Hypnosis is a mysterious and incomprehensible phenomenon,consisting in a transformed state of consciousness of the individual, combining simultaneously the characteristic features of wakefulness, features of sleep with dreams and signs of dreamless dreams. Thanks to the use of various hypnotics, simultaneous coexistence in mutually exclusive states of consciousness becomes possible.
In his time, the hypnosis of man aroused a greatinterest of individuals, the result of this was a drastically changing attitude towards him. In different historical milestones the attitude changed and passed from enthusiastically positive to extremely negative. The state of hypnotic sleep is caused by physical influence or by means of psychic techniques. The physical effect is represented by the influence on the visual analyzer system with the help of the monotonous movement of the hands of the individual practicing the technique of hypnosis, on the auditory analyzer with the help of monotonous pendulum strokes, focusing on the immovable subject, and so on.
Mental hypnosis techniques consist of verbal or written suggestion.
Most people do not realize thatin addition to classical hypnotics, in which the therapist authoritatively instructs the subject what to do and feel, there are other, more effective methods.
Erickson's hypnosis is named in honor of its creator- Milton Erickson. Erickson's concept of altered consciousness became the basis not only of the methodology of Ericksonian hypnosis, but also of the technique of neurolinguistic programming. These methods are aimed at achieving a rapid strategic result and are classed as suggestive psychotherapy.
Erikson, due to the carryover of poliomyelitis inat the age of seventeen was paralyzed. This ailment pushed Erickson to create his own technique that would help him overcome the consequences of the disease. It was the overcoming of the disease that helped Erickson to form a new psychotherapeutic direction based on the use of a hypnotic trance simultaneously with the specific language of hypnosis, in which soft suggestion is made, without violent interference, bypassing the consciousness of the individual. Thus, Erikson's hypnosis was born.
Specific hypnotic language used by Erickson, is characterized by imagery, brightness, multi-level. This type of hypnosis also distinguishes cautious attitude and respect for desires
. Patients are always given a choice, theycan either accept the suggestion, or leave it unattended. Work on the problem occurs in a hypnotic state, which multiplies the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
Easy Erickson hypnosis provides an immediate opportunity to work with layers of the unconscious, bypassing the supervision of consciousness, which inhibits or even blocks the process of transformation.
The hypnotic trance of Erickson isa state consisting in concentrating the attention of the hypnotized individual within itself, but on the outside world. In this case, the voice of the hypnologist directs the inner attention of the individual and directs him. Also focuses attention to the minimum amount. In other words, conditions are created for the patient in which he will not have the opportunity to be distracted by external stimuli that are not relevant. As a consequence, in the trance the comprehension of the new occurs faster.
The Erickson approach has an extendedthe idea of a hypnotic state, which is a variation of the altered state of consciousness. Erickson considered the hypnotic trance, a sequence of relationships between the "therapist-individual", which leads to immersion in inner sensations and causes a transformed state of consciousness consisting in the automatic manifestation of the "I" of the patient without the participation of consciousness.
The hypnotherapist conducts actions according to the principlereclamation, in which the standards of self-manifestation of the individual are considered as the basis for the emergence of a therapeutic trance. To do this, the therapist needs to produce non-template effects, but to adapt to the current behavior of the individual, and then - to guide them. Trans arises at the level of sensations due to interpersonal interaction, when the hypnologist adjusts to the individual, allowing both participants to become more receptive to one to one.
Erickson's human hypnosis contains the following stages: concentration of attention, temporary decrease in the effectiveness and activity of the attitudes of consciousness, unconscious search, hypnotic response.
To maintain the concentration of attention at the stage of focusing, use:
- stories that help to interest, motivate, entice the patient;
- standard fixation of the view;
, in particular pantomimes;
- Imagination or visualization;
- Levitation of the hand.
The second stage, consisting in a temporarythe decrease in the effectiveness and activity of the attitudes of consciousness (depotentialization) is realized when it is possible to consolidate attention, as a result of which the focus of attention is automatically narrowed to such a level that the ordinary reference frames of the individual become vulnerable to depotentialization. To this end, they apply: surprise and shock, abstraction of attention, cognitive overload, dissociation, confusion and other ways.
