Manic-depressive psychosis is a mentalA disease that manifests itself with periodically changing mood disorders. The public danger of the sick is expressed in the tendency to commit an offense in the manic phase and suicidal acts in the depressive phase.
Manic-depressive psychosis is usually notedIn the form of alternating manic and depressive mood. Maniacal mood is expressed in the unmotivated by a cheerful, and depressive mood is manifested in an oppressed pessimistic mood.
Manic-depressive psychosis is attributed to bipolar affective disorder. The softened form with a less severe symptom is called cyclotomy.
Symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis more oftenAre found among women. The prevalence of the disease is on average: seven patients per 1000 people. Ill people with manic-depressive psychosis represent up to 15% of the total number of patients who were hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals. Researchers define manic-depressive psychosis to endogenous psychoses. Weighed down heredity can provoke a manic-depressive psychosis. Up to a certain point, patients look absolutely healthy, but after a stress, childbirth and a severe life event, this disease can develop. Therefore, as a preventive measure, it is important to surround such people with a sparing emotional background, to protect against stresses, any stresses.
Manic-depressive psychosis is sick in most cases by well-adapted able-bodied people.
Manic-depressive cause psychosis
The disease refers to an autosomal dominant type and often passes from mother to child, so manic-depressive psychosis due to inheritance is due to heredity.
The causes of manic-depressive psychosisAre in the failure of the higher emotional centers, which are in the subcortical region. It is believed that violations of inhibition processes, as well as excitation in the brain, provoke a clinical picture of the disease.
The role of external factors (stress, relationships with others) are considered as concomitant causes of the disease.
Manic-depressive psychosis symptoms
The main clinical sign of the diseaseAppear manic, depressive, and also mixed phases, which change without a certain sequence. A characteristic difference is considered to be light interphase intervals (intermissions), in which there are no signs of disease and a complete critical attitude to their morbid condition is noted. The patient retains personality traits, professional skills and knowledge. Often, attacks of the disease change in the intermediate full health. This classic course of the disease is rare, in which only manic forms or only depressive forms occur.
Manic phase It starts with a change in self-feelings,The emergence of vivacity, a sense of physical strength, a surge of energy, attractiveness and health. The ill person ceases to feel the unpleasant symptoms that had previously disturbed him, associated with somatic diseases. The patient's consciousness is filled with pleasant memories, as well as optimistic plans. Unpleasant events from the past are being squeezed out. The ill person is not able to notice the expected and real difficulties. The surrounding world perceives in juicy, bright colors, while it exacerbates the olfactory, gustatory sensations. The strengthening of mechanical memory is fixed: the ill remembered forgotten phones, film names, addresses, names, remembers current events. Speech patients loud, expressive; Thinking is distinguished by quickness and liveliness, good cleverness, but inferences and judgments are superficial, very jocular. In the manic state, the diseased are restless, mobile, fidgety; Their facial expressions are animated, the timbre of the voice does not correspond to the situation, and speech is accelerated. Those who are ill are highly active, while they sleep little, without fatigue and wanting constant activity. They are building endless plans, and they are trying to implement them urgently, but they are not brought to the end due to constant distractions.
For manic depressive psychosis is characteristicNot to notice real difficulties. The pronounced manic state is characterized by the disinhibition of drives, which is manifested in sexual arousal, as well as extravagance. Due to strong distractions and distracted attention, as well as fussiness, thinking loses focus, and judgments turn into superficial, but patients are able to show subtle observation.
The manic phase includes a maniacal triad: A morbidly high mood, an accelerated flow of thoughts, as well as motor excitement. Manic affect acts as the leading sign of a manic condition. The patient experiences an elevated mood, feels happy, feels well and is happy with everything. Strongly expressed for him is the aggravation of sensations, as well as perception, the weakening of the logical and the enhancement of mechanical memory. The patient is characterized by the ease of inferences and judgments, the superficiality of thinking, the reassessment of one's own personality, the erection of one's ideas to the ideas of greatness, the weakening of higher feelings, the disinhibition of drives, and their instability and ease in switching attention. To a greater extent, the sick suffer from criticism of their own abilities or their successes in all areas. Aspiration of patients to active activity leads to a decrease in productivity. Those who are sick with desire take on new affairs, expanding at the same time a circle of interests, as well as acquaintances. Patients are noted weakening of higher feelings - distance, duty, tact, subordination. Patients turn into untied, dressing in bright clothes and using catchy cosmetics. They are often found in entertainment institutions, they are characterized by indiscriminate intimate relationships.
