Marasmus is a state of total declinePsychophysical activity, characterized by general exhaustion due to human aging and atrophy of the cerebral cortex. The first distinct signs are found about sixty years and include a decline in diet (atrophy) of almost all tissues. Premature senility arises in diseases, when most of the tissues die and are never renewed.
In various diseases, various organs and tissues die, therefore the signs of marasmus are not the same and are located depending on the age and the underlying disease.
Marasmus and its causes in children are poor feeding of children; Infectious, acute diseases; Congenital syphilis, diarrhea, suppuration.
Marasmus and its causes in adults are long-lastingFevers, diarrhea, profuse suppuration, syphilis, cancer, mercury poisoning, paralytic condition. In addition, there are such causes of the disease in adults as atrophic changes in the brain. This problem is still unexplored.
Also, one of the causes of the disease is a hereditary predisposition, but one can not exclude the influence of external factors, which include infectious and internal diseases.
According to the age criterion, marasmus is divided into presenile (prescient) and senile (senile).
Manifestations of marasmus are observed in Alzheimer's disease, senile dementia, atrophic systemic processes of advanced age (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Pick's disease).
The cause of senile dementia is genetic programmedness, as well as the immunological theory of aging (dystrophic changes in nerve cells).
Recently, studies began toInfringements of transfer of the hereditary information in cellular elements of a nervous tissue. The violation of reading information is noted in the change in protein synthesis, the processes of cell metabolism, the activity of enzyme systems and the cellular accumulation of toxic metabolic products.
The influence of viruses provokingdisease. Peak's disease shows an increased content of zinc in certain areas of the brain, which provokes a change in the activity of metal-dependent enzymes, and also disrupts the energy processes in the cell, changes the functions of the receptors.
Marasmus symptoms and signs
In all cases of illness, the diseased loses weight,Weakens, the skin becomes an earthy appearance, pale and wrinkled. There comes decrepitude, exhaustion of vitality. The appetite of the diseased disappears, the activity of the heart weakens, and in some parts of it, necrosis occurs. Often, there are fatal syncopes, mental abilities are weakened, the patient becomes blind or stupefied, the blood decreases in quantity or is depleted in the constituent parts, the hair falls out. Cessation of the course of the disease can restore health recovery.
The first signs are capable of asserting themselves in 40 years,And at the age of 60 they appear more clearly. Studies of areas of the brain indicate that in the middle of life the deterioration of intellectual capabilities and memory is the beginning of the disease.
Marasmus and the first manifestations are noticeableAlso in judgments. This condition is marked by an unwillingness to change. The person adheres to one way of life and turns into a rigid, inflexible; Begins to show intolerance towards dissenters. Such people have a nostalgia for the departed, despite the fact that it was miserable. Often neither the fading mind nor the surrounding people notice the gradual changes in personality. The course of the disease is slow, not noticeable. Symptomatic gradually increases irreversibly.
Signs of marasmus are manifested in clinicalSymptoms in the form of dementia, including noticeable changes in intelligence up to absolute dementia. The general condition is characterized by severe physical exhaustion, the appearance of dystrophy of internal organs, as well as increased fragility of bones.
Old senility manifests itself in a progressiveDisintegration of mental activity, as well as in complete dementia. Women make up the majority among the sick. The average duration of the disease is 5-8 years. In some cases, the signs of the disease are promoted by infections, as well as cardiac arrhythmias, past operations, and serious mental trauma.
Signs of marasmus attract attentionPersonal features, manifested in the narrowing of the horizon, coarsening personality, the presence of signs of egocentrism, grumbling, gloominess, suspicion and conflict. Patients tend to succumb to someone else's influence. A characteristic phenomenon is the disinhibition of the lower drives (striving for vagrancy, collecting unnecessary things, gluttony, sexual perversions). Gradually, patients stop using their old vocabulary. They have significantly lowered the level of judgments, as well as conclusions. The onset of the disease is characterized by memory impairment, and in the future fixational amnesia already appears. The sick person is characterized by disorientation in time, in his own personality, as well as the surrounding environment. Progressive decay of memory is carried out consistently, contrary to the knowledge that was obtained in the whole previous life.