Erickson most often used a bunch"Surprise-surprise" for "shaking" the individual and distraction from the usual patterns of associations, trying to develop the natural abilities of the individual to unconscious creativity. The most effective component in the technique of guiding the trance state and suggestion is the reception of confusion.
Most psychotherapists were focused onfinding clarity, Erickson acted the opposite way, causing confusion in individuals. He specifically tried to develop the ability to communicate with patients in such a way as to cause them confusion. The main key point in his communication is a seemingly random and seemingly unintentional interference that prevents the patient's usual reaction to the real situation, which provokes the appearance of the state of the nebula, uncertainty, as a result, the individual readily perceives hypnosis as a means of resolving the situation. Erickson's method of provoking confusion launches all the actions of patients in order to confront trance. It is used as a basis to allow easy hypnosis. The client can be confused by interrupting a particular stereotype. For example, one of these methods, invented by Erikson, is the guidance of a trance through a handshake. Its essence lies in the unexpectedness that separates the ordinary boundaries of the existence of the individual in order to provoke instant confusion. Erickson perceived his own concept of guiding the hypnotic trance with a handshake as a way to generate catalepsy.
Another originally developed by EricksonThe confusion for age regression is disorientation in time. The attention of the patient is concentrated by talking on any neutral, everyday activities (for example, on food), after which various manipulations take place, creating confusion and provoking disorientation.
In the framework of a non-authoritarian trance, suchmethods developed by Erickson, as implication (i.e., implication), compounding and double bonding, dissociation, ideomotor signaling, ratification and many other methods of indirect suggestion. The implication for it was the key that automatically sets the toggle switch of the client's associative processes into the predicted patterns without understanding how this happens. The method of binding (joining) is to choose from several compared alternatives. Any choice will direct the individual in the right direction. As the most essential element of the development of trance, dissociation is used, which between the conscious and the unconscious can arise both mechanically and through the influence of a certain set of stimuli and exercises. Dissociation can arise when one of the tasks is assigned to the conscious part of the client's functioning, and the other to the unconscious.
All positive changes in personalthe structure of the subject, in his judgments, emotions or behavioral patterns should be the result of the learning that occurs during hypnosis, and not the immediate consequence of a particular suggestion.
Hypnosis does not create new potential for patients, it provides access to experience, previously existing, abilities, knowledge, helping them to better use them.
Erickson himself called hypnosis help inaccording to its method, a utilization concept or a naturalistic approach. The main principle of his approach is the need to use any beliefs, values, attitudes, emotions or patterns of behavior shown by an individual to provoke him on experiences that promote psychotherapeutic transformations. Gradually, the client, in the course of hypnosis therapy, prepares to transfer the therapeutically important learning from the unconscious level to the conscious level.
Regressive hypnosis is also called regressionpast life. In its purest form, it represents a therapeutic technique, the essence of which is one single instigated setting - age regression. In other words, regressive hypnosis is the so-called journey into one's own past.
The advantage of regressive hypnosis is relativelynatural states of trance is the purposeful "pulling out" of information about the circumstance from the past, corresponding to the required period of time and a certain age of the subject. In the natural state of trance, thoughts emerge, in the majority, randomly and randomly.
Regressive hypnosis changes the human psycheaccording to age. Gestures and facial expressions, intonations and even some physiological indicators are made appropriate to the suggested age period.
The technique of regressive hypnosis includesa special chain of questions to the subject who is in a state of hypnotic sleep, to identify and recognize situations that occurred earlier or in a previous life. Modern science resolutely rejects not only the opportunity to recall the real past life, but also the existence of reincarnation. However, some psychotherapists are convinced that the causes of the problems of today's life of individuals, in most cases, are traumatic memories, hailing from the previous one. To solve such problems, patients are injected into a hypnotic state and help them re-live emotional experiences, realize them, thereby eliminate their tension. Unfortunately, the possibility of experiencing the events of the previous life can not be proved empirically, since even if the subjects allegedly "recall" such events, then there is no real evidence that the events were really in the previous life.
Regressive hypnosis is often used in recent years as an instrument for "personal growth" of individuals at various esoteric training workshops.
Today, regressive correction is often used as a means of psychological help to subjects.
