Intrapersonal conflict is difficultResolved contradiction occurring within the personality. Intrapersonal psychological conflict is experienced by the individual as a serious problem of psychological content, which requires an early resolution. This type of confrontation can simultaneously accelerate the process of self-development, forcing the individual to mobilize his own potential, and to harm the individual, slowing down the process of self-knowledge and stymying self-assertion. Intrapersonal conflict arises in conditions when in the human mind there are conflicting interests, drives and needs that are equal in importance and opposite in direction.
The concept of intrapersonal conflict
An internal confrontation of a person is called confrontation, which arises within the psyche of the individual, which is a collision of contradictory, often oppositely directed motives.
This type of confrontation is characterized by a number of specific features. Features of intrapersonal conflict:
- An unusual structure of the conflict (the intrapersonal confrontation has no subjects of interaction represented by individuals or groups of people);
- Latency, consisting in the complexity of identifyingInternal contradiction, because often the individual does not realize that he is in a state of confrontation, he can also hide his own state under the mask
Or active activities;
- Specificity of the forms of manifestation and flow, since internal confrontation proceeds in the form of complex experiences and is accompanied by:
, Depressive states, stress.
The most active problem is the intrapersonalConflict was developed in Western psychological science. His scientific justification is inextricably linked with the founder of psychoanalytic theory, Z. Freud.
All approaches and concepts of the intrapersonalConflict are due to the specifics of understanding the content and essence of the individual. Therefore, starting from the understanding of personality that has developed in different psychological schools, there are several basic approaches to the consideration of internal confrontation.
Freud gave evidence of biopsychologicalAnd the biosocial content of the intrapersonal confrontation. In fact, the human psyche is contradictory. Her work is connected with constant tension and overcoming the conflict that arises between biological desires
And socio-cultural foundations, between the unconsciousContent and consciousness. It is in the contradiction and unchangeable confrontation that the whole essence of intrapersonal confrontation lies, according to Freud's concept.
Further development of the concept described in the works of his followers: K. Jung and K. Horney.
German psychologist K. Levin put forward his own concept of an intrapersonal conflict called "field theory," according to which the inner world of the individual falls simultaneously under the influence of polar forces. Man has to choose from them. Both such forces can be positive or negative, also one of them may be negative, and the other positive. The main conditions for the origin of the conflict, K. Levin considered the parity and equal importance of such forces for the individual.
TO. Rogers believed that the origin of the internal conflict is due to the inconsistency of the subject's self-image and his understanding of the ideal "I". He was convinced that such a mismatch could provoke serious mental disorders.
The concept of intrapersonal confrontation developed by A. Maslow is very popular. He argued that the structure
Based on the hierarchy of needs, the highest of which is the need for
. Hence the main reason for the emergence of intrapersonal conflicts is the gap between the desire for self-realization and the result achieved.
Among the Soviet psychologists who brought a significant contribution to the development of theories of confrontations, one can single out the concepts of the intrapersonal conflict of A. Luria, V. Merlin, F. Vasilyuk and A. Leontyev.
Luria examined the intrapersonalOpposition as a collision of two oppositely directed, but equal in strength, tendencies. V. Merlin - as a consequence of dissatisfaction with deep actual personal motives and relationships. F. Vasilyuk - as a confrontation between two internal motives, displayed in the consciousness of the personality of the individual as independent opposing values.
The Problem of Intrapersonal ConflictWas considered by Leontyev as a completely normal phenomenon. He believed that the internal opposition is inherent in the structure of the individual. Every personality is contradictory in its structure. Often, the resolution of such contradictions takes place in the simplest variations and does not lead to the emergence of an intrapersonal conflict. Sometimes the resolution of the conflict goes beyond the boundaries of the simplest forms, becoming the main one. The consequence of this is the intrapersonal confrontation. He believed that the internal conflict is the result of the struggle of the person's motivational courses ranked according to the hierarchy.
A. Adler considered the "inferiority complex" as a basis for the emergence of internal conflicts, which occurs in childhood, under the pressure of an unfavorable social environment. In addition, Adler also identified the main methods for resolving internal confrontation.
E. Fromm, explaining intrapersonal confrontation, proposed the theory of "existential dichotomy." His concept was that the causes of internal conflicts lie in the dichotomous nature of the individual, which is found in the problems of being: the problem of the limited life of man, life and death,
E. Erickson in his own concept of the stages of psychosocial personality formation, putting forward the idea that every age stage is marked by a favorable overcoming of the crisis event or unfavorable.
