Phobias and Manias

Dysmorphophobia - symptoms, treatment, causes

Dysmorphophobia is a mental disorder, withWhich the subject is extremely concerned about minor defects or some peculiarities of his own body. This disorder usually begins in adolescence. Dysmorphophobia affects all people, regardless of gender differences. The main danger of dysmorphophobia is suicidal attempts.
Dysmorphophobia is a pathological belief and belief in the presence of any physical defects or diseases, which is based on the somatic sensations leading to
. It includes three main components: Belief in the presence of physical "ugliness" (lack), which can be real or exist only in the patient's ideas, the idea of ​​relationship, depressive states.

Dysmorphophobia of the cause

The most common syndrome of dysmorphophobia is formedIn adolescence due to the fact that their own appearance for them becomes the first place. There are biological, psychological, social and personal factors that cause dysmorphophobia.
Biological factors include disorderExchange neurotransmitters, obsessive-compulsive syndrome, genetic predisposition, generalized anxiety disorder, possible anomalies in the development of certain areas of the brain and information processing with the help of vision.
Psychological causes of dysmorphophobiaDue to the fact that the teenager was often teased or criticized. The result of the conducted studies is the establishment of the fact that 60% of the subjects were criticized or regularly teased at a young age. Also, the psychological factors include the manner of education. If the parents of the child emphasize the child's attention on the aesthetic appearance of the person, then this can serve as a trigger mechanism for people who have a genetic predisposition. In cases where adolescents do not have enough love and affection, they begin to think that they are not loved because of their external unattractiveness or any defects. Another such trigger can be factors such as neglect or disregard, previous physical or sexual trauma.
Social factors are usuallyNegative impact of the media. This is due to the standard of beauty adopted today and its ubiquitous advertising on TV and other places of mass information dissemination.
Some character traits can also doPossible development of dysmorphophobia. Such traits are concomitant factors. Such characteristics of nature include self-doubt, shyness, neurotic states or
, Increased sensitivity to criticism, introversion, perfectionism.

Dysmorphophobia symptoms

There are a lot of symptoms of dysmorphophobia. Most of the symptoms of dysmorphophobia are determined by apparent external unattractiveness or any defects.
Patients with dysmorphobia constantly look at themselves inMirror or other surface-reflecting surfaces, while striving to find a more advantageous perspective in which the apparent flaw is not visible, and to understand how to disguise it.
Those suffering from dysmorphophobia categoricallyRefuse to be photographed. Prepositions for such a refusal can be completely different. However, the real reason for the refusal is the fear that with the help of photography their ugliness will perpetuate. With this symptom, patients generally refuse to look at themselves in a mirror-reflective surface.
The main symptoms of dysmorphophobia syndrome are as follows:
- attempts to hide apparent defects, for example, with the help of baggy clothes;
- excessive care for one's own appearance;
- intrusive touching the skin to feel an apparent defect;
- asking relatives about a defect;
- Excessive enthusiasm for exercise and diet;
- social deprivation;
- low self-esteem;
- refusal to leave the house or go out only at night, when no one will be able to notice the alleged "ugliness";
- reduction of training activities;
- communicative problems;
- abuse of alcohol or drugs (self-medication attempts);
- anxiety and susceptibility to panic attacks; - Depressive conditions;

- loneliness and social isolation;
- dependence on others;
- inability to work;
- inability to focus attention on working moments due to a sustained concern for their appearance;
- a sense of embarrassment in society, a suspicion that others are discussing a seeming defect;
- comparison of themselves and their individual parts of the body with the standards of beauty, idols, indicating this to others;
- the use of ways to distract the attention of others, for example, extravagant appearance, allowing you to hide flimsy defects;
- obsessive search for information related to deficiencies and defects, for example, overweight and diets to get rid of it;
- the desire to correct a contrived defect with the help of plastic surgery, the transfer of repeated plastic surgery, not satisfying;
- attempts to remove the defect yourself, for example, cutting with a knife.
Summarizing, we can conclude that inMostly dysmorphophobia are more susceptible to young subjects in the puberty period at the age of 13 to 20 years. Pubertal dysmorphophobia has one common symptom - the absorption of imaginary physical defects. In general, adolescents are concerned about the state of their epidermis, the shape of the nose, excessive hairiness throughout the body and not enough on the head, etc.
If you do not immediately identify dysmorphophobia, then in the future excessive anxiety grows into anxious states. Teenagers are constantly in a stressed state due to far-fetched flaws.

