Obsession is an obsession,Which are involuntary thoughts, undesirable ideas or representations that arise periodically, from time to time. The individual can fix attention to such thoughts, while they can cause him negative emotions and lead to distress. The peculiarity of unwanted and involuntary thoughts is that they are difficult to get rid of and practically impossible to control.
An obsession can often be associated with compulsions. According to the latest theories, irrational fears and obsessive behavior do not have to do with obsessions.
Today, there are no clear reasons whyExplained the etiology of the obsession, as it can be complicated by mental disorders. However, some general hypotheses are based on three directions of origin: biological, psychological and sociological.
Hypothesis of the biological origin of the diseaseSays that an obsession arises from the anatomical features of the autonomic nervous system and the brain. More often occurs due to a violation of the exchange of neurotransmitters, serotonin, noradrenaline, GABA and dopamine, due to infectious factors, increased genetic concordance.
Psychological theory of origin suggests that the emergence of an obsession is the accentuation of character, family education (strictness in terms of religious education), sexual factors.
Obsessions can worsen during periods after a flu or physical illness, breastfeeding and childbirth.
The results of the conducted studies withOdnoyaytsovymi twins talk about the hereditary factor of the emergence of an obsession. Some hypotheses testify to the connection of obsessions with social phobias, with depressive states.
Obsession and compulsion can often go together and are characterized by social rituals that help not for a while to get rid of obsessive thoughts and actions.
For sociological reasons, inadequateReaction to specific conditions, modeling of environmental conditions. However, the main reasons for the emergence of obsessions still consider intrafamily problems and the genetic factors of the psychasthenic individual.
Also to the most common possible reasonsInclude: low self-esteem, manifested in self-flagellation, or overestimated, manifested by pride, the desire to dominate, megalomania, etc. More often such a problematic self-esteem is more subconscious than conscious.
Various phobias and fears hidden deep in theSubconscious, can manifest themselves as an obsession in those cases when the number of them becomes critical, and self-confidence is not enough, and problematic situations begin to get out and "beat" in the head.
If the individual has not found his meaning of life, notDetermined important life priorities and goals, does not assume responsibility for the fulfillment of goals, it leads to purposelessness. Aimlessness leads to confusion of thoughts and, as a consequence, an obsession occurs. In other words, the subject deceives himself and justifies his own cowardice and runs away from life, responsibility for his potential, himself and his life. If an individual has a great potential, but does not recognize this because of his own irresponsibility, selfishness, cowardice, does not want to change anything, and does nothing meaningful in life, there are obsessions.
The main symptom of an obsession is a variety and multiple obsessions and thoughts. They are perceived as traumatic factors and are considered wrong.
All symptoms of the obsession can be divided into several groups.
The first group includes obsessive thoughts,Which for the patient are unpleasant ideas, taking the form of either individual phrases and words, or whole sentences. Their distinctive feature is the negative nature. A person suffering from obsessions considers such thoughts to be his own, but hindering him.
The second group includes obsessive images, which often have a rather negative character.
The third group contains intrusiveImpulses, so-called impulses to commit negative acts. Such impulses are characterized by a sense of fear, impossibility of liberation from it. Patients are very tormented and worried that the impulse can be realized, but impulses of an obsessional nature are never carried out.
The fourth group is obsessive thinking. They are endless mental dialogues with oneself. In the course of such debates, all possible arguments put forward "for" or "against" are constantly reviewed, even for the performance of ordinary daily actions.
The fifth group is obsessive doubts. Such doubts often refer to already committed actions. A person doubts the correctness or incorrectness of their actions. For example, the patient can constantly check if he turned off the gas. Some obsessional doubts are closely interrelated with various phobias.
The sixth group is contrasting thoughts. They are also called aggressive obsessions. They are negative thoughts that can often be combined with an unrelated feeling of antipathy towards relatives, church ministers, etc. They differ in subjective feelings of alienation and compatibility with obsessive impulses. The seventh group is obsessive fears or phobias. Among these phobias, several most common ones stand out: the fear of contracting an incurable disease, isolated phobias, fear of contamination, fear of everything, an obsessive phobia of the appearance of fear. So, for example, obedience in adolescents is often manifested by misofobia - disgust, fear of pollution, obsessive washing of hands.