If the output is successful, a positivePersonal development, its transition into the next life period with useful prerequisites for its favorable overcoming. In case of unsuccessful exit from the crisis situation, the individual passes into a new period of his own life with the complexes of the previous stage. Erikson believed that it is almost impossible to go through all the stages of development, therefore each individual has the prerequisites for the initiation of an intrapersonal confrontation.
Causes of Intrapersonal Conflict
Intrapersonal psychological conflict has three types of causes that provoke its occurrence:
- Internal, that is, the reasons that are hidden in the contradictions of the individual;
- External factors caused by the status of the individual in society;
- External factors caused by the status of a person in a particular social group.
All these types of causes are interrelated, and theirDifferentiation is considered rather arbitrary. For example, internal factors that cause confrontation are the result of the interaction of the individual with the group and society, and do not appear anywhere.
Internal conditions of the appearance of intrapersonalConfrontation is rooted in the confrontation of various motives of the individual, in the inconsistency of its internal structure. The person is more prone to internal conflicts when her inner world is complicated, feelings of value and ability for introspection are developed.
Intrapersonal conflict arises in the presence of the following contradictions:
- Between the social norm and the need;
- Disagreement of needs, motives, interests;
- Confrontation of social roles (intrapersonal conflict example: it is necessary to fulfill an urgent order at work and at the same time the child should be taken to training);
- The contradiction of sociocultural values and foundations, for example, it is necessary to unite the duty of defending the Motherland during the war and the Christian commandment "Thou shalt not kill."
For the origin of conflict within a personThese contradictions must have a deep meaning for the individual, otherwise he will not attach importance to them. In addition, different aspects of the contradictions on the intensity of one's own impact on the individual should be equal. Otherwise, the individual of two benefits will choose more and less - from the "two evils". In this case, there will be no internal confrontation.
External factors provoking the emergence of intrapersonal confrontation are due to: personal status in the group, organization and society.
Causes caused by the position of the individual inTo a certain group, are quite diverse, but they are united by the impossibility of satisfying various important motives and needs that have meaning and deep meaning for the individual in a particular situation. Hence, we can distinguish four variations of situations provoking the emergence of an intrapersonal conflict:
- Physical obstacles that interfere with the satisfaction of basic needs (an intrapersonal conflict example: a prisoner whose cell does not allow him to move freely);
- Lack of an object that is needed to meet the perceived need (for example, a person dreams of a cup of coffee in a foreign city, but it's too early and all the cafeterias are closed);
- Biological barriers (individuals with physical flaws or oligophrenia, in which the nuisance nests in the human body itself);
- Social circumstances are the main source of most intrapersonal clashes.
At the organizational level, the causes provoking the manifestation of an intrapersonal conflict can be represented by the following types of contradictions:
- Between excessive responsibility and limited rights for its implementation (the person was transferred to a management position, expanded functions, but the rights remained old);
- Between poor working conditions and strict requirements for the performance of work;
- Between two incompatible tasks or tasks;
- Between rigidly established task frames and a vaguely prescribed mechanism for its implementation;
- Between the requirements of the profession, traditions, norms established in the company and individual needs or values;
- Between the desire for creative self-realization, self-affirmation, career and the potential opportunities for doing this within the organization;
- Confrontation, caused by the contradiction of social roles;
- Between aspiration for profit and moral values.
External factors caused by personalStatus in society, are associated with the differences that arise at the level of the social macrosystem and are in the nature of the social system, the structure of society, political and economic life.
Types of intrapersonal conflicts
The classification of internal confrontation by types was proposed by K. Levin. He singled out 4 types, namely the equivalent (the first type), the vital (the second), the ambivalent (the third) and the frustrating (the fourth).
Equivalent type - Confrontation is born when the subject needs to perform two or more functions important for him. Here the usual model for resolving a contradiction is a compromise, that is, partial substitution.
Vital type Conflict is observed when the subject has to take decisions that are equally unattractive for him.
Ambivalent type - a collision appears when similar actions and results are equally seduced and repelled.
Frustrating type. Features of an intrapersonal conflictFrustrating type consist in disapproval of the society, divergence from the accepted norms and principles, the desired result and, accordingly, the actions necessary to achieve the desired.
In addition to the above systematization, there is a classification, the basis of which is the value-motivational sphere of personality.
Motivational conflict occurs when two equally positive tendencies, unconscious aspirations, enter into a contradiction. An example of this type of confrontation is the "Buridani donkey".
A moral contradiction or normative conflict arises when there is a discrepancy between aspirations and duty, personal attachments and moral attitudes.
