Diseases of the nervous system

Epileptic attack - symptoms, causes, treatment

An epileptic attack is a seizure,generated by intense neuronal discharges in the brain, which are manifested by motor, vegetative, mental and mental dysfunction, a violation of sensitivity. Epileptic seizure is the main symptom of epilepsy, a chronic neurological disease. This disease is a predisposition of the body to the unexpected occurrence of convulsions. A distinctive feature of epipriples is short-term. Usually, the seizure stops on its own within ten seconds. Often, the attack can be serial. A series of epicasis, during which seizures go one by one without a recovery period, is called an epileptic status.

Causes of epileptic seizures

In many cases
can be observed in newborn infants, withhigh body temperature. However, it is not at all necessary that in the future the affected ailment develops in toddlers. This disease can affect any subject, regardless of his sex or age. However, more often the first signs of an epileptic attack can be observed in the puberty period.
Three-fourths of those who fell ill with this disease are young people up to the age of twenty. If
debuts in the older age period, thencauses that triggered its development, more often there are strokes, traumas, etc. Today, scientists find it difficult to single out a single common factor that generates the onset of the ailment in question.
Epilepsy can not be fully consideredhereditary pathology. At the same time, the probability of this ailment increases, if in the family someone suffered from epileptic attacks. Approximately forty percent of patients have close relatives suffering from this ailment.
To have an epileptic seizure, two factors are necessary, namely the activity of the epileptic focus and convulsive brain readiness.
Often epiprip can be preceded by an aura,manifestations of which are quite diverse and are due to the localization of the damaged segment of the brain. Simply put, the manifestations of the aura directly depend on the location of the convulsive (epileptic) focus.
There are a number of physiological factors thatcan provoke the onset of epiprime: the onset of menstruation or sleep. Also, an epileptic attack can be triggered by external conditions, for example, a flashing light.
Epileptic seizures are caused by a violation,which activates the nerve cells in the gray matter, forcing them to release electrical discharges. Their intensity depends on the localization of this electrical hyperactivity.
Epileptic seizures can cause the following disorders: damage to ion channels, imbalance of neurotransmitters, genetic factors, head injuries, oxygen deficiency.
In the body for the production of electricaldischarges correspond to ions of calcium, sodium and potassium. Discharges of electrical energy should flare up regularly, so that the current can constantly circulate from one nerve unit to another. If the ion channels are damaged, a chemical imbalance occurs.
Deviations can occur in substances acting as "messengers" between the cells of the nervous system (neurotransmitters). Of particular interest are the three following neurotransmitter:
- Gamma-aminobutyric acid (the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter of the nervous system, belongs to the group of nootropic drugs) promotes the preservation of nerve cells from severe burning;
- Serotonin, which affects related and correct behavior (for example, rest, sleep and eating), its imbalance is caused by a depressed state;
- acetylcholine, which is of no small importance
and learning ability, carries out neuromuscular transmission.
Individual forms of the disease in question haveConditions in which genetics plays a significant role. The generalized types of epiphystones, most likely, are due to genetic factors, rather than to partial epileptic seizures.
Head injuries also often lead tothe occurrence of epileptic seizures, regardless of the age group of traumatized individuals. The first epicuspension, provoked by mechanical damage to the brain, may come years after the injury, but this is rare.

Symptoms of an epileptic seizure

Against the background of epilepsy, there are often various mental disorders and dysfunctions of the nervous system: persistent personality deformities, seizures,
. Quite complex symptomatology of the pathology under consideration is supplemented by various somatic manifestations.
The most striking feature of the described ailmentis considered a large convulsive epiproduct, which is conditionally divided into four stages: aura (harbingers of attack), tonic phase, clonic stage and phase
Most attacks are preceded by harbingers, which can act: headaches, increased
and heart palpitations, a general malaise, a bad dream. Thanks to such harbingers, patients can be aware of the approaching epipripade a few hours before its onset.
Aura can manifest itself clinically in different ways. There are its following varieties:
- autonomic aura (expressed as vasomotor disorders by secretory dysfunctions);
- sensory (manifested by pain or discomfort in various parts of the body);
- hallucinatory (with this aura there are light hallucinatory phenomena, for example, sparks, flames, flashes);
- motor (it is in various movements, for example, a patient can suddenly run or start spinning in one place);
- mental (expressed by affects
, complex
After passing through the aura phase or without itcomes the "big convulsive epipriopal," expressed primarily by the relaxation of muscles throughout the body with a violation of statics, as a result of which the epileptic suddenly falls, and the loss
. Then comes the next stage of the attack -tonic phase, represented by tonic convulsions lasting up to thirty seconds. During this phase, the patients notice an increase in heart rate, cyanosis of the skin, and an increase in blood pressure. The tonic phase is followed by clonic convulsions, which are individual erratic movements, gradually intensifying and turning into sharp and rhythmic bending of the limbs. This phase lasts up to two minutes.
Patients often in the course of an attack publishincomprehensible sounds, reminiscent of, mooing, bubbling, moaning. This is due to spasmodic spasm of the larynx muscles. Also, during epipriposition, involuntary urination may occur, less often the act of defecation. At the same time there are no cutaneous and muscular reflexes, the pupils of the epileptic are dilated and immobile. From the mouth can go foam, often red, due to excessive salivation and bite of the tongue. Gradually, convulsions weaken, the muscles relax, breathing levels, the pulse slows down. The clarity of consciousness returns slowly, at first there is an orientation in the surrounding. After an attack, usually, patients feel tired, broken, feel headaches.
Below are the main signs of epilepticAttack with tonic-clonic seizures. The patient suddenly screams and falls. If the epileptic has fallen slowly as if "bypassed" the obstacle on the way of the fall, then this indicates that an epileptic seizure has begun. Having fallen, the epileptic presses his hands to his chest and stretches his legs. After 15-20 seconds, he begins to fight in convulsions. After the cessation of seizures, the epileptic gradually regains consciousness, but he does not remember what happened. At the same time the patient feels very tired and can fall asleep for a few hours. In fact, experts classify epilepsy according to the types of seizures. In this case, the clinical picture of the disease, depending on the degree of development of pathology, can change.