Help hypnosis in this case impliesis the immersion of an individual into a state of trance in which the specialist searches for and finds out from him a time span from the past existence where the psychotraumatic situation has arisen, then analyzes this situation, finds a solution to eliminate the established problem, and then directly works on eliminating the problem. The session of hypnosis with the use of regressive correction is often carried out several times, because not all individuals can enter the trance state on the first attempt, in addition, the analysis of a problem event itself may require time to work. Also, quite often, a specialist needs to discuss the problem with the client when he is in a wakeful state.
There are tasks that are successfullyhelp regressive correction. They include: - the issues of self-determination, when the individual himself is not able to determine his professional orientation, his mission, his place in life;
- chronic traumas of the psyche;
- detection and elimination of complexes,
and phobias, clamps, which could have produced negative events in the past;
- removal of fatigue, tension, stressful conditions;
- partial loss of memory or complete amnesia;
- discovery of creative potential.
Correction action in this technique, inBasically, it is achieved with the help of a controlled imagination. The client, whose problem is already identified, during the session is instilled into the reverse sequence of a number of age segments of his life, imperceptibly leading to the necessary event that happened at that time. The individual begins to see a clear picture of the event: other people, things, the environment, feel the emotions provoked by such an event, hear voices. At this stage, a negative event takes place in a positive way. The hypnologist instills certain indications in the form of images that immediately arise in the client's imagination and mingle with real images, sometimes completely replacing negative images. Imaginary images in regressive correction can be varieties of visual, sound, taste, olfactory and tactile character, emotional impact. The result is the formation and consolidation of a new situation in the mind of the subject with a successful outcome or allowing to reconcile with the previous negative event.
The positive effect of the corrective action may appear immediately after the procedure or after a lapse of time.
Regressive hypnosis was used by Egyptian priests andpriests of Ancient Greece. To immerse an individual in a trance, they used monotonous sounds, also used special music for hypnosis or fixation on a brilliant subject of sight. Great importance was attached to the passes and strokes.
Treatment with the help of hypnotics apply fairlyrarely, as there is an opinion that any interference in the human psyche is undesirable. However, treatment with hypnosis has a number of important advantages. Using a hypnoteist will save a lot on expensive, and often harmful to the human body drugs. In addition, hypnosis often acts quickly, often after a single session, the effect persists for a long time. So, for example, this sleep disturbance, like hypnosis insomnia, has been effectively used for a long time. Also, the treatment of alcoholism with hypnosis is quite popular today.
However, hypnotherapy has a number of drawbacks. And in the first turn, this is a mistrust of the therapist. Treatment will be much more effective if the patient fully trusts the hypnologist. Also the effectiveness of therapy depends on the qualification of the hypnologist. How can you know that this particular hypnologist is a professional ?!
The first in medicine hypnosis as an effectivemethod used F. Mesmer, who is considered the founder of hypnosis as a scientific method of treatment, D. Bred, who used hypnosis for anesthesia during surgery.
When using hypnosis as a methodtreatment, most followers of "classical" hypnosis injected patients into a trance and carried out direct inspiration with the help of the pendulum movement, using blundering or any other way of abstracting the conscious attention of individuals. Also, various music for hypnosis was successfully used.
Hypnosis is considered the best means of relievingfrom insomnia. Most individuals are firsthand with insomnia. They spend many hours in the middle of the night without sleep, feeling drowsy and tired during the following day. Constant problems with falling asleep often prevent the subjects' ability to function normally during the working day. For a long time scientists have already shown that healthy sleep plays a fundamental role in the active work of the whole organism. After all, during a night's sleep, the damaged cells and tissues are restored.
Hypnosis is considered a natural state of mindIndividuals who are on the border between dream and dream. In a similar state, professional hypnologists get access to the human subconscious and to most of the brain functions.
Hypnosis is a means to revive the natural habits that exist within an individual at a certain moment.
Insomnia Hypnosis Promotes Returnhealthy sleep and a full night's rest. Erickson also successfully practiced light hypnosis for sleep. In addition, he used the so-called posthypnotic instruction, according to which the individual with insomnia should get up and begin to engage in any uninteresting business, for example, to wash the floor. Such actions led to the understanding that when a person is deprived of sleep, the person spends a lot of energy.
