype perception, a predisposition is more to the conservative past than to the creative and the unknown present and future.
On the social side, dogmatism is manifested inThe desire to preserve the current state of affairs, to leave intact individual or group status. Dogmatism is opposed by thinking based on the fact of the concrete nature of truth, its certainty within the framework of functioning, conditions of formation, goals, time and place of applicability. Dogmatic thinking, from its principled position, distorts the essence of the original moral positions, as it automatically transforms the functions of the moral principle inherent in the given situation to other situations, as a result of which its meaning is lost, possibly turning into its opposite. For example, good is perceived by evil, if it is the cause of impunity for crimes.
In fact, dogmatic thinking is inherent inConservative moral consciousness of the category of humanity that is committed to the idea of absolutism: the existence of permanent moral and universal principles that are against social progress. An example of this is religious dogmatism, the essence of which lies in the firm affirmation of the graciousness of the moral principles of faith, revelation, while ignoring the argument of reason, critical thinking, the development of science. Often dogmatism is manifested through fanaticism or formalism. When dogmatic,
In the study of theoretical, historical, political problems, the factors of time and place are not taken into account.
The cause of the crisis in the economy, spiritualSphere and social can be dogmatism. What does not comply with the norms, consistent with the canons and dogmas of our understanding and perception is considered suspicious and is subject to doubt. The sources of this thinking are unprofessionalism and opportunism.
Dogmatism in philosophy
Dogmatism in science, philosophy is evaluatedCharacteristics of philosophical theories or their variety. A doctrine is considered dogmatic, which chooses some explanation as truth without preliminary analysis, without allowing changes.
The concept of dogmatism after Zeno and Perron studiedMany thinkers. Philosopher I. Kant defined it not as an entire philosophy as a whole, but as a kind of cognition not oriented to the study of its conditions and possibilities. Hegel, one of the creators of dialectical philosophy, understood dogmatism as abstract thinking.
Philosophical dogmatism stems fromLimited perception and credulity to the fact that without special preparation with elementary knowledge, he can comprehend the truth and solve the most difficult tasks that come before him. Such an approach, determined by naive faith, was foretold by many errors and
, Led the person to a deep disappointment toTheir ability to cognize. In consequence of such disappointment, a diametrically opposite style of thinking arose-skepticism (the denial of any probability of knowing the truth). It is also called in the current culture of relativism.
The Perron and Zeno were called dogmatists of all philosophers who tried to establish their conclusions as authentic, they counterposed this doubt and unreality in principle to know the truth.
The decision of these twoThe study of the limits of the possibilities of human knowledge. This view was called Kant as criticism. He assured us that from the Aristotelian period the dogmatic thinking of metaphysical science was not based on any idea of logic and psychology, and also assured that skepticism was also one-sided, like dogmatism. Kant criticized the philosophical doctrine from Descartes to Wolff, calling it dogmatic. Criticizing dogmatic thinking, Kant declared that
Can not comprehend things and phenomena just like that,Because they exist. Neither dogmatism nor skepticism is taught anything, moreover, the notion of dogmatism is inherently skeptical because of its one-sidedness.
Dogmatism can not know the real reasonsThe emergence of real problems without studying them from the position of today's and the past, combined with different problems, but simply imposing on the existing fact ready-made ideas, postulates, dogmas, logical deductions. This often provokes the appearance of false problems, which distances or makes it difficult to solve real problem situations.
Between dogmatism and skepticism became G.Hegel with his dialectical method. Dialectism differs from dogmatism in that it does not store in itself one-sided conclusions. Dogmatists always derive others from inferences alone, ignoring facts from real life. Consistently "anti-dogmatic" became Marxist philosophy, which explains the reality, serves to change it. This understanding of philosophical reality excludes dogmatism.
Dogmatism in science hinders its furtherProgress, as guided by obsolete or one-sided theories, frankly incorrect concepts. Thus, the dogmatic thinking of society turned tragically for J. Bruno, Galileo, for a long time there was a struggle against the evolutionary theory of Darwin. Dogmatism in science, politics, society is the circumstance that inhibits development.