Collision of the individual's wishes withA reality that blocks their satisfaction, provokes a conflict of unrealized desires. For example, it appears when the subject, due to physical imperfection, can not fulfill his aspirations.
Role-based intrapersonal conflict isAnxiety caused by the inability to simultaneously "play" several roles. It also comes as a result of discrepancies in the understanding of the requirements imposed by the individual on the realization of one role.
Adaptation conflict is characterized by the presenceTwo meanings: in the broadest sense it is a contradiction caused by a violation of the balance between the individual and the surrounding reality, in a narrow sense - a collision caused by a violation of the social or professional adaptation process.
The conflict of inadequate self-esteem arises from the discrepancy between personal aspirations and the assessment of one's own potential.
The resolution of an intrapersonal conflict
According to A. Adler, the development of the character of an individual occurs before the age of five. At this stage, the crumb feels the impact of many unfavorable factors that give rise to the inferiority complex. In later life, this complex reveals a significant impact on personality and intrapersonal conflict.
Adler described not only the mechanisms explainingThe emergence and manifestation of intrapersonal conflict, but also disclosed ways to overcome such internal contradictions (compensation of the inferiority complex). He identified two such methods. The first is to develop a social feeling and interest. In the final analysis, a developed social feeling is manifested in the professional sphere, adequate interpersonal relationships. Also, the individual can develop and "undeveloped" social feeling, which has a variety of negative forms of intrapersonal conflict: alcoholism, crime,
. The second is to stimulate one's ownPotential, achievement of superiority over the environment. It can have the following forms of manifestation: adequate compensation (coincidence of the content of social interests with superiority), overcompensation (hypertrophied development of one particular ability) and imaginary compensation (illness, circumstances or other factors that do not depend on the individual, compensate for the inferiority complex).
M. Deutsch, the founder of the motivational approach to interpersonal conflict, outlined ways to overcome intrapersonal confrontation, starting from the specifics of their "spheres of reality", to which he referred:
- The objective situation of confrontation, which is the foundation of the contradiction;
- Conflict behavior, which is a way of interaction between the subjects of the conflict confrontation that arises in the awareness of the conflict situation.
Ways to overcome internal confrontation are open and latent.
Open paths suggest:
- Decision-making by the individual;
- Cessation of doubt;
- Fixation on the solution of the problem.
Latent forms of intrapersonal conflict include:
- Simulation, anguish,
- Sublimation (the transition of psychic energy to other areas of functioning);
- Compensation (replenishment of lost through the acquisition of other goals and, accordingly, the results);
- Avoiding reality (fantasy, dreaming);
- Nomadism (change of professional sphere, place of residence);
- Rationalization (self-justification with the help of logical inferences, purposeful selection of arguments);
- Idealization (separation from reality, abstraction);
- Regression (suppression of desires, appeal to primitive behavioral forms, avoidance of responsibility);
- Euphoria (adolescent fun, joyful state);
- Differentiation (mental separation of thoughts from the author);
- Projection (the desire to free oneself from negative qualities by attributing them to another).
Analyze personality and intrapersonalConflict, understand the psychological problems of origin and conflict overcoming is necessary for the further successful development of communication skills, competent resolution of situations of confrontation in interpersonal interaction and group communication.
Consequences of intrapersonal conflicts
It is believed that an intrapersonal conflict isAn inseparable element of the formation of the psyche of the individual. Therefore, the consequences of internal confrontations can carry a positive aspect (that is, be productive) for the individual as well as negative (that is, destroy personal structures).
Positive is considered a confrontation, whichHas the maximum development of opposing structures and is characterized by minimal personal costs for its resolution. One of the tools for harmonizing personal development is constructively overcoming intrapersonal confrontation. The subject is able to recognize his personality only by resolving internal confrontation and intrapersonal conflicts.
Intrapersonal confrontation can help to develop adequate
, Which, in turn, promotes personal self-realization and self-knowledge.
Destructive or negative are internal conflicts that exacerbate the splitting of personality, go into crises, or contribute to the formation of neurotic reactions.
Sharp internal confrontations often lead to the destruction of the existing interpersonal interaction at work or relationships in the family circle. As a rule, they become the reasons for the increase
, Restlessness, anxiety,
Communicative interaction. A prolonged intrapersonal confrontation in itself hides a threat to the effectiveness of the activity.
In addition, intrapersonal confrontationsCharacterized by a tendency to grow into neurotic conflicts. The disturbances inherent in conflicts can be transformed into a source of the disease if they occupy a central place in the system of personal relationships.