Help to cope with insomnia sessionsindependent hypnosis, because in the drowsiness phase the individual's organism is immersed in a light trance state. Therefore it will be sufficient to systematically repeat, before falling asleep, any phrase bearing an indication. For example, if an individual suffers from intermittent sleep, then it is necessary to pronounce the phrase, which reads: "I stop worrying during sleep. My dream is characterized by calmness and strength, it gives my body a complete recovery. " This technique consists not only in the repetition of phrases with positive orientation (affirmations), but also in focusing on the respiratory process, which should consist of consecutive quiet deep breaths and deeper exhalations. Affirmations are pronounced in exhalations. There is easy hypnosis for sleep, based on the basis of effective techniques. It includes the consequent relaxation of the muscles, the relaxation of the mind, the mental balance, the visualization techniques that help to put all the thoughts that prevent a sound sleep on the background.
The technique of visualization unobtrusively helps to distractthe individual from experiences that interfere with sleep, while directing his consciousness to the reproduction of pleasant mental images that are imperceptibly immersed in sleep. The music used for the session for easy hypnosis allows the individual to relax and relieve fatigue, which helps to fall asleep. She also reconstructs the consciousness of the subject to further independent falling asleep and registers this as a conditioned reflex in the subconscious.
Treatment of alcoholism with hypnosis according tostatistical data is considered the most effective, safe and fastest way to get rid of this disease, but most people resort to it in the last turn. This is due to the lack of understanding of the mechanism and essence of hypnosis.
Hypnotic techniques are built on the removal oftime sessions of various clamps and blockades, lined up by the person to be able to defend against collisions with their own fears and anxieties. During the hypnosis session, the client disconnects from any external influences, he is as relaxed as possible and can concentrate exclusively on his problem.
Many therapists agree thatAlcoholism produces a variety of inconsistencies, hidden inside the personality. Therefore, eliminating the reason that provoked a man to grab for a rumushka for the first time, it is possible to eradicate cravings for alcohol.
Hypnotic techniques can be used:
- as separate means of combating addiction;
- to fix the results obtained by using other methods of therapy;
- for the prevention of alcoholism.
There are two types of methods of influence hypnosis on the person, with the purpose of its getting rid of the addictive habit:
- hypnotic techniques;
- authoring methods, the effectiveness of some of them has been previously proven repeatedly, and the effectiveness of others, is still a contentious issue;
- psychotherapeutic methods of hypnotic suggestion.
Hypnosis for beginners includes basic trainingtechniques and basic methods of immersing individuals in a special trance state. The human subject usually enters trance due to the influence of verbal suggestion, where the main role is assigned to the monotonous intonation of the voice, the influence of visual stimuli or tactile stimuli, for example, swinging the pendulum. Also used is music for easy hypnosis, containing psychoacoustic technologies that facilitate immersion in a trance state.
You can learn hypnosis just like any othera different skill. But it is not enough to read an article on the topic: "How to learn hypnosis", you also need to have certain abilities, including the ability to attract people, impose their own judgments, inspire your thoughts.
Today there is a huge varietyhypnotic techniques. All of them are characterized by the presence of common features. For a successful hypnotist, the following traits are important: the ability to own oneself and absolute self-confidence.
How to learn hypnosis? To do this, we need to master the main points on which the way of introducing the individual into the trance state is built, and also - to constantly practice and improve the skill.
One such "moment" is the hypnoticsight. Many people think that the hypnotic view is magic. In fact, it can be developed by looking people in the eyes. At the same time, the view should not express hostility or superiority, which inevitably provokes a negative response response. Therefore, it is better to start practicing with relatives, because they can look without fear into eyes. The main thing that must be learned is the duration of the look. Begin with an inseparable look for a few moments, gradually increasing the duration, bringing the contact to fifty seconds.
Hypnosis for beginners should not be limited to onlytraining a hypnotic look. From the look the hypnologist's contact with the client begins, then it should be reinforced with a voice that also needs to be trained. The voice should be well-delivered, and it is necessary to speak clearly, quietly and fairly confidently. The grossest mistake will be the appearance of even a little doubt in the voice. Doubtful intonations will not let you induce hypnosis on the individual.
It should also be taken into account that any suggestion shouldto carry a positive direction, to have constructiveness and to have a beneficial effect on the individual. The subconscious mind does not realize the difference between good intentions and bad goals. He only receives inspiration, after which he begins to act.
Therefore, one must be very cautious in wording phrases, every time you suggest. Words are powerful stimuli that a person's subconscious mind perceives literally.