Psychology of communication

Nonverbal communication - features, communication, gestures, types

Non-verbal communication is a kind ofNon-verbal interaction of communication between living beings. In other words, non-verbal communication of a person is a kind of transmission of all kinds of information or the possibility of influencing the environment without the use of speech (language) mechanisms. The tool of the described interaction is the physical body of individuals, which owns a wide range of tools and specific methods for broadcasting information or exchanging messages.
Non-verbal communication covers all possibleGestures and facial expressions, various bodily postures, timbre of voice, physical or visual contact. The means of non-verbal communication of a person convey the figurative content and emotional essence of information. The language of non-speech components of communication can be primary (all of the above) and secondary (various programming languages, Morse code). Many scientists believe that only 7% of information is transmitted through words, 38% of the data is sent using audio means, which include voice, intonation, and 55% through non-verbal interaction tools, actually with the help of primary non-verbal components. Hence it follows that the underlying in the communication of mankind is not the spoken information, but the manner of its presentation.

Communication of non-verbal communication

The environment can learn a lot about
Only in his manner of choosing clothes andConversation, gestures used, etc. As a result of many studies, it was found that non-verbal ways of communication have two varieties of origin, namely biological evolution and culture. Nonverbal
Are necessary to:
- regulation of the process of communicative interaction, creating a psychological contact between the interlocutors;
- the enrichment of meanings transmitted through words, the direction of the interpretation of the verbal context;
- expressions of emotion and reflection of interpretation of situations.
To non-verbal communication communication is attributed to allKnown gestures, facial expressions and bodily postures, as well as the hairstyle, clothing style (clothes and shoes), the office interior, business cards, accessories (watches, lighters).
All gestures can be divided into gestures of openness,Suspicion, conflict or defense, reverie and reasoning, uncertainty and doubt, embarrassment, etc. Unbuttoning the jacket or reducing the distance between the conversation partner is a gesture of openness.
About suspicion and stealth testifiesRubbing his forehead or chin, trying to cover his face with his hands, and especially avoiding eye contact, pulling his gaze to the side. The gestures of conflict or defense include crossing hands, picking up fingers. On the thoughtfulness of the interlocutor says plucking nose, hand at the cheek (pose "thinker"). Scratching with the index finger the space above the earlobe or the side of the neck means that the interlocutor doubts something or indicates his uncertainty. Scratching or touching the nose indicates the predicament of the person in question. If during the conversation one of the participants lowers the eyelids, then such an action informs him of his desire to end the conversation as soon as possible. The scratching of the ear demonstrates the rejection of the interlocutor pronounced by the partner or the way he says it. Sipping the earlobe reminds that the partner is already tired of listening, and he, too, has a desire to speak.
Non-verbal communicationAs well as handshakes, which express the different positions of participants in communication interaction. The capture of the hand of one of those encountered in such a way that the palm of her hand is below indicates the authority of the interlocutor. On the same status of those encountered, a handshake informs that the participants' brushes are in the same position. Stretching the arm of one side, turned upside-down with the palm, speaks of obedience or subordination. Stresses the different status of the meeting or some distance in the position or expresses disrespect a grip made by a straight, not bent hand. Stretched only the fingertips for a handshake indicate the perfect contempt of another individual. About confidence sincerity, an excess of feelings, proximity is testified by a two-handed grip.
Also, the handshakes of citizens of differentdiffer. So, for example, Americans are characterized by strong, energetic handshakes. After all, they talk about strength and efficiency. From natives of the Asian part of the continent, such handshakes can cause confusion. They are used to soft and long handshakes.
Non-verbal communication in
Plays far from the last role. So, for example, the gestures of disapproval and disagreement in the negotiations is the picking up from the costume of the villi. In order to delay the pause for making the final decision, you can remove glasses and wear them or wipe the lens. You can also highlight actions that will be non-verbal to talk about the desire to complete the meeting. To them carry: giving forward the case, thus hands are located on knees or on armrests. The hands raised behind the head, demonstrate that for the interlocutor the conversation is empty, unpleasant and burdensome.
The non-verbal language of communication is manifested even in that,As an individual smokes. A closed, suspicious communication partner directs the exhaled smoke stream down. On the stronger hostility or aggression says the exhalation of smoke from the corners of the mouth down. Also of great importance is the intensity of the exhalation of smoke. The rapid exhalation of smoke indicates the confidence of the interlocutor. The faster it is, the more confident the individual feels. The more intense the flow is exhaled down, the more negative is the interlocutor. The ambitiousness is indicated by the exhalation through the nostrils of the smoke with the head raised upwards. The same, but with the head down, reports that the individual is very angry.
Verbal and non-verbal means of communication in the course ofCommunicative interaction are perceived simultaneously, as a result of which they should be analyzed as an indivisible whole. For example, during a conversation with a smiling, beautifully dressed subject with a pleasant timbre of voice, his interlocutor does not care for himself without understanding, can move away from the partner because he does not like the smell of his toilet water. Such a non-verbal action will cause the partner to think that he is not all right, for example, with the appearance. From understanding this, you can lose confidence in your own words, blush your face and appear ridiculous gestures. This situation indicates that verbal and non-verbal means of communication are inextricably linked. After all, gestures that are not supported by words are not always meaningful, and words in the absence of facial expressions are empty.

