Frustration is a mental condition, forWhich is characterized by such manifestations as failure, deception, vain expectation, frustration of intentions. Frustration arises because of the perceived or real impossibility of satisfying the needs or when the desires do not match the opportunities available. This phenomenon is attributed to traumatic emotional states.
According to the definition of Brown and Farber givenThe state is the result of conditions under which the expected reaction is inhibited or prevented. Lawson, interpreting this position, notes that frustration is a conflict of two tendencies: the goal is reaction. Waterhouse and Childe, in contrast to Farber and Brown, call frustration the fact of interference, studying its effect on the body.
Frustration in psychology is a state of a person,Which is expressed in characteristic experiences, as well as behavior, caused by insurmountable objective difficulties that arose before the achievement of the goal or the task posed.
Some scientists attribute this manifestation to the rank of regular phenomena that inevitably arise in the life of the individual.
Mayer notes that human behavior is expressedTwo potentials. The first is the repertoire of behavior, which is determined by the conditions of development, heredity, life experience. The second potential is the selection or electoral processes and mechanisms, which are divided into those arising from the manifestation of frustration and operating under motivated activity.
The causes of frustration
This condition is caused by the following reasons: Stresses, small failures, which reduce self-esteem and bring disappointment. The presence of a frustrator, namely obstacles, also serves as the causes for the onset of this state. These are hardships that can be internal (lack of knowledge) and external (no money). This loss is external (financial collapse, loss of a loved one) and internal (loss of health, working capacity). These conflicts are internal (the struggle of two motives) and external (social or with other people). These are obstacles in the form of external barriers (norms, rules, restrictions, laws) and internal barriers (honesty, conscience). The frequency of unmet need also provokes this condition in humans and is the main reason. Much depends on the person himself, namely how he reacts to failure.
Consequences of frustration: Replacement of the real world with a world of fantasies and illusions, inexplicable aggression, complexes and general regress of personality. The danger from this emotional state lies in the fact that under its influence a person changes for the worse. For example, a person wants to receive a certain position, and it is given to another. The collapse of plans provokes frustration in oneself, undermines faith in their professional abilities and abilities to communicate with people. A person has fears and doubts, which result in an unmotivated and unwanted change in the type of activity. The victim fenced off from the world, turns into an aggressive, while experiencing a distrust of people. Often an individual has normal social ties.
Frustration leaves an imprint on the person, bearing both constructive (intensification of efforts) and destructive character (
, Refusal of claims).
Forms of frustration
Forms include aggression, substitution, displacement, rationalization, regression, depression, fixation (stereotyped behavior), intensification of efforts.
Failure leads to aggressive behavior. Substitution is when an unsatisfied need is replaced by another. Displacement is expressed in a shift from one goal to another. For example, failure on relatives because of insult to the boss. Rationalization is expressed in the search for positive moments in failure. Regression manifests itself in a return to primitive forms of behavior. Depression is marked by an oppressed, depressed mood. Fixation is manifested in the intensification of the activity of forbidden behavior. Intensification of efforts is marked by the mobilization of resources to achieve the goals.
Signs of frustration
Psychology understands this phenomenonTense, unpleasant state, provoked by imaginary or insurmountable difficulties that hinder the achievement of the goal, as well as the satisfaction of needs.
In a state of frustration, a person experiencesThe sense of hopelessness of the situation and the impossibility of dissociating himself from what is happening, it is difficult for him not to pay attention to what is happening, he has a strong desire to get out of frustration, but he does not know how to do it.
The state of frustration provokes different situations. These can be comments from other people that a person considers exaggerated and unfair. For example, it could be the refusal of your friend to whom you applied for help or the situation when the bus "left the nose" came big bills for the services rendered (car repairs, medical treatment, etc.). These similar situations can easily spoil the mood. But for psychology frustration is more than just trouble, which is usually quickly forgotten.
A person in frustration is in despair,Disappointment, anxiety, irritability. At the same time, the effectiveness of activities is significantly reduced. The individual, in the absence of the desired result, continues to fight, even if he does not know what to do for this. The person resists, both externally and internally. Resistance can be active and passive, and in situations a person manifests himself as an infantile or mature person.
A person with adaptive behavior (capable of obeying, and also adapting to the social environment) continues to strengthen
, And also increases activity to achieve the goal.
The unconstructive behavior inherent in the infantile personality reveals itself in aggression on oneself, outwardly or in departure from the decision for the person of a difficult situation.
Frustration of needs
A. Maslow notes in his works that
Provokes the development of this state. The basis for this statement are the following facts: after satisfying the needs of a low level in the individual arise in the minds of the needs of a higher level. Until the high requirements have arisen in the mind, they are not a source of frustration.
A person who is worried about urgent problems(Subsistence, etc.), is incapable of thinking about high matters. A person will not be able to study new sciences in this state, fight for equal rights in society, he will not be worried about the situation in the country, the city, as he is concerned with pressing issues. After full or partial satisfaction of urgent problems, the individual is able to rise to high levels of motivational life, and therefore, he will be affected by global problems (social, personal, intellectual) and he will become a civilized person.
