Isoterapy is the direction of art therapy,Using in his work methods of art. This area of psychotherapeutic practice has become widespread, both in working with adults and with children. The term "art therapy" was introduced by Adrian Hill in 1938. This phrase was applied to all types of art, which were carried out in the centers and hospitals of mental health. primary goal
Is to develop the harmonization of the personality through the ability of self-knowledge and self-expression.
Isoterapy is considered to be the most popular andAccessible method of knowing yourself. On canvas or paper you can express your fears, thoughts, hopes, deeply hidden inside the person. This direction promotes liberation from negative emotions, relieves nervous tension.
Methods of isotherapy
Isoterapy as a method of psychological correctionOriginates from Freud's psychoanalytical view, Jung's analytical psychology, using personal drawing to confirm the idea of universal and original symbols. Further, a great influence in the development of isotherapy was expressed by psychotherapists of a humanistic orientation.
Methods of isothermy include a passive form - the use of finished works of art, and an active form - the creation of their own creations.
Isoterapy as a method of psychological correctionProvides the kid an opportunity to experience, understand the conflict situation, and also lose any problem as convenient for the child's psyche as possible.
In isotherm use a wide variety ofMaterials: plasticine, pencils, paints, colored paper, plasticine. These materials help in recreating the art canvas. As an independent method of art therapy, isotherapy appeared only a few decades ago. Currently, this method is very in demand among preschool children.
The methods of isothermy allow you to plunge into the problem as much as the child himself wants and is ready to relive it. Often the kid himself does not even understand what is happening to him.
Isothermia in working with children allows the kids to feel, as well as understand themselves, helps express their feelings, thoughts, hopes, dreams, manifest freely
, Get rid of strong feelings and conflicts.
Isothermia in working with children is widely usedTo relieve stressful conditions, mental stress, to correct fears and neuroses, as drawing, the child painfully comes into contact with some unpleasant, frightening, traumatic images.
One of the methods of isotherapy is a projectivedrawing. This technique performs a diagnostic and psychocorrectional function. It is used, both in individual and in group work. The main task of the projective figure is the identification and awareness of hard-to-verbal experiences and problems. By directing and managing subjects of drawings, they achieve switching of attention, concentration on significant concrete problems. Projective drawing allows you to interpret emotional problems and diagnose difficulties in communication. This technique works with feelings that a person does not realize. Drawing themes can be very diverse, for example, "personal past and present", "life situations in which I feel insecure", "my day", "who I dream to become,
, "What the group gave me" and so on.
Isoterapy for preschoolers
In pre-school children, isothermics relieves nervousSystem, stimulates the development of motor skills, soothes the psyche. This method is one of the best ways to find out what the kid thinks, what he is shy about, what he dreams about.
Preschoolers due to their age characteristicsNot able to analyze the actions of others, as well as draw conclusions. They quickly become dependent in the family on a tense situation and nightmares. And the direction of art therapy through the drawing allows you to express your emotions. This method eliminates aggressive behavior, stiffness, imbalance,
, Jealousy, a sense of loneliness.
Isoterapy has been successfully used in working with children,Who have hearing and speech impairment, mental retardation,! Autism. Preschoolers who have a pathology of the nervous system, thanks to isotherapy, quickly reach out to psychologists, teachers, doctors and are enthusiastically involved in the process of psychocorrection.
Isoterapy studies reveal the potential of the baby,Inspire and open up new opportunities. Gaming lessons in drawing are carried out, individually and in small subgroups. Isoterapy includes several directions:
- personal drawing, allowing to express the "I" and its analysis;
- the use of artistic finished works.
In the lesson on isotherapy, the adult offersTo create a picture for a given or arbitrary subject. During drawing, the expert closely follows the artist's children's emotions, is interested in what the kid is experiencing, and also feels during drawing. After drawing, the child gives a description of what he painted. This stage consists in teaching the analysis of what is happening, as well as self-assessment of their problem. At the same time, the kid develops expressiveness of speech and imaginative thinking. Then the specialist gives his interpretation of the drawing, based on scientific practices, and also analyzes his artwork together with the ward. All pictures after the lessons are necessarily saved. In the following sessions, if necessary, they are compared with new works to assess the development of the situation. This method effectively deal with the course for several sessions, because isotherapy in the complex helps to achieve the desired result faster, namely, it solves problems and teaches to look at the world positively.
Isoterapy for preschoolers includesDiverse art-therapy forms of work with children. Particular attention is paid to the problem of resolving and experiencing fears. Fears are an integral part of every individual. At certain moments, fears grow and capture the entire human being as a whole. Avoiding fears is a non-constructive way out of the situation. Fears lose their power when an individual looks at their faces. Getting rid of fears is difficult for an adult person, and for a child is a doubly difficult process. To help in such cases comes isotherapy, which allows a painless way to bring to the physical plane of experience, fears that lie deep in the mind.
When carrying out isothermia of great importanceAcquires a creative act, as well as the inner world of the creator, which is revealed as a result of drawing. Psychologists encourage participants in the spontaneity of expressing their inner experiences on paper or canvas, without worrying about the artistic merit of the drawing.
