Homophobia is the obsessive fear of the individual beforethe fact that in its true form, his personal orientation has a homosexual color. Homophobia combines the collective significance of all forms of fears and fears associated with negative manifestations of homosexuality. There is a generally accepted view that this manifestation implies a deep dislike and an irrational fear of homosexuals. However, the peculiarity of this condition is manifested in the fact that homophobia is often caused by contradictory factors.
Causes of homophobia
Homophobia is hostileattitude towards the representatives of these minorities, being very common, often leading to insults and violence, institutionalized homophobia, discrimination against people of homosexual orientation on the part of the society. The result of the spread of homophobia is non-observance of the rights of minorities, the emergence of obstacles in the occupation of certain positions by lesbians and gays, as well as bans in conducting marches and rallies.
Many opponents of same-sex sexual relationsargue that the attitude toward manifestations of homosexuality is directly related to the notions of the norm and therefore there is not something reprehensible or abnormal. Many of the opponents of same-sex sexual relations oppose the use of the term homophobia, referring to the ideological cliche, which led to the proposal to replace this term with a neutral term - homonegativism. At the same time, it appeared that homophobia is a form of
, because it means
before those who out of the total mass stands out. Opponents of homosexuality refer this state to sin, clinical frustration, violation of the norms of public morality.
Homophobia in Psychology
Homophobia, as a term first appeared in 1972and his appearance is due to the psychiatrist George Weinberg. The term homophobia is used by sociological institutions, as well as in international official documents, where this form of rejection is considered along with racism, anti-Semitism, xenophobia, and sexism.
Psychologists note that the consciousness of people reinforced the view that under homophobia there is one or another form
in relation to homosexuals. This is not quite so.
Homophobia is often presented to people as
aimed at homosexual culture,homosexual attributes, but the reason for this aggressiveness is the fear of people over their own intimate preferences, which can appear in homosexual coloring. Thus, the etymology of the word homophobia is based on the concepts of phobia, which means fear of homosexuality.
The second misconception is the view that homophobiait's a hidden homosexual. This view is incorrect. Homophobia is not a hidden homosexual; on the contrary, he is afraid of discovering a predisposition to this. Therefore, homophobia has an indirect relationship to sexual preferences.
Initially, the word homophobia was used in the meaning, as an aversion to the male sex or fear of men. Psychiatry under homophobia is understood as fear of monotony, as well as monotony.
The term homophobia replaced rarelyused the concept of homosexophobia. The etymological ancestor of this word is the term homoerotophobia. George Weinberg in 1972 attributed homophobia to the fear of contact with homosexuals, and if we are talking about homosexuals themselves, then in this case homophobia is understood as their personal aversion to themselves.
In 1980, Ricketts and Hudson expanded this concept to refer to feelings of disgust, anxiety, anger, fear, discomfort that heterosexuals are able to experience about gays and lesbians.
Psychologists noticed that it is very difficult to conducta clear boundary between homophobia and a negative attitude towards homosexuality. Individual researchers associate homophobia with the presence of negative emotions, and not with a statement of some position or an active struggle with homosexual manifestations. For example, Hudson and Ricketts, in their 1980 work, noted that, because of the extensive expansion of the term, homophobia came into mass culture and all actions directed against manifestations of homosexuality, as well as negative attitudes towards it, began to be attributed to it.
Hudson and Ricketts accuse the researchers of notseparation of intellectual rejection of homosexuality - homonegativism and emotional, personal reactions (homophobia). A clearer division of homonegativism and homophobia emphasized that homonegativism includes judgments that are based on an assessment of homosexual morality and bisexual orientation, as well as actions based on preferences, perceptions, social acceptability, law or other intellectual causes.
In their opinion, under homophobia it is necessary to understandphobic manifestations of anxiety, emotions of fear or disgust, both including and not including the cognitive component in the process of personal direct communication with people of homosexual orientation. However, not all such classification is shared. In 1991, Hekek opposed the further use of the concept of homophobia because of the imposition of the main guilt on a person, instead of considering the manifestations of anti-homosexual as a reflection of cultural influences, and suggested using the term anti-homosexual prejudices.
In connection with the great attention paid to problemsalternative intimate life in Western countries, representatives of social sciences and psychologists actively study the phenomenon of homophobia in both moderate and severe manifestations. There are enough studies devoted to the roots of this phenomenon. A popular explanation is an attempt to take away from itself the alleged suspicions of homosexual inclinations. For example, two groups of men, defined as not homophobes and homophobes, were presented with stimuli of erotic content: female homosexual, heterosexual and male homosexual. All subjects had an erection at the time of demonstration of images of a female homosexual character and heterosexual, but a similar reaction to homosexual male subjects was noted in men from the conditional group of homophobes. At the same time, the results disproved the view that homophobes are subjects with aggressiveness.