Features of non-verbal communication

The greatest value for communication is the most difficult for
Position of the body, head, arms and shoulders. This is precisely the peculiarity of non-verbal communication during the conversation. The tension is indicated by the raised shoulders. When relaxing, they go down. The dropped shoulders and the raised head, often, specify openness and installation on the successful decision of problems. Raised shoulders in combination with the lowered head are a sign of displeasure, isolation, fear, uncertainty.
The indicator of curiosity and interest is the head slanted sideways, and in the beautiful half this gesture can express an easy flirtation or flirtation.
A lot about an individual during a conversation can tellThe expression on his face. Sincere smile indicates a friendliness, a positive attitude. Discontent or isolation express tightly compressed lips. Bending the lips as if in a grin speaks of doubt or sarcasm. Playing an important role in non-verbal communication. If the look is directed to the floor, it demonstrates
Or the desire to stop communicationThe interaction, if aside, then speaks of neglect. You can subordinate the will of the interlocutor with the help of a long and immovable direct look into the eyes. Raising the head in conjunction with looking up means a desire to pause in the conversation. Understanding expresses a slight inclination of the head in combination with a smile or a rhythmic nod. The easy movement of the head back in a complex with frowning eyebrows indicates a lack of understanding and the need to repeat the pronounced. In addition, a rather important feature of non-verbal communication is the ability to distinguish between gestures that speak of lies. After all, most often these gestures are expressed unconsciously, so they are quite difficult to control an individual intending to lie.
These include covering your hand with your mouth, touchingTo the dimple under the nose or directly to the nose, rubbing the eyelids, retracting to the floor or to the side of the glance. Representatives of the fair sex, when they lie, often spend under the eye with their fingers. Scratching the neck area, touching it, pulling the collar of the shirt is also a sign of a lie. A great role in assessing the sincerity of a communication partner is played by the position of his hands. For example, if the interlocutor, stretching one palm or both, reveals them partially or completely, this indicates frankness. Hidden hands, or immobile ones collected, indicate secrecy.