The eighth group is compulsions. Phobias often lead to the appearance of compulsions - obsessive actions that take on the nature of protected rituals. The patient thinks that such rituals will help to protect and prevent a negative event. There is a separate disease, which combines obsessions such as obsession and compulsion - obsessive-compulsive disorder.
The ninth group includes obsessive memories. Often such memories are associated with unpleasant, shameful circumstances, which are accompanied by remorse and a sense of shame.
The tenth group includes obtrusive actions, which manifest themselves as limited motor disorders.
Often, an obsession may be accompanied by hallucinations. There may also be a violation of the sense of smell or taste, there may be illusions.
Obsession in children often manifests itself in obsessive movements and fictional obsessive fears.
Obsession in adolescents is most often manifestedObsessive rituals or prohibitions, which the teenager himself came up with. A teenager himself forbids certain actions. For example, he can forbid himself to step on hatches. To teenage obsessions also include obsessive thoughts, such as the account of windows in houses or steps in the entrance.
From the physiology of the obsession canAccompanied by the following symptoms of obsession: pallor or redness of the skin, cold sweat, rapid or slow heart rate, shortness of breath, polyuria, dizziness, increased peristalsis, fainting.
Among the signs of the obsession can be distinguished the change in the character of the patient and personality as a whole, suspiciousness, anxiety, impressionability, uncertainty, shyness, indecisiveness, timidity.
Often syndrome accompanies such diseases as
The individual at a certain stage of his development can begin to realize that obsession and compulsion are irrational and superfluous.
Obsession with children is more stable and if you do not help in time, the children will not be cured.
Aggressive obsessions or contrasting obsessionsAre quite diverse. They include obsessive thoughts about committing violence, cruelty, causing harm, pathological obsessions. The main symptom of aggressive obsessions is the fear of causing harm to others or even their killing. In some cases, such an obsession can be directed by the person to himself. For example, obsessive thoughts about
Typical aggressive obsessions include fearTo commit cruel action towards others, fear of strangling your child or other loved one, the fear of pushing someone from a great height, the fear of poisoning someone and many others.
People with aggressive obsessions quite oftenFear that they can succumb to undesirable impulses. However, not all contrasting obsessions are accompanied by motivations for action. Then in such cases, the main symptoms are unwanted obsessive thoughts or vivid, exciting images of violent actions. Individuals with such symptoms often begin to ponder why such unwanted negative thoughts continue to appear. They can feel guilty and horrified because they can not control and control their thoughts.
And some subjects may have a doubtWhether their obsessions are real memories. They may erroneously believe that they have done something according to their own negative and terrible thoughts. This is due to the fact that the obsessions for them are living, bright, detailed mental images that are felt rather as memories than thoughts. Such people make many different checks to obtain convincing arguments that these are their false memories and in reality they did not have a place.
Treatment of obsessions should be comprehensive,Including pathogenetic, pathophysiological, medicamentous and etiological therapy. Etiological treatment is aimed at eliminating the causes of traumatizing the patient, and pathogenetic therapy - quite effectively affects the pathophysiological elements of the brain. The leading treatment will be pathophysiological therapy.
The most effective in treating obsessions wasSelf cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy due to the method used to influence and prevent reactions. This method contains a gradual training in the patience of anxiety associated with non-fulfillment of ritual actions. So, for example, people with a phobia of pollution are forced not to wash their hands after touching the contaminated surface. In this case, the touch will be the effect, and the prohibition on washing will prevent the reaction. With this method, the patient quickly gets used to the situation causing anxiety, and begins to notice that the level of anxiety has significantly decreased. Then the situations that cause anxiety become more complicated.
Also, exposition psychotherapy, methods of psychoanalysis, suggestion and hypnosis have proved quite successful. And also methods of autogenic training and autosuggestion.
Medication therapy should includeTranquilizers, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antipsychotics and antidepressants. In more severe cases, the use of electroconvulsive therapy is recommended.
People are recommended to pay more attention toFull rest, travel, occupational therapy. The food should be balanced and contain in sufficient quantities the necessary vitamins and minerals. Sick people should sleep in well-ventilated rooms and walk more often. Often such people are encouraged to get carried away by some kind of hobby.
Physiotherapeutic treatment is also used,Which includes the reception of warm baths, cool compresses on the head area, bathing in sea water, dousing with water, electrophoresis and darsonvalization.