Imprinting is a specific form of learning,Instant subcortical training. From the English. "Imprinting" - "imprinting" - a psycho-physiological mechanism, when the image is firmly fixed and formed at a certain critical period, is almost completely automatic, does not reverse and does not require either primary or further positive reinforcement. Objects are usually parents, siblings, food objects, natural enemies. In the animal environment it serves as a survival mechanism. Some images, including natural enemies, are not innate, genetically inherited, and the imprinting mechanism provides instant training or recognition.
A widely known example ofprinting -
Goslings of the first moving object seenAfter hatching as a mother is explained by the fact that geese do not have an inborn recognition of their own, for example, through the smell, so the imprinting of the first object takes on this function. In this case, the goslings do not distinguish between living objects and artificial models, the only required characteristic is motion. The critical moment of perception is imprinted vulnerability (in the case of goslings, immediately after birth) and the required characteristic, which can be unique (in the example, movement) ensures the appearance of imprinting. In this case, all other characteristics and situation do not matter, i.e. Gusiat will succumb to the mechanism both in captivity and in the field, for example.
There is a theory that suggests thatThere is an innate mechanism of imprinting that reacts to a specific stimulus. There is also the concept of "genomic imprinting" - a variant of inheritance of genes, when DNA - the basic structure of a gene - does not change.
Imprinting in Psychology
Imprinting is a concept in psychology that has passedFrom zoopsychology and ethology, it was introduced in use by C. Lorenz, who wished by studying the behavior of fauna to better understand human behavior. And if imprinting is necessary for animals to survive, in man it has acquired a wider meaning. It is sometimes assumed that this training mechanism is possible only in the early period after birth, but this opinion is associated with a significant predominance of observations of the young animals that become independent relatively faster than the newborn.
In addition to survival mechanisms, imprinting inPsychology is the mechanism of assimilation of images, the scenario of behavior, the algorithm of reasoning perceived during a certain critical period of development. During these periods of the so-called imprint vulnerability or imprinted desensitization, the personality is in a state where the images associated with a particular pattern of behavior are perceived more unconsciously.
Although imprinting is most closely studied right afterBirth and approximately to one-year-old age, it is assumed that it can occur on the continuation of almost the whole life, mainly the period of growing up and becoming, including, as a result of psycho-traumatic situations. Since a person's social adaptation is as tightly connected with the success of survival as a physiological one, then a person is allowed the emergence of behavioral imprinting without a clear restriction on the conditions of age.
Imprinting in humans has a more complex nature. This may be due to classical age crises, changes in social environment and status in connection with moving, entering educational institutions, starting and changing jobs. The more young the organism is and the more new the situation for it, the greater the chance of the occurrence of psychological imprinting. The more stressful the situation, the better the subcortical training takes place and it is practically impossible to analyze and modify them logically.
Imprinting in humans is a way of acquiringExperience, occupying an intermediate position between unconditioned reflexes, as an example of completely unconscious and learning based on conscious memorization. Since imprinting in humans occurs in part, and in some periods completely, unconsciously, a person often can not determine and recall the moment of its appearance, therefore the subsequent reproduction of the experience is automatic, and later a personal or socially acceptable explanation will be applied to automatic behavior. If the mechanism has worked on a socially unacceptable pattern, an attempt to mechanically limit one's behavior to a prolonged positive result, as a rule, does not bring and requires the work of a specialist who, guided by knowledge about critical periods of a person, helps to find psychological imprinting. Similarly, without knowing and not noticing the work of the unconscious, a person can, based on artificial models, hinder his correct appearance, which can have long-term negative consequences.
Imprinting - examples in humans
At what stage is the neuropsychologicalActivity for the possibility of imprinting - a question related to the general knowledge of consciousness in humans. Modern research is largely focused on perinatal psychology and has so far studied imprinting, associated with the first critical periods after birth. According to Freud, birth is a traumatic process, sometimes speaking of birth as a kind of catharsis (according to Aristotle it is a tragedy that causes anger and fear, leads to a splash of emotion and purification of the soul). This definition is included in the Encyclopedic Dictionary of Medical Terms, the study is aimed at clarifying the situation and objects of imprinting in humans.
Imprinting in psychology, what is it? Imprinting is in the psychology of the individual a way of forming socially important
Behavior, in addition to the natural patterns of behavior, which presupposes the presence of the following species peculiar to man.
Oral - primary, because the motherMilk is the only source of nutrition for the newborn, which means survival. The sense of security that is provided with a contact associates a mother's embrace with the required sense of protection.
Associated with the development of the surrounding area orTerritorial-emotional imprinting explains why a person seeks to define his space, which is expressed in choosing a favorite place for games in childhood and formalizing documents for private property in adulthood.
The verbal appearance may provide a response toHuman speech, its isolation from other surrounding noises and sounds, thus stimulates the actualization and development of speech as a specific way of communication of people. By the mechanism of imprinting, a pattern of behavior peculiar to a certain sex, called sexual identification, is also formed.
Thus, knowledge of the importance of the formation of a link betweenMother and child, and primary imprinting, were the arguments for creating up-to-date recommendations of the WHO for clinical protocols for the care of newborns (in Ukraine, updated by order No. 438 of 2015), where one of the mandatory items is not to separate the mother and the baby for the first two hours after birth, if There are no medical contraindications.
They talk about the possible inheritance of the child's eating habits, which was held by the mother during pregnancy.
Talking about the impact on the choice of a sexual partner,There are two opposite theories. Anthropologist E. Vestemark pointed to a certain desensitizing effect that occurs in heterozygous individuals brought up together in the early years of life and leads, in a normal way, to the absence of a mutual intimate attraction. The opposite version was voiced by D. Mainardi, who suggested that it is the early imprinting of parents and siblings that ensures the development of an intraspecific sex drive. Z. Freud believed that biological representatives of one family feel an intimate attraction, which leads to a seizure for further choice of the sexual partner, being guided by closely related patterns of behavior and external signs, that's why society imposes a taboo on incest, and at this stage the psychoanalytic society adheres to this concept .
An intimate imprint on inanimate objects is allowed as a possible explanation of fetishism.
Philosophical dictionaries additionally define imprinting as an individual's ability to accept a new idea, an element of cultural content from
, At a rational and emotional level.