Psychological concepts

Indeterminism and determinism in philosophy are brief

Indeterminism is a methodological position,consequently, not everything in the world has a cause. This is a philosophical category that denies the objective causal relationship and the cognitive essence of explanation in science. The basic laws of nature exist due to the principle of probability. A case is an equitable, fundamental entity, through which the evolutionary nature of nature can be explained. Also, indeterminism can be, on the one hand, naturalistic, since it confirms the self-sufficiency of nature, and on the other hand, theological, because it explains the nature's journey from God.
The principle of indeterminism also takes place inphysics, it is expressed in the causelessness of microprocesses, but quantum physics denies this phenomenon, because it reflects them in a special statistical form.
In biology, the principle of indeterminism isidentified causality and unambiguous predictability. As the need to conduct statistical methods to reflect the causal relationships of actual processes, based on which it is impossible to make unambiguous and decisive predictions, was revealed. Indeterminists insist on the bankruptcy of the principle of causality, in general. They refute the development of modern natural science and talk about the effectiveness of a dialectical-materialistic theory that recognizes objectivity and represents a variety of causal relationships and forms of their reflection in the minds of people. A lot of modern young physicists become supporters of this worldview. Scientific progress will not be possible regardless of the principles of dialectical materialism, in particular the principle of causality.
Indeterminism is also often encountered with such concepts as determinism and agnosticism.
Determinism and indeterminism are philosophical positions about the objective causality of objects, objects and phenomena, which have opposite definitions regarding this.
Agnosticism and indeterminism, deny the possibility of knowing various phenomena under the pretext of the absence of objective, causal laws in public life that are inherent only in nature.
Agnosticism and indeterminism have a similar definition, because they both express the idea that it is impossible to fully know the true essence of man's knowledge of reality.

Indeterminism is in philosophy

Indeterminism in philosophy is a doctrine thatdenies the objective causality and conditionality of all phenomena. Indeterminism in the history of philosophy is in various forms, and the most popular is in bourgeois philosophy, whose contemporaries especially like to ridicule the ideas of materialistic determinism in the social sciences.
Very popular in bourgeois philosophy isthe concept of the Baden school. Its representatives limited the principle of determinism to the plane of natural sciences and threw back its use in the sciences "about the spirit." Their idea was the existence of a principled denial of the applicability of the category of causality to the historical process. Historical materialism determines the causal conditioning of social phenomena. Bourgeois philosophers are looking for some contradictions in historical determinism and the Marxist-Leninist idea of ​​understanding the role of working people in history. Lenin rejected all accusations of historical materialism in fatalism, he said that determinism presupposes fatalism and is the basis for rational action.
Determinism and indeterminism in philosophy are brief are defined as two opposite concepts regarding the conditionality of a person's freedom, his choice and the question of the person's responsibility for his actions.
Indeterminism considers the will of man asindependent force, declares that the principles of objective causality can not be applied to explaining a person's personal choice or his behavior, as to determinism, he shows displeasure with his focus on fatalism. Neo-positivism, personalism and pragmatism as well as indeterminism resisted determinism and limited its application only to the logical sphere.
Determinism and indeterminism are philosophical positions on the principles of the mutual influence of phenomena.
Indeterminism in philosophy is a negationa certain characteristic of determinism or a denial of the objectivity of some principle, for example, causality. In the history of philosophy there are few successive indeterminists. They often deny the objective connection and mutual influence of social processes, human being, which are conditioned by freedom in choosing. This theory is advanced by Kant, he reiterates the strong ties existing in nature, and the behavior of people is a plane in which there is free choice and an inner moral law that determines actions. V.Vindelband also expressed a similar position, he clearly develops the causes of natural processes and the free will of the individual, decision, choice and evaluation.

Indeterminism and determinism

All processes and phenomena in nature,are in interaction and mutual influence, they determine each other. This relationship is called in Latin "determino", which means, in translation, I define.
Determinism and indeterminism in philosophy are briefinterpreted as two concepts that differently see the objectivity of the causality of phenomena. Determinism is a combination of objective views of the surrounding world through a natural connection and the conditioning of all phenomena, this is opposed to indeterminism.
Indeterminism, on the contrary, denies the objectivitycausality in general, rejects its total character. Those who support the idea of ​​indeterminism say that there are states and events that may well exist without a reason, or it may not be indicated.
The development of quantum physics led to the question ofthe principles of indeterminism and determinism, which became relevant, especially in modern science. It turned out that the classical basic principles of determinism can not be applied to the characterization of microworld processes. There have been attempts at interpreting the basic laws of the quantum theory through agnosticism and indeterminism. This was expressed in their ideas about the freedom of the will of the electron, the management of the theological forces over micro-manifestations. At the same time, mechanistic determinism was identified with general determinism.
Such an idea was spread by P.S. Laplace, so the mechanistic determinism was called Laplace. Following this theory - at the actual moment of time the values ​​of the impulses and coordinates of the existing elements in the entire Universe determine its state at any time. This methodological position has a mystical character and leads to fatalism, practically closing with faith in the spiritual principle. With the development of science, Laplacian determinism began to be rejected with respect to organic nature, physics, and social life. The scientist F. Frank argued that determinism has no scientific value, the axiom of causality, is not included in the composition of classical physics, because the confirmation of causality can not be reduced to the ratio of the observed facts, because the results of the study have a probable distribution pattern.

