Psychology of communication

The concept and types of communication in psychology

The concept of communication denotes a complex anda multilateral process of communication interaction of individuals, which is dependent on a variety of circumstances. The effectiveness of communication is effective, ineffective or absolutely ineffective. Communication can be of different kinds, forms, and has specific methods and methods. Any type of communication is closely interconnected and is characterized by inseparability from others.
For the effectiveness of communications, it is necessary to observethree mandatory criteria. The first criterion of communicative interaction assumes that at least two individuals should participate in communication. In other words, any communication interaction presupposes the presence of the information transferring subject and the addressee. The second indispensable condition is the existence of a common subject or topic of conversation. The third condition is the need for the commonality (similarity) of the language system, which is owned by the two subjects of communications.

Concept and types of communication

The concept of communication in psychology denotes a formactivity, realized between individuals who are equal partners in communications, leading to the emergence of mental interaction.
The concept of communication involves the exchange of messages,perception and understanding of each other's comrades in conversation. Subjects of communication are people. Although communication is characteristic of all living beings, however, only at the level of the individual the communication process is conscious, i.e. related verbal and non-verbal acts. The entity that broadcasts the information is called the communicator, and the recipient is called the recipient.
In communicative interactions, we can distinguisha number of aspects: the essence, the task, the means. The essence of communications lies in information that, when interpersonal contacts are transmitted from one living entity to another. Such information can broadcast information about the emotional mood, the conditions of the external environment.
The task of communication should answer the question - withwhat purpose does the creature enter into the process of communication. Such goals can be quite diverse and represent tools for satisfying sociocultural, creative, cognitive, aesthetic, moral and other needs.
Communication tools are the waysencryption, translation, transformation and decoding of messages that are transmitted during communication interactions from one creation to another. Encryption of messages is the so-called method of data transmission. Information between individuals is transmitted through speech, sense organs and other systems of signs, writing, technical mechanisms of recording and saving data.
Communication communication includes suchtypes of communication, as therapeutic, interpersonal, direct and indirect, group and intergroup, mass, intimate and criminogenic, confidential and conflict, business and personal, non-violent.

The concept of pedagogical communication

Pedagogical communication meansa specific interpersonal attitude of the teacher and student, which mediates the assimilation of knowledge and the development of the personality with the help of teaching and educational activities.
The concept of communication in psychology is depicted inas mutually directed actions of subjects of pedagogical activity, realized by means of sign instruments, which has a focus on essential transformation of the qualities, states, actions and personality-content formations of partners. Communicative interaction is an indivisible element of pedagogical activity, since it is impossible to achieve the established goals of study and the educational process outside of communication.
The core goal of pedagogical communication liesin the translation of social competence and professional knowledge, skills, skills, experience from the teacher to learning subjects. Together with this, it also consists in the exchange of personal semantic loads that have a connection with the phenomena, objects, subjects, and, in general, the living environment.
In addition to the information function of pedagogical communications, there are other, for example, contact, incentive and emotive.
Contact function involves establishinginterconnection as a state of bilateral readiness for receiving and broadcasting educational information, maintaining interconnectedness in the form of a permanent mutually oriented orientation.
The incentive function lies in stimulating the activity of the learning individual, which directs him to perform the necessary training activities.
Emotional function is displayed in motivation in the student of the required emotional experiences - the so-called exchange of emotions, as well as in changing through him personal experiences and moods.
The highest value of pedagogical communications is the individuality of the teacher, the teacher, and the learning individuals.

The concept of ethics of communication

In order to understand what the term "ethics of communication" implies, it is necessary to consider separately the basic concepts of "communication" and "ethics".
Communicative interaction in a narrow sense -this interaction of individuals through verbal and non-verbal communication tools. And ethics is a discipline that studies morality and morality. Therefore, the ethics of communication is a moral, moral and ethical analysis of the values ​​of communication, its features (virtues and vices), and techniques. Such an analysis pervades the whole variety of phenomena of communication. Simultaneously, the ethics of communication considers and evaluates the procedural side of communications, i.e. she considers the art of communication, based on moral and ethical experience and values ​​and moral guidelines.
Ethics of communication in a narrow sense is aa set of certain practical techniques, rules and norms (mainly moral and ethical) communication. It covers the study of communication problems, both from the point of view of the existing and from the position of due.
Ethics of communicative interaction is notonly to explore the processes of communication from the positions of concepts, but also to teach communication, to influence the true communication processes through the creation of new normative elements. It is designed to perform a variety of functions. Among such functions, synthesizing and imperative-formative are distinguished. The first function is the synthesis of moral experience in the sphere of communications, the second - argues the choice of humanistic values ​​and moral guidelines and justifies the necessity of following them.
Ethics of communication teaches how to properlyinteract in the field of communication, and how not to communicate. The goal of ethics is not knowledge in the general sense, but deeds, behavior. And one should study ethics in order to become virtuous.
The concept of communication and communication in terms ofethics is the instilling in the individual of a culture of speech and moral norms of behavior, virtue and value orientations that are adopted in a particular society or are conditioned by nationality, place of residence. The concept of verbal communication in ethics boils down to the process of establishing and further following the cultural purposeful, direct or indirect contact between individuals by means of language systems.