Allocate such types of attacks: generalized (large), partial or focal, an attack without convulsions.
A generalized epilepticus can occur due to trauma, cerebral hemorrhage, or hereditary nature. His clinical picture was described above.
Large seizures are more common in adults than in children. For the latter, absences or generalized, non-convulsive seizures are more typical.
Absence is a variety of generalizeda seizure of a short-term nature (duration of up to thirty seconds). It is manifested by turning off consciousness and not seeing eyes. From the side it seems as if the person thought or in
. The frequency of such attacks varies from oneup to a hundred seizures per day. Aura for this variety of epicasis is uncommon. Sometimes absences may be accompanied by a twitching of a century or another part of the body, a change in complexion.
Partial seizure involves one partbrain, so this type of epiprip is called a focal seizure. Since the increased electrical activity is in a separate focus (for example, with epilepsy caused by trauma, it is present only in the affected area), then convulsions are localized in one part of the trunk or a certain function or system of the body refuses (hearing, vision, etc.) . With such an attack, fingers can twitch, the leg may wiggle, the foot or hand may rotate involuntarily. Also, the patient often reproduces small movements, especially those that he produced immediately before the seizure (for example, to adjust clothes, keep walking, wink). People have a characteristic feeling of embarrassment, discouragement, fearfulness that persists after an attack.
Epileptic seizure without convulsions isalso a variety of the ailment under consideration. This type is found in adults, but more often in children. It is distinguished by the absence of convulsions. Outwardly, the individual seems to be frozen during the seizure, in other words, there comes an absence. Also, other manifestations of an attack that lead to complex epilepsy are also possible. Their symptoms are caused by localization of the affected area of ​​the brain.
Typically, a typical epitope lasts no longera maximum of four minutes, but can occur several times during the day, which affects negatively the habitual life activity. Attacks happen even in the course of dreams. Such seizures are dangerous because the patient can be drowned by vomit or saliva.
In connection with the above, many are interested inepileptic attack first aid. In the first turn, you need to keep calm. Panic is not the best assistant. You can not try to forcibly keep a person or try to limit the convulsive manifestations of epipriposition. The patient should be placed on a hard surface. You can not move it during an attack.
The consequences of an epileptic seizure may bedifferent. Single short-term epimetics do not have a destructive effect on the brain cells, while prolonged paroxysms, in particular, epileptic status cause irreversible changes and death of neurons. In addition, a serious danger lies in wait for children with sudden loss of consciousness, since injuries and injuries are likely. Also, epileptic seizures have negative social consequences. The inability to manage one's own state at the time of epi-attack, as a consequence, the appearance of fear of new seizures in crowded places (for example, school), forces many children suffering from epileptic seizures to lead a rather solitary life and avoid contact with peers.