Two important categories: cause and effect determinism and indeterminism are treated differently. Determinism reiterates the causality of phenomena and events, and indeterminism rejects any objective connection, denies that the cause can cause a certain effect.
Cause and effect determinism and indeterminismconcepts that have a great relationship between themselves. The cause is an action that induces the appearance of another phenomenon, so the effect is the result of the action of the cause.
Indeterminism says that cause and effect are a priori concepts, products of subjectivity, not of peace.
Determinism in modern definition has two types of objectively existing, opposing mutually conditioned phenomena that are expressed through various forms of determination.
The first form of such determination is causal, itdecisively opposed to the unjust. All the following forms that appear on the basis of causality have the form of a cornerstone of determinism. Causation itself is a very small part of the objective real connection of all phenomena in the world, this is only one of the many definitions of such universal universal connection.
The principle of causality is expressed in findinginteracting factors and connections that determine the emergence and development of an object or object, which determines all its properties, relations and originality. The ontological prerequisites of the principle of causality lie in the actual existence of interconnected phenomena in an integrated developing system, and in the process of interaction between them in the presence of certain circumstances and conditions, other phenomena, processes and phenomena are generated, that is, a causal relationship. The main characteristic of causality is a genetic link, this is the main difference of causality from not causality, that is, determinism and indeterminism.
Epistemological (cognitive) premisesCauses are expressed in the fact that the cause and category of the consequences, which reflect the objective conditioning of phenomena, are also stages in the formation of cognition and logical thinking.
Consequently, the history of science cognition,a certain stage of its development, passes to the need to understand the cause-effect relationship and the discovery of causality. Cognition of causes is the most important task of science. Socio-historical practice is the social basis of the principle of causality, it proves that all connections are cause-and-effect. Knowing the causes that cause certain phenomena, people, can create circumstances in order to engage the causes that cause useful social consequences, thereby preventing the appearance of adverse consequences. Knowledge of the conditions and causes, their effect and influence gives people the opportunity to manage them and the processes that appear in consequence.
Detection of cause-effect relationships, theirprocess and action is a complex and difficult process, often contradictory in the development of knowledge, its depth and breadth. If we consider the principle of causality in general, it methodologically directs the cognizing subject to cognition by cause-effect relations, analysis of their re-crossings and interactions. This principle gives the researcher a special system of requirements, which he, as objective imperatives, must necessarily be guided in order to find out the cause and go straight on a certain path without getting lost. Following the principle of determinism, knowledge passes through certain levels.
At the first level, the subject of the studyseems to be a unique and holistic system that stands out among other similar items in the system. At this level, all possible connections, forms and interdependencies of events and phenomena are studied. The first place here is the task of distinguishing between non-causal determination and causation. To do this, researchers need to clearly understand the main features of the cause-effect relationship: the generation of one phenomenon by another, objectivity, infinity, universality and constancy in time and space.
The second stage, the analysis of the current holistic system,as a definite result of the development process, more accurately as a consequence. If the cause and effect could coincide, then science would lose its purpose. The consideration of the history of a self-developing integral system, from the point of view of theory, is the opposite of the actual process of development, that is, it expires from the results of the development process obtained. These results, which the researcher receives, are a consequence, the starting point of the realization of the principle of causality. Thus, the subject begins cognition from the opposite end. The subject proceeds first from an understanding of the subject of research, as consequences, then turning back, constructs the process of development that will lead him to the appearance of the studied subject.
Cognition in relation to the investigation, that isspecial ways and forms of transfer during the process of causing the object, substance, structure, energy and information, thoroughly relevant laws are analyzed. Cognizing causality external and internal, the category of interaction is of great methodological importance. Starting from the concept of universal interaction, the subject comes to a real causal relationship, because the ultimate cause of things is true. Knowing the internal structure and interaction of processes can be explained by the specifics of the whole system. Applying the principle of causality, it is important to sequence the realization of the communication requirement to find out how the system generates itself in the internal interaction of its processes. The nature of such a process is that the effect disappears in the cause and then again appears in it. It turns out that the consistent and purposeful application of the principle of causality is the most important condition in achieving the objective truth of knowledge. Since causality is the basis of other forms of non-causal determination, then knowing the causal relationship, cognition must again return to the beginning of the analysis of deterministic relationships.
Another type of determinism is the relationshipinterrelated phenomena without a direct causal nature, there is no process in which one event is generated by another. The line between indeterminism and determinism is fuzzy, often one point of view can be evaluated as indeterministic and deterministic.
Differences of causal and investigative determinismcorrespond to the differences of causal and investigative indeterminism. Also the principle of indeterminism, hence to which any phenomenon, regardless of the time in which it occurs, is not causally deterministic at a certain time has two different cases.
In the first case, every event has moments inwhich it is still without cause. In the second case, it is said that there are no events with endless consequences throughout the whole time. In the first case, one of the possible versions of causal indeterminism is observed, and in the second case, an investigative one.
Particular attention should be paid to the combination ofprinciples of determinism with certain principles of indeterminism. The existence of such a combined position, which combines deterministic and indeterministic statements. The question of combined positions is the reason for many disagreements about the differences between determinism and indeterminism and the qualifications in a particular belief.
The strongest form of determinism can not becompatible with any form of indeterminism. Consequently, conversely, the strongest form of indeterminism is impossible without contradiction by some statement about the presence of causes and consequences. But there are also incomplete indeterministic and deterministic forms that open up the question of the indeterminacy and determinism of certain phenomena at a certain time.
Such combined forms of determinism and indeterminism often occur in the history of philosophy. Even Aristotle said about the uniqueness of the certainty of the past and the ambiguity of the future.
The concept of determinism and indeterminism isabsolute, the concept of causality refers to comparative categories. Absolute categories can not be definable through comparative and vice versa. Consequently, all determinations of determinism through the prism of causality and causality through the concept of determinism are not universal, the domain of their use is limited.

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