Neuroses in children relate to mental defectsState reversible nature, without distorting the perception of the world. Neuroses in children are psychogenic disorders, which are the reaction of the individual to the psychotraumatic situation. However, the main danger of this neurotic disorder is not hidden behind the severity of the course, but in the parents' response to its manifestations. Because the vast majority of adults simply do not notice the primary manifestations of neurotic states. In cases when adult members of family relations nevertheless reveal manifestations of neurosis in their own children, they still continue to treat rather indifferently and superficially towards them, believing that such manifestations will disappear by themselves. Only a small number of representatives of the adult population, unfortunately, is serious about the problem of neuroses in toddlers.
The causes of neurosis in children
Factors provoking the onset of neuroses inSmall representatives of mankind, are diverse. These include the causes of hereditary nature or socio-psychological factors. In addition, it is also possible to identify a certain category of children who are most at risk of acquiring neuroses.
Features of neuroses in children are due toDevelopment of an emerging personality. The child's personality is determined to a great extent by the type of upbringing in the family. Different types of incorrect education (rejection, hyperope, indulgent hyperope, rigid, authoritarian upbringing, hyper-social contrast education) often distort the biological characteristics of a child's personality and its
In the first turn, psychologists recommend parentsTo pay attention to the existence of certain age stages in children, on which they are most susceptible to the environment and the negative in it, as a result of which they are more mentally vulnerable.
Neurosis in children, mainly, begins to develop in the age period between two and three years and between five and seven years.
These periods are characterized by specificFeatures. The first period is characterized by a stable psychological confrontation between the kids and their parents. At this stage, the guys first try to understand, and then defend their own place in the world.
Neurosis in a child of 3 years is considered quite a serious condition, since at this stage the baby is most vulnerable.
Neurosis in a child of 7 years is manifested in severityChildren's response to various traumatic circumstances and the inability to properly control their own reactions to such circumstances and their condition.
Prevention of neuroses in children in crisis periods of development, is to protect them from provoking and traumatic factors, providing them with a comfortable life.
Neuroses in children and adolescents may occurDue to the predisposition or presence of certain traits or physical features. Thus, the development of neuroses in children in the following cases will be most likely when neurotic disorders are transferred during pregnancy and if the baby is insecure, overly constrained, excited, dependent on the judgments of others, anxious, suggestive, hyperactive, irritable.
Neuroses in children and adolescents will appear, first of all, among those who aspire to be better than the environment and want to always be number one.
It is possible to single out a number of social factors provoking the development of neuroses in children:
- excess or deficiency of emotional verbal interaction with the baby;
- the unwillingness of adults to find points of psychological contact with children;
- Diseases of the nervous system in an adult environment or the presence in family relationships of situations that traumatize the child's psyche, for example, alcoholism of parents;
- excesses in the model of upbringing, for example, excessive care or, on the contrary, lack of guardianship, the imposition by the adult environment of one's own views and visions of life, exorbitant demands, etc .;
- disagreements in views on the manner of education among adults;
- intimidation of the child with punishments or non-existent objects, such as babaika or Baba Yaga.
Factors of socio-cultural orientation include:
- Accommodation in a metropolis;
- lack of adequate rest;
- poor living conditions;
Socio-economic factors are:
- constant professional employment of parents;
- single parent family;
- Attraction to care for a small child of unauthorized persons.
Biological causes of neuroses include hereditary factors, characteristics of the nature, the physical state of the organism, various overloads (mental or physical), trauma and lack of sleep.
Neurosis in children of preschool age often arise when the parents downplay the values of joint games, follow family traditions or observe rituals.
Symptoms of neuroses in children
Specific symptoms of neurotic disorders are found in pronounced seizures of various
, Which often begin in the evening beforeGoing to sleep. Their duration can be up to 30 minutes. Less often in severe cases, such attacks are accompanied by hallucinations. Neurosis in a child of 3 years can manifest itself in fear of darkness and monsters, which are hidden in it. The emergence of such fears should serve as a serious reason for parents to be worried and a reason to call on qualified specialists. Also, preschool children often have neurotic stammering, which can provoke a sudden attack of severe fear.
In schoolchildren, neurotic states are found in
, Into which they flow, accompanied byTearfulness, deterioration of appetite, facial expression and retardation. They may also experience depressive conditions, due to congestion associated with studies. Female schoolgirls are concerned about their own health and are afraid of various diseases.