The concept and functions of communication

The concept of speech communication is being considered todayas a certain aspect of life. Communication plays the role of one of the core conditions under which the manifestation and revealing of the best features of the personality occur, the formation and development of its consciousness, the formation
. Reflecting, giving the analysis of the attitude of the surrounding society to his own person, communicating with others,
reveals the need for self-improvement, which is carried out in the course of self-education.

Highlights the core functions of communication: emotional, the function of understanding, coordination, incentive, the function of establishing relationships and influencing.
Emotional function is traced in the excitement in the interlocutor of the necessary emotional moods, as well as the transformation of their own experiences with it.
Information - covers the exchange of data, worldviews, positions, plans, decisions, etc.
Contact - manifested in the formation of contacts as a mutual readiness to acquire and broadcast information, to maintain interaction in the form of a stable mutual orientation.
The function of understanding embraces adequate perception, awareness of the essence of the message and a mutual understanding of intentions, goals, intentions, experiences, attitudes.
Coordination function is demonstrated in mutually oriented orientation, coordination and harmony of actions, actions in the process of joint interaction.
Incentive - is expressed in stimulating the activity of the interlocutor in order to give him a direction to perform certain actions.
The function of establishing relations is expressed incomprehension and fixation of one's own personal position in the systems of role, business, status and other interrelationships of social groups in which the subject interacts.
The function of exerting influence is manifested in the transformation of the mood, behavior, states, personal and semantic formations of the interlocutor.

Culture of communication - concept

In order to understand what the term "culture of communication" implies, it is necessary to consider separately the basic concepts of "communication" and "culture".
A communicative process that unites people betweenitself, is called communication. Culture in the general sense of the term means education, the formation of personality. This human interaction in its various manifestations, which embraces personal self-expression and self-knowledge, the accumulation of a person separately and the society as a whole experience.
The culture of communication is called a kind of archrules, norms, which should be respected by every self-respecting person. The indicator of the level of education and culture is precisely compliance with these rules and norms of conduct. After all, without culture it is impossible to fully interact with the society in a developed and civilized state, you can not conduct a successful business and successfully establish business contacts.
With the development of speech, it became possiblediversity of the essence of the message transmitted and received during communication. Also there was an opportunity of enrichment of means and instrumental aspects of communications.
The subsequent development of communicative interaction can be represented as a gradual accumulation of a communication culture by man. This accumulation takes place, first of all, on the basis of
,
and feedback.
Highly developed personality from the position of psychologydiffers from a less developed personality not only by its manifested need for communication with different people, but also by its rich content, numerous goals, and a great choice of tools for communication. Also, there is undoubtedly a connection between the culture of communication and activity, since communication interaction and activity form an integral whole. After all, one is impossible without the other.

Concept and structure of communication

Humanity is simply not able to exercisefull-fledged and effective mutual activity without establishing contact between individual individuals, included in it, and society as a whole. Also, activities are impossible without establishing an appropriate level of mutual understanding between the subjects.
The concept of communication and communication todayis a rather complex and multifaceted process of formation and development of mutual contacts between individuals that occurs as a result of the "birth" of the needs of joint activity and contains the exchange of data, the development of a holistic strategy of activity, the reception and comprehension of another person.
Communicative interaction is verbal,those. verbal, and wordless; non-verbal. The verbal is represented by the language systems, and the non-verbal is represented by facial expressions, various gestures, pantomime, the position of the body in interaction,
Communications contain three levels: intra- and interpersonal, public. Intrapersonal communication is expressed in the mental communication of the individual with his own "I". This level occurs when the subject builds plans, outlines tasks and goals, develops strategies, prepares to interact with the society. Interpersonal communication, respectively, mean communication between at least two individuals. Public - implies the communication of the subject with a large social group.
There are three important aspects of communication between subjects: communicative, interactive and perceptual, respectively.
The communicative aspect is manifested in revealing the specifics of the process of messaging between individuals.
Interactive is demonstrated in the interaction of partners in the creation and implementation of mutually directed activities.
Perceptual is the formation of the image of another subject, due to the correlation of physical characteristics with
behavior.

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