Non-verbal and verbal means of communication

Communicative interaction or communicationCalled a rather complex multi-faceted process at the beginning of the establishment and then development between individuals of contacts, caused by the need for joint activity and encompassing the exchange of messages, the development of a general direction or strategy of interaction and perception followed by the understanding of another subject. Communicative interaction consists of three components:

  • Communicative, which represents the direct exchange of information between communicating people;
  • Interactive, consisting in the organization between the subjects of interaction;
  • Perceptual, consisting in the process of perception by individuals of each other and in the establishment of mutual understanding.
  • Communicative interaction can be verbalAnd non-verbal. In the process of everyday life, individuals talk with a lot of people, using both verbal and non-verbal. To people, speech helps to share knowledge, worldviews, make acquaintances, establish social contacts, etc. However, without the use of non-verbal and verbal means of communication, speech will be difficult to perceive.
    Features of non-verbal communication and verbalInteractions consist in the use of various tools for the acceptance and analysis of incoming data in the course of communications. So, to perceive information transmitted by words, people use intellect and logic, and to understand non-verbal communication they use intuition.

    Implies an understanding of howIt is perceived speech partner in communication and what impact it has. After all, speech is one of the fundamental means of interpersonal communication.
    For the human individual, the phenomenon beginsExist in the full sense when it is named. Language is a universal means of human interaction. It is the basic system by which people encrypt information and the most important communication tool. Language is considered a "mighty" encryption system, but at the same time it leaves room for destruction and creation of barriers.
    Words make understandable the significance of phenomena andCircumstances, they help to express to individuals thoughts, outlook and emotions. Personality, its consciousness and language are inseparable. Often the language outstrips the flow of thoughts, and often does not obey them at all. The individual can "blurt out" or systematically "talk with the tongue" at the same time, almost without thinking that he forms his own attitudes with certain attitudes from the society, directs them to a specific response and behavior. Here you can apply the saying - "as it turns up, it will respond." With the correct use of words, you can control such a response, predict it, and even shape it. The skill of literate use of words is owned by many politicians.
    At each stage of communicationThere are barriers that hamper its effectiveness. In the course of the interaction, there is often an illusion of mutual understanding between partners. Such an illusion is due to the fact that individuals use the same words in order to mean absolutely different things.
    Data loss and information corruption occurAt each stage of communication. The level of such losses is determined by the general imperfection of the human language system, the inability to accurately and completely transform thoughts into verbal structures, personal attitudes and aspirations (the desired is perceived as valid), the literacy of the interlocutors, vocabulary and so on.
    Interpersonal communication,Predominantly, are carried out through the use of non-verbal tools. Nonverbal language is considered more rich in comparison with verbalics. After all, its elements are not verbal forms, but facial expressions, body positions and gestures, intonational characteristics of speech, spatial frames and time boundaries, a symbolic communicative sign system.
    Often, the non-verbal language of communication isThe result is not a deliberate behavioral strategy, but a consequence of subconscious assumptions. That is why it is very difficult to forge. The individual perceives unconsciously small nonverbal details, considering such perception as the "sixth sense". Often people unconsciously note discrepancies between spoken phrases and non-verbal signals, as a result of which they begin to distrust the interlocutor.

    Types of non-verbal communication

    Non-verbal interaction plays an important role in the process of interchange of emotions.