According to Goldstein, creativity is oneFrom the ways in overcoming the fear that arises because of the inner conflict of a person who prevents him from realizing himself, as a person. Creative personalities are better concentrated, their power is skilfully distributed in overcoming obstacles and solving external and internal conflicts. The main source of human activity, according to Maslow, lies in the continuous pursuit of self-expression and self-actualization, but these manifestations are noted in healthy people. In the personalities of a neurotic warehouse, this need is often broken, so art is an effective way to restore it.
Some researchers attribute drawing toMeans for relieving tension. This is due to the return to primitive forms of functioning, as well as the satisfaction of unconscious desires. The artistic work displaces the content of complexes from consciousness and eliminates the experience of negative emotions. This feature becomes more important for those who find it difficult to speak out, but through creativity express their fantasies much easier. Fantasies depicted on paper often facilitate and accelerate the verbalization of experiences. In the process of isothermal protection is reduced, which is noted with the usual verbal contact, so the patient is more realistic to assess their violations. Drawing removes the barrier of "ego-censorship", which makes it difficult to express verbal, conflicting, unconscious elements. Creativity allows us to open the way to the unconscious expression of fantasies and ideas, which are noted in a form significant to the patient. One of the techniques of isothermy uses a sketch of dreams, as well as feelings that arise in a dream. It is important to consider the direct impact on the body of lines, colors, shapes when analyzing patterns. In Japan and China, the drawing of hieroglyphs has long been used in the treatment of nervous shocks. It turned out that while the individual is completely relaxed and his pulse rate is markedly lower.
Objectives of isotherapy:
1. Allow to give vent to negative feelings, including aggressiveness. Work on drawings, paintings is a safe way to release steam and discharge tension. 2. Facilitate the treatment.
3. Obtain material for diagnostic findings and interpretation.
4. To work out the feelings and thoughts that a person is accustomed to suppress. Often nonverbal remedies are the only ones in the clarification of strong beliefs and experiences.
5. Establish a relationship between a person and a psychologist. Joint participation in the process of artistic activity contributes to the creation of mutual acceptance, as well as empathy.
6. Develop internal control. The process of drawing provides for the ordering of shapes and colors.
7. Focusing on feelings and feelings.
8. Development of artistic abilities, increase of self-esteem.
Isothermy for children
School adaptation is a problem with whichEvery school psychologist in primary school faced. His work during this period is aimed at adapting the baby to a new collective. If these are special schools for disabled children, the urgency of the problem of adaptation is most acute. This is caused by a number of reasons, in particular the constant change in the class composition due to illnesses of students.
Lessons on isothermics with disabled childrenRecommend the implementation of two psychologists in a closed group of up to 6 people. The composition of the group is the same throughout the program. Classes are held once a week for up to 60 minutes. It is recommended to alternate with sand therapy with sand therapy.
The first stage is the first three sessions, which are marked by the passivity of disabled children and a guide to the children of leaders.
The second stage of the classes is the fourth and fifthCharacterized by increased mental discomfort, as well as anxiety of children. They are marked by the emergence of hostility between the participants. At the same time, the self-esteem of some members of the group is reduced, which is manifested in the denial of creative opportunities.
In the third stage - the sixth and seventh sessions, children are ready to express the various feelings that they are aware of.
The fourth stage, including the eighth, ninth, tenth occupation, is marked by increased anxiety in children.
The fifth stage is the final one, which includes the last lesson.
We offer an approximate plan-training on isotherapy "Journey to the Fairy Glade".
1. "Magic Glade" relaxation exercise.
2. Development of associative imagination (game exercises).
3. Selection of three heroes of the fairy forest.
4. Playing in the sandbox.
5. Drawing "Draw a place that you remember most".
6. The result of the lesson.
Materials: audio recording "Sounds of the forest", a box of sand, miniature figures, water, markers, brushes, paints, pencils, sheet A4.
Course: The lesson begins with a greeting that should bring children together, create an atmosphere of group acceptance and trust. Further for inclusion in the work is proposed warm-up, which includes relaxation exercises with musical accompaniment. The children are seated on chairs that are placed in a circle. One adult reads the text, and the second adult spends with the children a relaxation exercise. The purpose of the exercise is to relieve muscle tension. Next, an exercise is carried out to develop the imagination. Children are asked to tell about feelings and thoughts during the "journey".
Then the children are offered to go to the sandbox withWet sand and show its capabilities: you can touch the sand, unearth the bottom, build a mountain. The children are explained that it is impossible to rush the sand, destroy what the "wizard" created next.
The game in the sandbox includes the following content: Children are offered to go on a trip in order to discover the country in which they will live first, where they will create a fabulous, blooming country. Children are allowed to take in the fairy-tale country only three heroes and in an unlimited number of trees, houses, flowers. Then the psychologist tells a fairy tale, creating problem situations and monitoring the reactions of children, namely, how they come out of them. The end of the tale is presented by a psychologist.
The next part of the lesson is directlyIsotherapy. The children sit at one large table. The psychologist gives instructions to draw a hero or the place of a sand fairy-tale country, which is most memorable. Babies are given the opportunity to choose the means and material for visual work. At the end of the lesson, a summary is summarized. Children are offered to give an assessment of the class (which was good - what's bad, what was liked - what did not like it) and why we did it.