If parents began to notice that their favorite childBecame more irritable, overly tearful, there is a disorder of sleep, then it is necessary to show it to specialists, since such a condition indicates the presence of serious problems with the health of the baby.
In order to list all possible symptoms, it is necessary to identify the main types of neuroses in children.
Obsessive-compulsive neuroses, which containA different focus of phobia and are in obsessive movements, nervous tics. Ticks with neuroses are different, ranging from blinking and ending with twitching of the shoulders.
Hysterical neurosis is accompanied by sobbing, falling to the floor, accompanied by cries and even yelling.
A lot of variations have neuroses of fear - from fear of darkness and to fears of death.
For adolescents, depressive neurosis is typical, manifested in a depressed state and desire for solitude.
Accompanied by vegetative-vascular dystonia and manifests itself in intolerance of even a slight mental strain. Children with this syndrome have neurotic sleep disorders.
For the elderly is more typical
, But teenagers are also often exposed to it. It manifests itself in the form of unhealthy fear for one's own health.
If we consider a simplified typology of neuroses, we can identify the 3 most serious types of neuroses in children associated with neurological manifestations:
, Asthenic and hysterical neuroses.
How does neurosis manifest in children? The most common forms of neurosis in children are hysterical neuroses.
Hysterical neurosis in a child is oftenThere are violations of vegetative and sensory processes, motor functions. A crumb exposed to these manifestations during seizures is unable to fully control its own body and produces spontaneous movements. Such movements of a hysterical nature create significant mental discomfort.
Is accompanied by a systematic headache,Which is often localized in the temporal region. Other symptoms include tremor, that is, trembling of the limbs or their twitching, a partial decrease in the sensitivity of various parts of the body. Most doctors believe that this ailment is directly related to the subsequent occurrence of such diseases as enuresis, stammering, or
. It should also be noted that the signs of a neurosisThe hysterical nature of the child is often manifested in the following systematic actions: lip-curling, constant nodding of the head, rubbing your skin and twitching your hair.
Asthenic neurosis or neurasthenia is manifestedIncreased fatigue, inability to concentrate, apathy and indifference. At the same time, there is a weak physical mobility, excessive and short-term emotional outbursts. Babies suffering from neurasthenia are characterized by quick temper, being in increased tension. A violent reaction of an emotional nature can be caused by subtle external stimuli. Other typical signs of neurasthenia are sleep disorder, functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, headaches, malfunctioning of the cardiovascular system.
Obsessive neurosis also has a nameAn obsessive nervous condition and is manifested by the uncontrollable desire of the crumbs to constantly perform repetitive actions. Such repetitive actions are explained in large part by the occurrence of an inexplicable fear due to similar life situations. The child is often aware of the anomaly or illogic of his actions, which can subsequently significantly affect his critical attitude to his personality and the feeling of alienation.
The signs of a neurosis in an individual experiencing compulsive state can be different. So, for example, some babies show up in an uncontrolled habit of counting steps.
Neurosis of compulsive movements in children
Frustration, often found in children andManifested by a series of obsessive movements, a nervous tic and a symptom of a general developmental disorder, is called the neurosis of compulsive movements. With this disorder, the movements can be varied. The most common manifestations of neurosis in babies are: sucking of fingers, shaking of the head or its inclination in one direction, torsion of hair, gnashing of teeth, small movements of hands, tingling of the skin,
The development of neuroses in children often occursDue to severe shock or trauma. If a child has a part of these symptoms, then this is not a reason to talk about the diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Often, such symptoms are just evidence of the process of growing up, and after a certain amount of time they pass. In those cases when tics and obsessive-compulsive movements are pronounced, prevent crumbs from functioning normally, and appear for a fairly long time, you should consult a doctor without delay.
Obtrusive conditions in children are impossibleDiagnose by tests or other techniques. They can be a part of other, more serious diseases. Often obsessive movements are confused with tics, but if you know the nature of such phenomena, then it is not difficult to distinguish them. Tic called twitching, involuntary contraction of the muscles, which can not be controlled. Ticks are not always determined by psychological reasons.
Obsessions with the help of willpower can be kept. They will always be the result of psychological discomfort experienced by the child.
So, about the neurotic states of compulsiveMovements are evidenced by such symptoms: the baby gnaws at the fingernails, sharply rotates his head, snaps his fingers, pulls his lip, goes around objects either just to the right or to the left, smacks his lips, twists the buttons, blows his palms. It is impossible to list all the movements of an obsessive nature, since they are individual manifestations. The main symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder neuroses is the irritating repetition of the same movements. At the same time, such repetitions can often be accompanied by hysterical outbreaks, insomnia, a violation of appetite, reduced efficiency and excessive tearfulness.