    Types of non-verbal communication:
    - voice, gestures, appearance (including clothes, body position);
    - facial expressions (presence of a smile, direction of view);
    - Movement (nod or head-waving, swinging limbs, imitating some behavior, etc.);
    - gait, touch, embrace, handshake, personal space.
    A voice is a sound that an individual publishes inDuring a conversation, while singing or screaming, laughing and crying. The formation of the voice is due to the vibration of the vocal cords creating sound waves during the passage of the exhaled air through them. Without the participation of hearing, the voice can not develop, in its turn, hearing can also be formed without the participation of the voice apparatus can not. So, for example, in an individual who suffers from deafness, the voice does not function, due to the fact that there are no auditory perceptions, and stimulation of speech-motor centers.
    In non-verbal communication, it is possible, with the help ofOne voice intonation convey the enthusiastic or interrogative nature of the proposal. By the tone with which the request was made, it can be concluded how much for the speaker it is important. Often, due to incorrectly chosen tone and intonation, requests may sound like orders. So, for example, the word "sorry" can carry absolutely different values ​​depending on the intonation used. Also, with the help of a voice, a subject can express his own state: surprise, joy, anger, etc.
    Appearance is the most important component of non-verbal communication and it implies an image that sees and perceives the environment of a person.
    Nonverbal business communication beginsLined up with the evaluation of the external attributes of the individual. Acceptable appearance depends on the following characteristics: neatness, upbringing, naturalness of behavior, the presence of manners, literacy of speech, the adequacy of reactions to criticism or praise, charisma. It is very important for every individual in life to be able to correctly use the possibilities of his own body when communicating information to the interlocutor.
    Nonverbal communication in business communicationAbsolutely necessary. After all, business people often have to convince some opponents, to incline them to their own point of view and to commit certain actions (concluding transactions or investing a serious amount in the development of the enterprise). It will be easier to achieve this if one can demonstrate to the partner that the interlocutor is honest and open.
    No less important is the position of the body (posture) duringConversations. With the help of a pose, you can express subordination, interest in conversation, boredom or the desire for joint partnership, etc. When the interlocutor sits motionless, his eyes are hidden under dark glasses, and his own records he covers, another person will feel quite uncomfortable.
    Nonverbal business communication to achieveSuccess does not imply the use of poses showing closeness and aggressiveness at business meetings. Also it is not recommended to wear glasses with dark glasses during any communications, especially at the first meeting. Since, without seeing the partner's eye on communication, the interlocutor may feel uncomfortable with himself, because the lion's share of information remains unavailable to him, as a result of which the general atmosphere of communicative interaction is disrupted.
    Also in the poses is reflected the psychological subordination of the participants in the conversation. For example, the desire to obey or dominate.
    Thus, non-verbal communicativeInteraction is one of the instruments of personal representation of one's own "I", an instrument of interpersonal influence and regulation of relationships, forms the image of the interlocutor, refines and outstrips the verbal communication.

    Gestures of non-verbal communication

    Often individuals say not at all whatMean, and their interlocutors understand absolutely not what they wanted to convey. All this is due to the inability to correctly read the body language.
    Non-verbal modes of communication can be conditionally divided into the following:
    - expressive-expressive movements, which include facial expressions, body position, gait and gestures with hands;
    - tactile movements, including touches, pats on the shoulder, kisses, handshakes;
    - a view characterized by the frequency of visual contact by direction, duration;
    - movement in space, covering the placement at the table, orientation, direction, distance.
    With the help of gestures, you can express confidence,Superiority or, on the contrary, dependence. In addition, there are disguised gestures and incomplete barriers. Often in life, subjects can face conditions when they are not very comfortable, but they need to appear confident. For example, during a report in front of a large audience. In this situation, intuitive defensive gestures that betray the speaker's nervousness, the individual attempts to block, thereby partially replacing them with incomplete barriers. To such barriers it is possible to carry such position at which one hand in a quiet condition is, and another keeps for a forearm or a shoulder of the second hand. With the help of disguised gestures, the individual is also able to achieve the necessary level of confidence and tranquility. As is known, the protective barrier is expressed in the form of fixing crossed arms across the body. Instead of this position many subjects actively use manipulations with various accessories, for example, crocheting, strapping of a watch strap or bracelet, etc. At the same time, one hand is across the body, which indicates the installation of the barrier.
    Hands placed in pockets can also haveSet of values. For example, a person might just be cold or simply focused on something. In addition, it is necessary to distinguish gestures from the habit of the individual. So, for example, the habit of rocking with a foot or tapping with a heel sitting at a table can be perceived as an unwillingness to continue communicating.
    Gestures of nonverbal communication are divided into the following:
    - gestures of illustrative nature (instructions, signals);
    - Regulatory nature (nodding, shaking his head);
    - gestures-emblems, that is gestures that replace words or even entire phrases (for example, clasped hands designate a greeting);
    - Adaptive character (touch, stroking, pulling objects);
    - gestures-affectors, that is, expressing emotions, feelings;
    - Micro gestures (twitching of the lips, redness of the face).

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