Psychological concepts

Introspection in psychology, the method of introspection of consciousness

Introspection is a method of consciousIntrospection. The name comes from the Latin (introspecto) and means to look inside. Introspection and introspection are synonymous and both of these methods are used in psychological research. The importance of this method is unrealistic to overestimate, because with its help it is possible to learn in depth how to perceive reality and then to the individual reveals his consciousness and intuition. Excessive introspection is possessed by schizophrenics, they are replacing the real world with their own inner world.
The method of introspection in psychology is used toObservation of a person's own mental processes and is carried out without the help of any tools or means, only through his own consciousness.
Introspection in psychology is a thoroughKnowledge and study of the individual's own thoughts, feelings, experiences, the activities of the mind, images, attitudes and so on. The method of introspection in psychology was founded by J. Locke.
Introspection is a subjective analysis in which a person does not seek self-condemnation, than this method differs from remorse.
Introspection in philosophy is The method of introspection on which theRetrospective philosophy to achieve a reflex liberation of consciousness and a hierarchy of feelings in the structure of the individual. Too much self-confidence or a tendency to deepened introspection can contribute to the formation of suspicious attitudes toward other personalities and the entire surrounding world. Dualistic philosophy shares the material nature and the spiritual (
), So introspection in philosophy is the basisPsychological methodology. It was of great importance for a large number of philosophers: J. Locke, J. Berkeley, T. Hobbes, D. Hume, J. Mill and others. All of them considered consciousness to be the result of internal experience, and the presence of feelings and experiences indicated knowledge.

Method of introspection

Introspection and introspection are very useful inA person's knowledge of himself, his activity. The method of introspection is quite practical, since it does not need additional tools and standards. He has a great advantage over other methods, because no one and no other way can know a person much better than he does himself. Together with the big advantage there are also disadvantages, the main ones being subjectivity and bias.
Introspection in psychology was the mostApplied research method up to the 19th century. Psychologists of that time used the following tenets: the processes of consciousness can not be known in any way from outside, they can be revealed only to the subject of observation.
The method of introspection was handled by J. Locke, who also distinguished in the processes of cognition two types: observation of objects of the external world and
(Self-analysis aimed at processing information received from the outside world).
The method of introspection of consciousness has certainOpportunities and has limitations. In the process of applying self-analysis, problems can arise. This method is not sufficiently possessed by all people, so they need to be specially trained in the method. Perception and the psyche of children are not at all tuned to explore themselves in this way.
Functionally useless and its resultsAre contradictory. The biggest drawback of introspection is his subjectivity. The reasons for the restrictions can be different. The inability to simultaneously perform the process of introspection and observation of this process, and one can observe only a fading process.
Introspection is difficult to disclose the cause-effect relationships from the conscious sphere. Reflection of self-observation contributes to the distortion or disappearance of the data of consciousness.
The method of introspection of consciousness can have separate independent options.
Types of introspection: Analytical, systematic and phenomenological.
Analytical introspection in psychology isPerception of things through structural elementary feelings. Supporters of this view are called structuralists. According to structuralism, most of the objects of the external world perceived by man are combinations of sensations. Systematic introspection is a method of describing consciousness, with the help of experienced images and sensations. It tracks the main stages of thought processes, based on a retrospective report. This is a method of mental introspection, which requires the personality of its highly organized self-observation.

Supporters of this method divide the mind intoBasic processes and their self-observation. The problem of introspection is that only one person can observe the processes open to him, others are not able to appreciate his thoughts. Self-observation refers to the products of conscious processes, and not to regular connections.
Phenomenological introspection of consciousness was developed in
, It is characterized by a description of mentalPhenomena in their integrity and immediacy of the subject. This method is based on the method of inner perception, it was actively used in descriptive psychology, and then in humanistic psychology.
The method of introspection is often used to collect primary data and test hypotheses. It is used exclusively for obtaining data, but not for their interpretation.
Self-monitoring is carried out for protozoaProcesses of the psyche: sensations, associations and representations. Self-report does not need auxiliary tools or purposes. Only the fact of self-observation is taken into account, which will then be analyzed. On introspection can be said as the presence of a conscious experience and a report about it. This definition was given by W. Wundt. He believed that the direct experience of man has an influence on the subject of psychology, nevertheless, distinguished the inner perception from introspection. Internal perception has its own value and can not be attributed to science.