Epileptic seizure in a dream

A variety of the considered ailment is consideredepilepsy with nocturnal seizures, characterized by seizures in the process of going to sleep, during dreams or waking up. According to statistical information, this type of pathology affects almost 30% of all epileptic patients.
Attacks occurring at night are less intense,rather than daytime. This is because the neurons surrounding the pathological focus during the dream of the patient do not respond to the swings of activity, which in the end produces less intensity.
In the process of dreams, an attack can begin withsudden causeless awakening, with a sensation of headache, trembling to the body, vomiting. A person during an epiprip can get up on all fours or sit down, perform foot swings, similar to the exercise "bike".
As a rule, the attack has a duration of tenseconds to several minutes. Usually, people remember their own feelings that arise during the attack. Also, in addition to the obvious signs of a seizure, indirect evidence such as traces of bloody foam on the pillow, a sensation of pain in the muscles of the body, abrasions and bruises may appear on the body. Rarely after an attack in a dream a person can wake up on the floor.
The consequences of an epileptic attack in a dream are rather ambiguous, since sleep is the most important process of the vital activity of the body.
sleep, that is, deprivation of normal sleep leads tomore frequent seizures, which weakens the brain cells, depletes the nervous system as a whole and increases the convulsive readiness. Therefore, individuals suffering from epilepsy are contraindicated in frequent nocturnal awakenings or early, undesirable sudden changes in time zones. Often a regular attack can trigger a normal alarm bell. Dreams of a patient with epilepsy can be accompanied by clinical manifestations, which have no direct connection with the disease, such as nightmares, sleeping, incontinence, etc.
What to do with an epileptic attack, if he overtook a person in a dream, how to deal with such seizures and how to avoid possible injuries?
To avoid injury during epileptican attack it is necessary to equip a safe sleeping place. It is necessary to remove any fragile objects and everything that can cause injury, next to the bed. Also, you should avoid sleeping places on high legs or with backs. It is best to sleep on the floor, for which you can buy a mattress, or surround the bed with special mats.
To solve the problem of nocturnal seizures, it is importantA complex approach. In the first turn, you need to fully sleep. You can not neglect a night's sleep. Also, you should stop using various kinds of stimulants, such as energy drinks, coffee, strong tea. You should also develop a special ritual of falling asleep, which will include the dimensionality of the movements, the rejection of all gadgets one hour before the planned retirement, the adoption of a warm shower, etc.

First aid for an epileptic seizure

It is not always possible to predict seizures, therefore it is very important to have information on the topic "first-aid epileptic attack".
The impaired disorder is one of the few ailments whose attacks often give rise to a stupor and
in surrounding people. This is partly due to a lack of knowledge about the pathology itself, as well as possible activities that need to be carried out during an epileptic seizure.
Help with an epileptic seizure includesthemselves, in the first turn, a series of rules, the adherence of which will allow the epileptic to survive seizures with the least losses for themselves. So, to avoid unnecessary injuries and bruises, the sick individual should be laid on a flat plane, laying under the head a soft roller (can be constructed from improvised materials, for example, from clothes). Then it is necessary to save the person from the tightening garments (untie the tie, unwind the scarf, unbutton the buttons, etc.), remove from him all nearby things that he can get hurt. It is recommended that the patient's head turn to the side.
Contrary to popular belief, shove in your mouthforeign objects in order to avoid slipping of the tongue is not necessary, because if the jaws are closed, then there is a possibility of breaking them, knocking out the teeth to the patient or losing his own finger (during the fit of the jaw are very tightly entangled).
The first help in case of an epileptic seizure involves finding next to the epileptic until the seizure is complete, the calmness and concentration of the person trying to help.
During an attack, one should not try to give a drink to a sick person, keep him by force, try to provide resuscitation measures, give medicines.
Often after an epiprip, a person tends to sleep, so it is necessary to provide the conditions for sleep.

Treatment of epileptic seizures

Many individuals would like to know what to dowith an epileptic seizure, because it is impossible to insure against the onset of the ailment in question, and people from the immediate environment who may need help may also suffer from convulsions.
The basis of treatment of epileptic seizuresis a constant intake of antiepileptic pharmacopoeial drugs for many years. Epilepsy is generally considered a potentially curable pathology. Achieving medical remission is possible in more than sixty percent of cases.
Today we can confidently identify the basicantiepileptic drugs, which include carbamazepine and valproic acid preparations. The first is widely used in the treatment of focal epilepsy. Valproic acid preparations are successfully used both in the therapy of focal seizures and in the relief of generalized seizures.
The principles of treatment of the dis-include also etiologic therapy, which implies the appointment of specific therapy, the exclusion of the effect of triggers of epilepsy, such as computer games, bright lights, watching TV.
How to prevent an epileptic seizure? To achieve remission, you must adhere to the correct daily routine, balanced nutrition, exercise regularly. All of the above in the complex contributes to the strengthening of the skeleton,
, increased endurance and general mood.
In addition, for individuals suffering fromepileptic seizures, it is important not to abuse alcohol-containing drinks. Alcohol can provoke an attack. A simultaneous reception of antiepileptic drugs and alcoholic beverages threatens the development of heavy intoxication and the emergence of pronounced negative manifestations from taking medications. Alcohol abuse also causes sleep disturbance, which leads to an increase in epileptic seizures.

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