There are data that homophobes among womensignificantly less than among men. One of the types of homophobia, which causes close attention of researchers, is internal (internalized) homophobia - a situation in which bisexuals and homosexuals are afraid, and also are opposed to homosexuality. This means a person's fear of becoming homosexual, as well as the fear of possible own homosexual behavior. Some bisexuals, homosexuals and lesbians often suppress their homosexual aspirations and desires, others do not do so, but experience various negative emotions (anxiety, guilt complex, remorse).
Some researchers consider it not correctto call such persons latent homosexuals, because these people are not wanted by homosexuals. Internalized homophobia often has negative consequences for a person's psychological health. There is neurologization, a decrease in self-esteem,
, the development of psychological complexes,suicidal attempts. Bisexuals and homosexuals who live secretly, as well as those suffering from internalized homophobia, develop paranoid attitudes, suspicion and painful suspiciousness. Such a person always seems to be discovered, calculated, behind her back, they laugh, condemn, discuss, and also that they can be fired from their jobs for this. Often such concerns have or do not have a real basis.
Since May 17, 1990, the International Day Against Homophobia began to be celebrated. This date was chosen because it was on May 17, 1990, that homosexuality was turned off from the International Classification of Diseases.
In 2003, the Canadian province of Quebec wasThe People's Day against homophobia was held. After this event in 2004, the activist for the rights of gays, bisexuals, transsexuals Louis-Georges Tan offered to celebrate this day on a global scale. The goal of combating homophobia was to attract public attention to lesbians, gays, transsexuals, bisexuals, where sexual preferences are taboo. Louis-Georges Teng expressed hope that this day is able to change the lives of precisely those people who need it most. People who struggle with this form of rejection, believe that the fight against homophobia - this is not just the lesbians themselves, gays, transsexuals. This struggle must be the business of the whole society.
In 2006, the European Parliamentseminar on combating homophobia. The seminar was attended by Louis-Georges Tan. The President of the European Parliament, Josep Barrel, made a statement on the recognition of this international day.
The prerequisites for the appearance of such a day were:
- oppression in many countries of gays, beginning with the concentration camps of Nazi Germany; in the era of McCarthyism, the persecution of gays in the US and the USSR;
- discrimination against homosexuals (homosexuality in eighty countries is prohibited by law);
- Punishment in many countries by imprisonment up to ten years, and in some countries the law provides for life imprisonment;
- in ten countries for homosexuality sentenced to death (Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Yemen, etc.);
- Several African leaders on personal initiative announced a fight against homosexuality, which they called anti-African;
- tolerant countries, for example, Brazil, marked by a negative attitude towards homosexuals: from 1980 to 2000 officially registered on the basis of hatred of 1960 murders;
- pronounced growth in most countries of homonegativism.
The fight against homophobia has the following objectives:
- counteracting any moral, physical, symbolic violence against people of other sexual orientation or gender identity;
- coordination and support of all citizens in achieving equal rights;
- manifestation of solidarity with all bisexual, lesbian, gay and transgender people in the world;
- implementation of various measures to protect human rights.
Unfortunately, this campaign is impossiblein countries where homosexuality is being prosecuted. In tolerant countries, people have to make protests on behalf of the oppressed - this was stated by the organizers who took place on May 17 events supporting the initiative to hold this memorable day. Recognition of this day has placed in certain commitments the international community, which united in the fight against other forms of discrimination, as well as social violence. However, in many countries, in the struggle for equal rights, there is not widespread support for people of non-traditional sexual orientation or gender identity.
The diagnosis of homophobia
In a narrow sense, negative uncontrollable emotions (disgust, fear, anger) are referred to homophobia in relation to people of homosexual orientation, as well as same-sex sexual contacts.
Homophobia is not considered a mental disorderand there are no separate clinical signs of this condition. Modern researchers attribute homophobia to avoidance, prejudice, fear, harassment, discrimination, acts of violence against gays, bisexuals, lesbians, transgender people. The term homophobia includes the meaning of fear and fear, and the transfer of this meaning to individuals with a tolerant attitude toward homosexuality is regarded by them as an insult. As an alternative term, a neutral one, for example, a homonegativist, is put forward.