Diseases of the nervous system

First aid in fainting - the algorithm of actions

First aid in fainting should alwaysto be rendered immediately. Loss of consciousness is a very common state in everyday existence, which is why people need to know how to provide first aid with fainting and its basic principles. Unconsciousness as a separate symptomatic indicator may not pose a risk to the life of the victim, but to expose the body to injury or be a sign of a serious ailment can. Since the main etiological factor that generates a syncopal condition is the lack of oxygen in the brain structures due to a violation of their adequate blood supply, the primary measures consist in placing the injured person horizontally, lifting his lower limbs.

First aid with fainting

In order for primary measures to help an individual who has temporarily lost consciousness, it is necessary to have an idea of ​​what a state of unconsciousness is. So,
is characterized by an episode of short-term lossconsciousness, which comes as a result of a transient disorder of the blood supply to the brain. Often this condition is caused by pathological processes, for example, by various arrhythmias. Also often
provokes low concentration in blood O2 or regulatory dysfunction of capillaries. In medical science, a syncope is called a syncope.
First aid in faintingoften depends on the etiologic factor that provoked unconsciousness. So, for example, if the syncopation has occurred because of the increased temperature of the environment, then the victim must be taken to the street or open the windows, and you can also put ice wrapped in cloth on the front area.
Causes of tripping
, There are many. Below are the most common: nervous overexertion, the impact of daily stressors, sudden drop in blood pressure, hunger, O2 deficiency, physical exhaustion, body overheating, heat or heat in the room, changes in atmospheric pressure. The listed reasons are classified as not dangerous. However, often unconsciousness is a kind of signal that reports the presence of severe illness in the body. Therefore, first aid in case of fainting must necessarily include a call of an ambulance team.
Syncope is often a sign offollowing ailments: internal bleeding, myocardial insufficiency, some chronic ailments, brain trauma. Therefore, if there were suspicions that the victim had one of the above pathologies or
is out of window for more than one hundred and twenty seconds and the provision of first aid during fainting did not lead the patient to consciousness, it is urgent to call a doctor.
Symptomatic of syncope is not due toetiological factor. In other words, the manifestations of syncopation of different genesis are the same. Often, the preclusion of consciousness is accompanied by harbingers, such as a feeling of lack of air, nausea and extraneous buzzing in the ears, sudden weakness, dizziness, blurred vision. When these manifestations appear, it is recommended to immediately lie down or at least take a sitting position. Fainting in a lying posture does not occur.
If it was not possible to avoid a loss of consciousness, then more often clinical manifestations are observed: pallor of the dermis, cold sweat, rare and shallow breathing, pressure drop, weak pulse.
With the above symptomatology it is forbidden:
- to seat the violently injured person or hold his vertical position, leaning against the wall;
- move the patient, if there are grounds to assume that the syncope is a consequence of the trauma;
- shake, slow down or make other sudden movements.
So, the first medical aid for faintingis to commit the following actions. In the first turn, as it was written above, it is necessary to lay on the back of the victim to the surface in such a manner that the lower extremities are located above the head, which will provide an inflow to the brain structures of the blood. Then it is necessary to provide an air supply. If the patient is surrounded by a crowd of onlookers, you should ask them to disperse, if the patient is in a stuffy office, you need to open a window or take him outside if there are no suspicions of injuries. It is also recommended to release the individual's neck and other body parts from the clutching elements of the wardrobe, such as the collar of a shirt, buttoned up, a scarf or tie, belt of trousers or a belt. Then you should act on the receptors, for example, sprinkle the victim's face with cool water, lightly pat on the cheeks or bring a cotton ball moistened in ammonia, the sharp smell of which in a few moments will return the individual to consciousness.
If the syncopal condition is a consequence ofoverheating, the injured person must be moved to a shade, a cool room, or drunk with cold slightly salted water or tea. After the return of consciousness, the functioning of the psyche and all organs is quickly restored. However, if the syncope is generated by the presence of pathologies, then pain in the sternum, an increase in pressure may be observed.

First aid in fainting - the algorithm of actions

Because fainting isthe consequence of oxygen deficiency in brain structures, then the natural reaction of the chief steward is the functioning of the organism to accept a horizontal position (i.e., fall). In a recumbent position, myocardial workability returns, as a result of which the blood supply of the brain structures is restored. When the oxygen starvation is eliminated, the functioning of the whole organism returns to normal, and the unconscious individual comes to himself.
How to provide first aid in a syncope, you should know each person.
After all, if an individual has lost consciousness or developedcollapse (a condition that threatens human life and is characterized by a drop in pressure, a violation of blood supply to organs), certain actions are required to provide first aid.
So, fainting, collapse first aid includesthe algorithm of actions below. First, in the fainting state, it is necessary to organize free access to the lying subject. Also free from the clutching elements of the wardrobe (tie, belt). Then call a doctor. After that, you need to check for carotid artery pulsation. The body is given a horizontal position, lifting the legs above the level of the head. After carrying out the above manipulations, you should try to excite the skin receptors. To do this, it is necessary to rub the ears with a wet cool towel, sprinkle the face, give smelling vapors of ammonia or vinegar.

Upon the exit of an individual from an unconscious state, it is necessary to warm it, wait for the esculapius and transfer the patient to them "in the hands". Doctors should tell the whole sequence of activities.
The complex of auxiliary measures in case of collapse practically does not differ from the actions in the syncopal state. At a collapse an urgent help is simple, but it is rather important for rescue of the individual.
First aid in fainting - the algorithm of actions includes:
- giving the patient's trunk a horizontal position, with his back down, raising his legs, to provide blood flow to the brain tissues (the plane must be firm and level);
- the release of the individual's body from the crushing clothes (upper buttons, scarf, belt);
- call the doctor;
- providing the victim with airflow (you can open the window and make oxygen inhalation whenever possible);
- Warming the victim with hot heaters or plastic bottles filled with hot liquid;
- bringing to the nose of the individual ammonia, so that he can excite the nasal receptors;
- in the absence of ammonia, you can massage your earlobes or temples;
- providing the patient with peace;
- in the absence of signs of vital activity of the body, it is necessary to carry out a complex of activities for resuscitation, covering indirect myocardial massage, artificial respiration;
- If the collapse is a consequence of hemorrhage, it is necessary, in the first turn, to stop bleeding.
There are a number of manipulations, which are strictly prohibited before the doctor's arrival:
- "feed" the victim with all known cardiac medicinal products, since they can expand the capillaries;
- if the individual is in a state of unconsciousness, you can not force him to try to get drunk or give medicines;
- try to bring the victim to consciousness with the help of a slap in the face.
It is vital to faint, collapse firstthe help was timely. Any delay can cost the victim health, often, even life. All the manipulations to be carried out must be clear, consistent. After all, for the injured subject there is a bill for seconds, and the medical team called may not be in time. That is why every individual needs to know the basics of providing emergency primary measures in case of collapse or fainting. This knowledge can often save the victim life.
Compliance with the following preventivemeasures will avoid the occurrence of the above described states. In the first turn, prevention includes avoiding circumstances that provoke unconsciousness (stressful or extreme situations, severe diets, excessive fatigue, etc.), moderate sports loads, hardening, normal dreaming, daily routine, work and rest, balanced nutrition, getting rid of habits that are harmful to health, treatment of the underlying ailment (if any), regular examination.

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