The hypomanic state retains someAwareness of the unusual nature of everything that is happening and leaves patients with the ability to correct behavior. In the culminating period, the diseased do not cope with domestic and professional duties, can not carry out a correction of their behavior. Often, the sick are hospitalized at the time of transition of the initial stage to the climax. Patients have a heightened mood in reading poetry, laughing, dancing and singing. Ideal excitement of the sick is estimated as an abundance of thoughts. Thinking is accelerated, one thought interrupts the other. Thinking often reflects surrounding events, much less often memories from the past. Ideas of revaluation are manifested in organizational, literary, acting, language, and other abilities. Patients with a desire to read poetry, offer help in the treatment of other patients, give orders to health workers. At the peak of the culminating stage (at the time of maniacal frenzy) the sick do not go to contact, are extremely excited, and also angry-aggressive. Speech is confused, the semantic parts fall out of it, which makes it similar to schizophrenic rupture. Moments of reverse development are accompanied by motor rest and the emergence of criticism. Gradually, the intervals of quiet currents increase and the states of excitation decrease. The exit from the phases of the diseased can be observed for a long time, with hypomanic short-term episodes being noted. After reducing the excitement, as well as leveling the mood, all the judgments of the patient become realistic.
Depressive phase Patients is characterized by unmotivatedThe melancholy that goes in combination with motor restraint and slowness of thinking. Low mobility in severe cases can go into complete numbness. This phenomenon was called depressive stupor. Often the stagnation is not expressed so sharply and has a partial character, while it is combined with monotonous actions. Depressive patients often do not believe in their own strength, are prone to ideas of self-blame. Ill people treat themselves to worthless persons and are not able to bring close ones happiness. Such ideas are closely connected with the danger of committing suicide attempts, which in turn requires special observation from the closest associates.
Deep depression is characterized bySensation of emptiness in the head, heaviness and stiffness of thoughts. Patients with a significant delay say, reluctantly respond to basic questions. At the same time, there are violations of sleep and a decrease in appetite. Often the disease falls on a fifteen-year-old age, but there are cases in a later period (after forty years). The duration of attacks ranges from a couple of days to several months. Some attacks with severe forms last for up to a year. In terms of duration, depressive phases are longer than maniacal, especially in older people.
Diagnosis of manic-depressive psychosis
Diagnosis of the disease is usually carried out along with other mental disorders (psychopathy, neurosis, depression, schizophrenia, psychosis).
To exclude the possibility of organicBrain lesions after injuries, intoxications or infections, the diseased is directed to electroencephalography, radiography, MRI of the brain. An error in the diagnosis of manic-depressive psychosis can lead to improper treatment and aggravate the form of the disease. Most patients do not receive appropriate treatment, as some symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis can be easily confused with seasonal mood swings.
Manic-depressive psychosis treatment
Treatment of exacerbations of manic-depressivePsychosis is carried out in a hospital, where the prescribed remedies (psycholeptic), as well as antidepressant (psychoanaleptic) action with a stimulating effect. Doctors prescribe antipsychotic drugs, which are based on Chlorpromazine or Levomepromazine. Their function is to stop the excitation, as well as in a pronounced sedative effect.
As additional components of treatmentManic-depressive psychosis are Galoperadol or lithium salts. Lithium carbonate is used, which helps in the prevention of depressive conditions, and also contributes to the treatment of manic conditions. Acceptance of these drugs is carried out under the supervision of doctors because of the possible development of neuroleptic syndrome, which is characterized by limb tremors, impaired movement, and general stiffness of the muscles.
How to treat manic depressive psychosis?
Treatment of manic-depressive psychosis withA protracted form is performed by electroconvulsive therapy in combination with unloading diets, as well as curative starvation and deprivation (sleep deprivation) for several days.
Curing manic-depressive psychosis is possibleSuccessfully using antidepressants. Prevention of psychotic episodes is carried out with the help of normotimics, which act as mood stabilizers. The duration of administration of these drugs significantly reduces the manifestation of signs of manic-depressive psychosis and maximizes the approach of the next phase of the disease.