Lying is a conviction spread by a personConsciously, while knowing that it does not reflect reality. The concept of a lie is defined by J. Mazip as a deliberate attempt to hide or fabricate information to create from others an opinion that the author considers to be false. The meaning of the word lie is closely related to the ancient Slavic language, from it originated the Old Slavonic "lie" and the Ukrainian "lies" - identical words.
To get around deception, do not become a hostagePsychological scammers - it is useful to be able to identify lies. This explains the increased interest in the mechanisms of lies today. The work of Professor Paul Eckman, who created courses for students in 32 hours can learn how to deceive emotions, is also very popular. According to his researches, the TV series "Deceive me" was also filmed.
The method of hardwareInvestigation of truthfulness - testing on the device - "lie detector". There are 3 methods of interviewing on a polygraph: civil - 3 hours are spent, military - 7 hours, the method of special services - is still under the secret.
What is a lie?
For a variety of reasons, all people try to hide the truth, and we will try to cover the main reasons for the deception.
What is a lie? This is a widespread communicative phenomenon. Sometimes they lie to feel more important - a person plays a role that allows him not having certain positive qualities to attribute them and enjoy his imaginary image.
The second reason is that deception brings some benefit, which will become impossible if the liar reveals his
. Striving to protect personal interests andSimultaneous understanding that the achievement of goals will be difficult, if openly identified, makes a person contradictory and makes use of distortion of reality. A liar tries to formalize his lie in a very streamlined way or at all to invent something that does not exist, giving out one for the other - thereby quickly gaining profit. Unfortunately, while few people think about the consequences, leaving them for later. And since often the same roundabout methods are used to solve the results of deception, the "snowball" effect, which makes the person a pathological liar, arises. The more skilful the game, the longer the legend will last, but sooner or later the acting abilities fail and inevitably follows failure.
The concept of lie in psychology is vested unequivocallyNegative meaning, since it has a destructive effect on the psyche and, in general, on the whole organism. Once lied, a person is forced to constantly remember and support this image, literally "to enter the legend." Certain parts of the brain are continuously in a strained state, which causes the rest of the mental processes and emotional sphere to suffer, and exhaustion occurs. In the body, lies form clamps, with which sometimes a person continues to live all his life. Thus, the person closes the path to his true self and violates psychological health.
Most healthy people lie, keepingLogical chain and clearly understanding the goals that they want to achieve through deception. At the same time, the distortion of reality is often insignificant. But there is a so-called pathological lie. It is characterized by a distortion of reality without the obvious need for it, in any small things, it becomes automatic. For example, such a person tells his wife that he will come home at one time, and returns to another. At work, it guarantees fulfillment of the task on the agreed terms, but does not comply with them. He's lying to friends and buddies to get their attention, lying in communication with the opposite sex, wanting to please. And on this petty, already become a common lie - his whole life was built.
At the heart of pathological lies lies a hugeNeed to get attention and feel their own importance, backed by a strong fantasy. Myth creativity and subtle feeling of people as an audience of their lies - both a talent and a way to survive in society for a liar. He intuitively understands what everyone needs, and is ready to promise this without a twinge of conscience. Often a pathological lie in words is accompanied by reinforcements and actions: for example, to create the appearance of its success, a person leases an elite car or orders a table in an expensive restaurant.
The pathological lie in psychology is sometimes seen as a consequence of organic brain disorders or congenital mental illness. However, it can also be a consequence of
. Here it is born as a way to adapt toSociety and strengthened in the strategy of behavior. Most often the cause is in the early object relations of the child and mother, in which the mother does not accept reality and the child as he is, punishes or ignores him for natural manifestations of himself. The child learns from the mother of the message: "As you are, I do not need you." And he begins to create his own legend, increasingly losing touch with reality. The saying "lies and does not blush" refers precisely to such liars who themselves believe in their lies. Even on the lie detector, vegetative manifestations of the deception of such a person are often not found - he agrees with himself, believes himself in what he thinks up, and lives this story when he is trusted.