People are inherently doomed to desire precisely that,Which they do not have, and for this reason they do not even have the idea that their efforts, often aimed at achieving the desired goal, are meaningless. From this it follows that the manifestation of frustration is inevitable, since man is doomed to a constant feeling of dissatisfaction.
The severance of relationships can lead toThe emergence of love frustration, which can increase love for the opposite sex. Some psychologists say that this condition is a frequent phenomenon, others believe that it is rare. Love frustration appears after the lack of the desired result expected from the object of passion or after parting with a loved one. It manifests itself in inadequate behavior, aggression, anxiety, despair, depression. Many are interested in the question: is there such a love that allows people to remain independent of each other? Such love exists, but in the lives of strong and mature people. It should be taken for granted that all relationships contain insignificant elements of dependence. It's up to you whether you fill the whole life of another person.
Love frustration does not come if we are drawn to a partner from their strength, and not from their weakness.
Deprivation and frustration
Often these two states are confused, although they are different. Frustration comes because of unsatisfied desires, as well as failures in achieving the set goals.
Deprivation is due to lack ofPossibility or the object itself necessary for satisfaction. However, researchers of the frustration and deprivation theory of neurosis argue that these two phenomena have a common mechanism.
Deprivation leads to frustration, in turn frustration leads to aggression, and aggression provokes an alarm that leads to the appearance of protective reactions.
The problem of frustration serves as a theoretical discussion, and is also the subject of experimental research that is conducted on humans and animals.
Frustration is considered in the context of endurance to life's difficulties, as well as reactions to these difficulties.
I.P. Pavlov repeatedly noted the influence of the difficulties of life on the unfavorable state of the brain. Excessive life difficulties can lead to personality, then to depression, then to excitement. Scientists divide the difficulties into insurmountable (cancers) and surmountable, requiring enormous effort.
For researchers of frustration representInterest difficulties associated with insurmountable obstacles, obstacles, barriers that interfere with meeting the need, solving the problem, achieving the goal. However, it is not necessary to reduce insurmountable difficulties to barriers that block the intended action. Perhaps, in your case, it is necessary to show firmness of character.
Frustration of aggression
As already noted, frustration provokesAggression, hostility. The state of aggression can manifest itself in a direct attack or in a desire to attack, hostility. Aggression is characterized by pugnacity, rudeness or has the form of a hidden state (ill-will, anger). In the state of aggression, loss of self-control, unjustified actions, anger comes first. A special place is given to aggression directed against itself, which is expressed in self-flagellation, self-denial, often in a rude attitude towards oneself.
John Dollard believes that aggression is not onlyThe emotions arising in the human body, and more the reaction to frustration: overcoming obstacles that interfere with satisfying the needs, achieve pleasure, as well as emotional balance. According to his theory, aggression is a consequence of frustration.
Frustration - aggression is always based on such concepts as aggression, frustration, inhibition, substitution.
Aggression is manifested in the intention to harm another individual with their actions.
Frustration appears when there is interference withThe implementation of a conditioned reaction. In this case, the magnitude of this manifestation directly depends on the number of attempts, the strength of motivation, the significance of the obstacles after which it occurs.
Braking is the ability to restrict or curtail actions because of the expected negative consequences.
The substitution is expressed in the desire to participate in aggressive actions that are directed against another person, but not against the source.
Thus, the theory of frustration and aggression inParaphrased as follows: frustration always provokes aggression in any form, and aggression comes as a result of frustration. It is believed that frustration causes aggression directly. Frustrated individuals do not always resort to physical or verbal attacks on others. Often they show their own spectrum of reactions to frustration, expressed from despondency and submission to active prerequisites to overcome obstacles.
For example, an applicant sent documents to the higherEducational institutions, but they were not accepted. He would rather be discouraged than fall into a rage and become angry. Many empirical studies confirm that frustration does not always lead to aggression. Most likely, this condition causes aggression in those individuals who are accustomed to respond to averse incentives (unpleasant) by aggressive behavior. Miller, taking into account all these arguments, was one of the first to formulate the theory of frustration-aggression.
The phenomenon of frustration generates different modelsBehavior, and aggression is one of them. Tempting and strong by definition, frustration does not always provoke aggression. A detailed examination of the problem leaves no doubt that aggression is a consequence of various factors. Aggression can occur in the absence of frustrating moments. For example, the actions of a hired killer that kills people without knowing them before. His victims simply could not frustrate him. The aggressive actions of such a person are more explained by the receipt of compensation for murder than frustration moments. Or consider the actions of the pilot, who bombs the enemy's position, while killing civilians. In this case, aggressive actions are not caused by frustration, but by command orders.
How to find a way out of frustration without becoming at the same timeAggressive or withdrawn person? Everyone has personal ways of pleasant pastime, which makes you feel like a full and happy person.
Be sure to analyze why your failure occurred, identify the main reason. Work on the shortcomings.
If necessary, ask for help from specialists who will help to understand the causes of the problem.