Introspection in Psychology

Previously, this method was recognized not onlyBasic, but also unique. Such a belief was based on two indisputable facts: the fundamental property of conscious processes is directly represented to the subject; The closedness of these same processes for the observer from the outside.
Introspection in psychology is a methodIntrospection, analysis, study of mental processes through individual observation of the functioning of one's own psyche. Introspection, as a method, has some peculiarities. It can be conducted only by one person over himself to find out what the other person feels, to imagine yourself in the place of this person, to see yourself in the same conditions and to observe your own state, your reactions and draw conclusions about sensations, thoughts and Feelings of another person. Since introspection is a special activity, it requires a lot of exercise in it.
The method has significant advantages, beforeThey betrayed great value. It was believed that consciousness directly reflects the causal relationship in psychic phenomena, so the position of psychology was recognized as easier, in contrast to other sciences, which still have to seek out causal connections.
Introspection represents psychological facts as they are, and this
Also very different from other sciences.
The use of introspection was reinforcedJudgments about the special advantages of this method. Psychology in the late XIX century. Carried out a large experiment, testing the possibilities of introspection. In many cases, not the facts of consciousness were studied, as they are in life circumstances, which is also of no less interest, but laboratory experiments that were conducted in demandingly controlled circumstances and conditions.
The strictest introspectionists complicated theirExperiments with additional requirements. They were guided by the selection of the most elementary details of consciousness (sensations and feelings). Subjects pledged to avoid terms that describe external objects and talk only about the feelings caused by these objects, about the quality of the sensations caused, if the answer sounded in terms of sensations is the error of the stimulus. By the degree of development of the experiments, large gaps and difficulties arose. Everything went to the recognition of the inexpediency of such "experimental psychology". There were conflicting results, even from one researcher in the work with completely different subjects.
Began to be questioned and the mainThe position of psychology. Identified content of consciousness, such elements that could not be decomposed into some feelings or were shown as a sum of these elements. Also systematic use of the introspection method revealed unconscious elements of consciousness, and unconscious causes of individual phenomena of consciousness began to appear.
It began to work out, so in psychology, whichHas such a unique method of introspection, a growing crisis. The reason was that the arguments for the benefit of the introspection method only looked right at first glance. And the possibility of a split consciousness is imaginary, because strict observation of the process of its own activity only hampers its implementation or even even destroys it. The same destructive effect is possessed by reflection. Simultaneous execution of two different types of activities is possible in two ways: an early switch from one type of activity to another, or in such a case when one of the activities is relatively simple or automatic. From the belief that introspection is also the second activity, it turns out that its possibilities are very limited.
Introspection of the full act of consciousness is possible,Only if it is interrupted. The possibility of a split consciousness also exists, but with some limitations, it is completely impossible with the perfect return of some activity or feelings, and, at any rate, introduces a distorting effect. For example, when a person does something and immediately watches how it looks. It turns out that the data obtained through the use of introspection is very vague in order to be based on them. The supporters of this method introspectionists quickly realized this. They noticed that they had to observe a process that was not as leaking as its fading track. In order for the traces in memory to be able to preserve an even more possible completeness, it is necessary to decompose the process of observable acts into smaller parts. Thus, introspection has, over time, transformed into a "fractional" retrospective.
An attempt to use this method to identifyCausal connections in consciousness are limited to individual examples of arbitrary actions among a mass of inexplicable facts (thoughts, feelings) of consciousness. This suggests the conclusion that if it were possible to directly observe the causes of mental processes, then no one would study psychology either. It would be absolutely unnecessary. The assertion that as if the method of introspection demonstrates knowledge of the facts of consciousness is not distorted, as they really are, can be completely wrong in the light of the data on the introduction of introspection into the research process. Making from memory even an instant report on the most recent experience, the researcher inevitably distorts it, because he directs his attention only to certain aspects of it. Especially strongly distorting is the attention of the observer, who knows what exactly he is looking for. A person is usually guided by several facts, so other aspects of the phenomenon remain without attention, which can also have great value.
Thus, practice and deepDiscussion of the introspection method revealed a line of fundamental flaws in this method. The shortcomings were so significant that scientists took issue with the whole method and even with it - the subject of psychology, which at that time was inextricably linked to the method of introspection.

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