Dysmorphophobia in adolescents

Dysmorphomania is peculiar to pubertyAge, when all adolescents pay attention to their own appearance, the desire to bring it to a fictitious standard is growing. Therefore, in the adolescent period, hypertrophied tapering of what is, as it were, already laid in the human psyche is often observed. Sometimes dysmorphomania is very severe, but most often it occurs as a borderline of borderline disorders and with proper treatment, there is not a trace left of the disease. In adults, dysmorphomania is very rare, most often a consequence of a disease that was not treated earlier in adolescence.
The syndrome of dysmorphophobia in connection with the peculiarities of its psychopathological structure can be attributed either to hypochondriacal, or delusional, or obsessive, or overvalued disorders.
Pubertal dysmorphophobia is based on phobias,Which necessarily have intrusive and overvalued character. Its main feature is that adolescents suffering from this disease are pathologically convinced or in possession of some physical defect (defect), or in spreading an unpleasant odor. At the same time, all patients have a strong fear that others see such shortcomings, collectively discuss them and laugh at them.
Syndrome of dysmorphophobia in adolescentsCharacterized by the following triad of signs: an overvalued idea of ​​a physical defect, the idea of ​​a relationship and an oppressed state (depressed mood). In cases where the adolescent obsessive fear is the spread of an unpleasant odor, pubertal dysmorphophobia is characterized by bodily sensations and olfactory deceptions of perception.
Adolescents with dysmorphophobia oftenHide their painful unrest (dissimulation). In this regard, it is important to know the specific manifestations that can be found in young people, who will testify to the painful underlying cause of fears. To such symptoms, dysmorphophobia is considered a symptom of a mirror, which consists in constantly examining itself in the mirror in order to verify the presence or absence of deficiencies and to find the right turn of the face or body that will hide the far-fetched faults. Such children always carry a mirror with them, it demands that it hang everywhere so that they can always see themselves. Another symptom is a symptom of "photography", which consists in a persistent unwillingness to take pictures, hiding their photos so that no one can see them and fix their guesses about the "ugliness" of a teenager.
Pubertal dysmorphophobia often occurs in childrenWith a personal accentuation of the character for sensitive-schizoid, hysterical or anxious-hypothetical types. It is a psychogenically provoked reaction, arising as a consequence of the corresponding remarks of the interlocutors. With mild manifestation of dysmorphophobia, the disorders are partial, partial, not decreasing the performance, educational achievement, can be detected only in especially important situations for dysmorphophobia, for example, in large companies, before important meetings, with a strong desire to please. With adulthood, such manifestations can be smoothed out without additional treatment, alone. However, they can acquire a more severe and protracted character (dysmorphomania).
Dysmorphomania is considered a delusional variant of dysmorphophobia in adolescents, which can occur with a slightly
. Such an option is dangerous in that it can be a basis for the emergence
. Over time, a tedious war with contrivedDefects becomes almost the main goal of life, its main focus and meaningful content. In this case, there is a tendency to increase the area of ​​dysmorphomanic experiences. Personal changes become more pronounced: vulnerability in combination with coldness, persistence of anxious depressive states in conjunction with suicidal tendencies, sensory delusions - all this only worsens the condition of adolescents. It seems to patients that they all focus on everything, notice shortcomings, make offensive hints related to alleged defects. If the disease is not treated, then further such experiences will be accompanied by thoughts about the incurability of their defect and the presence of any degrading diseases.

Dysmorphophobia treatment

Treatment of dysmorphophobia should beSymptomatic. This means that during intense emotional stress or when the depressive background of the condition increases, antidepressants and tranquilizers, such as Tazepam, are prescribed. The psychotherapeutic effect aimed at dissuasion is completely ineffective. The therapist is faced with a completely different task. Its purpose lies in trying to persuade the patient to be humble with his appearance, with an exaggerated or imagined defect. The psychotherapist must teach the patient to dysmorphophobia to hide from his surrounding people his unhealthy experiences - to achieve compensatory dissimulation.
Categorically not recommended all kinds ofPlastic surgery. They not only do not eliminate dysmorphophobic experiences, but they can lead to the completely opposite result, i.e. The patient's dysmorphophobia will worsen even more. If dysmorphophobia is caused by schizophrenia, then the underlying disease should be treated.
Numerous studies have shown that psychodynamic models of therapy do not work for dysmorphophobia. But the application of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy is more successful.
Sometimes, with mild disease,Effective communication on the topic of their apparent ugliness with a significant and authoritative personality. You can also suggest the patient does not hide his defect, however, along with it, you need to give him the confidence that the doctor is on his side. If the patient is suffering from apparent defects localized on the face, then in this case it is recommended to stop using makeup. The patient needs to be forced to transform his value system, reorient him to something else.
In the most severe cases, when the risk of suicidal attempts and expressed depressive conditions is high, hospitalization is recommended.

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