A vivid example of a pathological liar is the heroLeonardo DiCaprio in the movie "Catch Me If You Can." Here is a classic scenario of the life of a deceiver: he receives not only the benefits of his lies, but also the punishment that comes from his own profound convictions. He knows that he is lying, and tired of the endless emotional overload unconsciously seeks to be caught, caught in a lie. The hero internally surrenders, begins to make mistakes one by one and flirt with the investigator. Punishment is both a discharge and relief, even if it appears in the form of a prison, a broken car, a broken leg ...
How to work out this problem? A person must realize his lies, then he can master his behavior and even partly choose the punishment, which in any case will come through the unconscious scenario laid down in this mechanism. These self-selected punishments include religious penance and its analogues in secular life - charity, physical overload, self-destruction, retirement. The symptom of the impending punishment is a sense of guilt, after which you can correct the situation, including with the help of psychotechnics, allowing you to speak, breathe, prescribe, draw a problem. And as a result, gain control over the situation.
Types of lies
There are about 20 common types of lies,Even more full disclosure of the meaning of the word lies: silence, half-truth, ambiguity, substitution of concepts, exaggeration and understatement, embellishment, bringing to the absurd, simulation, fraud, falsification, mystification, gossip, slander, flattery, vomit, bluff, artificial empathy, lie from Courtesy, lie for salvation, self-deception. Consider them.
Default is the deliberate concealment of the true state of things.
Half-truth is a distortion of a piece of information thatIs also not true. Ambiguity is ambiguity, deliberate creation of the "double bottom" effect of the message, which does not allow correctly interpret the information received.
Substitution of concepts - the issuance of one phenomenon for another, the intentional assumption of an error in the thesaurus.
Exaggeration and understatement is a distortion in the evaluation of the expression of a phenomenon by some criterion.
Embellishment - creating a more attractive image than in reality.
Bringing to the absurd - deliberate gross distortion of information, inflation. Usually accompanied by an emotional game and does not allow you to use the reported information because of its sheer unreality.
Simulation. Here, to help a liar comes the art of playing akin to acting. Simulation means acting out a fictional situation without a real experience of the demonstrated
Fraud is a deception, prosecuted by law and aimed at obtaining profit or taking possession of the property of the victim.
Falsification is a substitution to issue a fact orA thing for the true, the original. This species is often found in the production of copies of goods that look similar to the original, but differ from them in a number of characteristics.
Mystification is a fiction of a non-existent phenomenon, for example, mermaids.
Gossip is the transmission of information about a person without hisInformed. Distortion of reality occurs due to embellishment, conscious or unconscious misinformation and usually a multitude of links in the chain of information communication - the effect of a "spoiled phone".
Defamation is a slander, the dissemination of a person knowingly false, discrediting his information.
Flattery is a presentation to the addressee of his positive personal qualities in a bloated amount or at all attribution of non-existent virtues.
The turnabout, or, as Paul E. Ekman designated this kind of lie, the "bewildering evasion" is an excuse, a trick that allows you to wriggle out and get away from the truthful answer. Often this kind of lies resorted to by women.
Bluffing is the creation of an idea in the addressee that a liar has something that he really does not have. Frequent reception in gambling.
Artificial empathy - a false emotional involvement in the experiences of the interlocutor without the true inclusion in them.
Lies from politeness are a socially conditioned kind of lie, forcing a person to distort reality, so as not to go beyond the framework of decent in society.
Lying for salvation is the most justified,A positively perceived type of lie. Here, the speaker deceives in order to obtain tangible, universally recognized benefits, which one, often a weaker person, or several or even all communication participants will acquire.
Self-deception is a lie before oneself, voluntaryMisrepresentation. It is often associated with the unconscious desire that circumstances develop differently, a belief in an alternative, more favorable reality.