The initial period of the disease is characterized by depression, gloominess, reluctance to live, and in the future shades of euphoria, complacency, carelessness, and complete indifference begin to prevail.
Behavior with increasing signs of the disease begins to change - there is helplessness, a superficial night's sleep, and in the afternoon weakness and a desire to sleep.
Marasmus is divided into alimentary infantile insanity and senile marasmus (senile dementia).
Alimentary marasmus is a form of protein-energy insufficiency. The disease manifests itself in children up to a year.
Old senility as the disintegration of the individual refers to the most severe form of negative disorders with the possible loss of contacts with the environment.
The term physical marasmus, in which the condition is very close to cachexia, manifests itself in the withering of the body, is rarely used in medical practice, and the definition of dementia is often used.
Causes for the emergence of senile senilityMany, however, one of the first are vascular diseases, in particular hypertension. It is very important to monitor your health and your pressure. 140 x 90 - this is the boundary at which the disintegration of personality and the decline of mental activity can begin to develop. For men, still represents danger and obesity. Also, stress is the main factor affecting brain function. Prolonged stress seriously disrupts the brain. It significantly increases the level of cortisol, which damages the hippocampus - the brain department, which is responsible for memory and learning.
The next risk factor for senilityAlcoholism advocates. Suffering from senile senility, being in a sober state is able to forget what happened a moment ago. Intellect is relatively preserved. Studies by the French have shown that in small quantities alcohol consumption can improve brain function, but this only applies to older women.
To the loss of memory, any strongIntoxication, or a transferred viral disease, for example herpes. Memory in humans is worsened by barbiturates, antidepressants, tranquilizers, calcium channel blockers, antihistamines, beta-blockers.
Senile senility can be caused by snoring. During snoring, a breath stops, which provokes a loss of memory and a decrease in mental abilities.
Symptoms of senile senility. With regard to personality change, andBehavior disorder, then this process develops gradually. This noticeably becomes in the personality traits. Lean turns into a greedy, hilarious in a funny, energetic in a fussy. The elderly person is progressing with selfishness, resentment and excessive suspicion arise. The pace of thinking slows down, the ability to logic is lost, various emotional disorders, depression, irritability and anxiety, indifference to others, tearfulness, anger increase.
Treatment of senile senility. Psychiatrists and neurologists recommend to escape fromMarasmus diet, including a large number of vegetables, fruits, fish, seafood, olive oil. In this case, it is necessary to significantly reduce the intake of animal fats and salts.
What if senile marasmus? People who live an active intellectual life are less likely to develop senile dementia. Physical activity is also capable of pushing away old age senility. The merit of physical exercise is the improvement of blood circulation. Oxygen, as well as nutrients, rapidly flow into all organs and, of course, into the brain. Vitaminotherapy is important in the treatment of the disease, in particular vitamin C, E, B.
With senile marasmus, a decrease in the critical attitude relative to one's state and surrounding reality is noted. With the preservation of partial self-criticism, the diseased conceal their condition.
Treatment of senile marasmus is inPsychosocial therapy, as well as in the use of specialized medicines. Care of relatives and their support are very important. If possible, it is not recommended to give patients to psychiatric hospitals. An unfamiliar situation provokes the progression of the disease.
Possibilities of drug treatment in thisThe case is very limited. The first place is care, as well as supervision, because it is difficult for patients to self-drive. Due to the disinhibition of drives, as well as memory disorders, patients become dangerous for others and, of course, for themselves. For the patient, the home environment, appropriate care, is important, as staying in a hospital environment can worsen the condition.
It is necessary to provide the highest possible activity to the patient, which will hamper the development of pulmonary pathology, loss of appetite, the appearance of pressure sores, and also help mobility in the joints.
The positive effect of the disease marasmus givesTreatment of vascular disorders. It is prescribed vitamin therapy. Nootropics are shown. Insomnia is eliminated by observing the regime moments, walking in the fresh air, thoughtful activities during the day. At night, psychotic drugs used against fussiness are shown in small amounts.