Thus, obsessive neuroses in childrenPreschool age are distinguished by the prevalence of a variety of phenomena of an obsessive nature, that is, actions, fears, ideas that appear necessarily contrary to desire.
Treatment of neuroses in children
As a pathogenetic therapy in childrenNeuroses use psychotherapy, which, above all, is aimed at normalizing the situation in the family, improving the system of relationships in marriage and correcting the upbringing. To provide the necessary psychosomatic background for the purpose of increasing the effectiveness of psychotherapy, medicamental treatment, physiotherapy and reflexotherapy are used.
Psychotherapy of neuroses in children is conditionally divided into three groups of methods: individual, family and group therapy.
Contact with family membersAllows the therapist to study life problems directly in the family environment, which contributes to the elimination of emotional disorders, the normalization of the system of relationships, the corrective effect of upbringing. Therefore, the importance of family therapy in the treatment of neurotic states in children is so great. A special value is possessed by
Neuroses in children in pre-schoolAge stage, since it is at this stage that it is most effective due to the fact that at this age it is easier to eliminate the pathological impact of errors in parenting. Family psychotherapy includes a family survey, which allows you to study a set of personality characteristics, psychopathological and socio-psychological characteristics of the family, which will give grounds for determining a family diagnosis. The next stage of psychotherapy for the family includes family discussions, which cover conversations with grandparents, talking with parents. With the kid it is necessary to be engaged in the specialized office, equipped as a game room. First, crumbs are given the opportunity to interact freely with toys or books. After establishing a strong emotional contact with the baby, a direct conversation with him is conducted. Classes with the child are usually preceded by family discussions, but sometimes it is possible to begin classes without preliminary discussions, since improving the baby's condition will positively affect the family discussions. During family discussions, it is necessary to define the pedagogical perspective, while emphasizing the direct role of parents and the need for close cooperation.
At the next stage, a jointPsychotherapy of parents and baby. Subjects can be held with preschool children or drawing. With children in the school age, there is a discussion of a variety of topics, targeted subject games. During interaction of children and their parents, the usual reactions of emotional nature and possible conflicts are determined. Then role games are played that reflect verbal interaction in life, school situations or moments from the life of the family are lost. In the process of such games there is a change of roles - the guys and parents change roles. The task of the therapist lies in the demonstration during the playable scenario of the optimal model of family relationships, which allows us to gradually build the conditions for eliminating the psychological conflict and changing the relationship in family ties.
Individual psychotherapy of neuroses in children includes a rational, suggestive
, Autogenic training.
Method of rational psychotherapeutic helpIs carried out in several stages. After establishing a stable emotional contact with the patient, the therapist explains to him in an accessible form the essence of his morbid condition. The next stage the child together with the therapist tries to reveal the source of experiences. Then the kid is invited to finish the story, started by the therapist. By analyzing various variations of the narrative completion, the child tries to resolve serious conflict situations on his own or with the help of a doctor.
Often, drawing can become the onlyThe ability of the toddler to communicate. With the help of drawing, the child begins to better orient himself in his own experiences. And the observation of the baby in the process of drawing gives an opportunity to compose an idea of his character traits, communicative or closed,
, The horizon, the presence of imagination and creativeBuilding. Gaming psychotherapy most meets the age requirement for the game, but it presupposes the organization of the game as a therapeutic process. Spontaneous play can be used, that is, does not involve a specific scenario, and a directed game that is based on a given story, but using improvisation. Spontaneous play provides an opportunity for self-expression, awareness of fear, anxiety and tension. An improvisational game involves the creation of special stress situations of fear, contention, or other unfavorable conditions, so that the child independently finds a solution or a way out of the situation.
How to treat a child's neurosis? With neuroses, drug therapy is, rather, of secondary importance, since it acts symptomatically, relieves stress, eliminates increased excitability or, conversely, depressive conditions, reduces asthenic syndrome. It is also often used complex treatment that combines psychotherapy with taking medications and physiotherapy. More often it is used for neurotic-like conditions. It is not recommended taking antidepressants and tranquilizers, as these drugs can complicate the conduct of psychotherapy. More often tranquilizers are used for correction
And with organic disinhibition.
Children for the treatment of neurotic conditions it is advisable to prescribe the intake of infusions of medicinal plants.