Psychology of Personality

Sensitive periods of development

The sensitive period is a certain period in theLife of the individual, in which more optimal conditions for the development of some psychological qualities and activities have been created. Those. This is a period of maximum opportunities for the most effective formation of any property of the psyche. For example, a sensitive period for the development of speech in children will be between 1.5 and 3 years old.
At the heart of the sensitive period is a transientIncreased sensitivity to certain external influences. In fact, such a period is a time interval of higher plasticity, the function and structure during which show their ability to variability according to the specifics of external circumstances.

Sensitive developmental periods of the child

Age Sensitivity is the best combination of conditions for the formation of specific properties or processes of the psyche, characteristic of a particular age stage.
Every individual at any age, whether it beInfancy or preschool age, develops individually. There are no identical individuals. Each is born with a certain set of properties of the psyche, makings. The degree of development of children depends on their perception of different types of activities.
The concept of "sensitive periods of child development"Was introduced by L. Vygotsky. He believed that turning periods in the development of children can sometimes take a crisis character, when development becomes rapid or catastrophic. At such a time, the kid becomes especially receptive to the acquisition of certain knowledge and skills. However, at the same time, transformations occur in the child's body, characterized by vulnerability and heightened sensitivity. Such time stages occur in different periods and are characterized by short periods. The emergence of these stages can not affect either teachers or parents, but with the right approach it is possible to use them fairly productively for the further development of children.
The sensitive period is such a time interval,Which is characterized by maximum sensitivity and favorable conditions for the formation of a certain ability or type of activity of the organism. Therefore, it is necessary at a certain stage of age development to pay more attention to a particular area, while trying to develop a qualitative component of the abilities of children.
In the first year of life, the baby learns the world, using for this purpose auditory and tactile sensations. That is why during this period the formation of the sensory area becomes important.
Early childhood from one year to three yearsIs a sensitive period for the development of speech abilities. Their formation occurs quickly enough: at first the kid listens to adults and, as it were, accumulates vocabulary, and somewhere by the age of three the speech of the baby begins to acquire an objective character. The kid learns to react to words pronounced by another person, perceives the mood of people, tries to express feelings and emotions.
Age from one and a half to two and a half yearsCharacterized by manipulation of small objects, which indicates the formation of the mechanics of the fingers and hands, the preparation of the hand for writing. A kid at the age of two and a half years and up to three often talks to himself, which allows one to draw conclusions about the logic of his phrases, the sequence and inconsistency of speech. Over time, such monologues are conducted mentally.
The sensitive period of preschool age from threeYears and up to seven is characterized by the fact that the baby begins to be included in adulthood, in activities. He begins to understand the power of thought, which can be competently expressed through speech. During this period, the kids can choose the themes of the games themselves, determine the roles. At this age they are animatedly interested in the designation of sounds by letters with the help of symbols. A feature of this stage is the game. The child has a strong desire to participate actively in the field of activity that is still inaccessible to him and is little known. In the beginning, a director's play is formed, then, or at the same time, or a little later, a role-playing game appears. A little later, there are games with rules - story-role games filled with content. The kid himself comes up with a plot and conditions. The creative nature of such a game is determined by the presence of a design, the implementation of which involves the vigorous work of imagination, with the formation in children of the ability to display their impressions of the world that surrounds them.
The age from eight to nine years is a repeated peak of speech abilities. Also this stage is a time of rapid formation of imagination and perception of culture.
A sensitive period is an opportunity toDevelop the abilities of children at a specific age, while paying attention to the quality of development of abilities: up to one year - auditory and tactile sensations, from one to three years - speech, the ability of the child to express his thoughts and feelings.
A sensitive period of preschool age givesThe basis for developing abilities to interact with others and communicate. The peculiarity of the development of the individual is that all new skills, knowledge, skills are superimposed on what has already been studied, so it is very important to have time to put as much of the baby in as possible.
At an early age it is difficult to recognizeSensitive periods, but along with this, you need to have time to begin to form skills that have been given by nature. It is important to create the necessary conditions in which children will be able to show their abilities, not to restrict the activity of the baby, to provide an opportunity for free creative expression. Sensitive stages do not end at 9 years, they are typical for the adolescent period, and for the youth. But in the earliest period of a child's life a basis is laid, which the individual will use at an older age.
The periods listed above necessarily occur for each individual, but the time of manifestation and the duration of the stages are quite individual.
Strong believed that along with the sensitivePeriods in children there are three significant crisis age moments: at the age of one year, three, seven years. In such periods, children need to pay more attention from their relatives. It is necessary to understand that the greater the sphere of interests of an individual, the more harmonious will be its development. And even given that the formation of the intellectual sphere of the subject occurs during adulthood, at an early age it proceeds much more naturally and more easily.
It is very important for parents to pay attention toThe main sensitive periods and the beginning of the manifestation of each of them, in order to timely prepare the basis and environment for the optimal satisfaction of the needs of children at each stage of its development.
Italian teacher M. Montessori identified the main sensitive periods of formation: a sensitive period of speech development occurs from zero to 6 years, a sensitive stage of perception of order comes from zero to three years, a sensitive stage of sensory formation - from six months to five years, a sensitive stage of perception of small objects - from One and a half years and up to six and a half, a sensitive stage in the formation of actions and movements - from one to four years, a sensitive stage in the formation of social skills - from two and a half to six years.

Sensitive periods of physical development

The formation of movements in children occurs inEstablished sequence. In order to perform any movement you need to show certain physical qualities, have speed and agility, to spend some strength. Therefore, along with the development of the main movements, the formation of physical qualities also takes place. The degree of development of physical qualities determines the quality and number of movements that a baby has.
Physical qualities are characterized byUneven development in different periods of life of children. At one time, certain qualities are formed equally quickly and synchronously, at another time - qualities are increasing with different strengths. Stages in which this or that quality is formed most strongly, are called sensitive.
Sensitive periods of abilities and sensitiveThe stage of the formation of physical development last approximately from one year to four years. Thanks to movements that are accompanied by intensive ventilation of the lungs of children, oxygen saturation of blood is sufficient in order to supply them with the brain cells participating in the formation of the functions of the psyche.
The flow of this period is not always uniform andIt is characterized by moments when the kid focuses on specific actions or movements. At the beginning of this sensitive period, only movements are interested in children, and later they are interested in more difficult actions, in order to fulfill them, children need to have a certain degree of coordination, expressiveness and freedom of movement.
Dexterity, speed, dynamic and staticStrength-physical qualities and functional-motor skills, such as coordination and orientation propensities, the differentiation of spatial characteristics and force strains, are moderately formed at the age of five. Also in this period two main movements are developing: jump and balance.
At the age of six, there is moderate growth inThe formation of three qualities, such as flexibility, endurance and speed, two inclinations, such as the differentiation of spatial characteristics and orientation abilities. More rapid development of the following important movements: throwing, walking, moving with your feet and hands.
Sensitive periods of abilities and the growth of twoAbilities - the differentiation of stresses and coordination abilities determine the seventh year of life. Also this stage is characterized by a moderate, accelerated development of flexibility and dexterity, moderate development of such basic movements as running, walking, throwing, jumping, moving with legs and hands.
The sensitive period of preschool age is also characterized by the development of nonverbal memory, namely, motor, which plays an important role in controlling movements.
The period of early childhood is the age whenThere is a formation of needs for vigorous motor activity and the launch of mechanisms for the formation of all abilities of children. If you skip this period, then it will be either impossible or difficult enough to catch up. That is why health and corrective work on physiological education is so important.
Motor activity in early childhoodAge requires a diverse approach, which, first of all, consists in teaching local movements (movements of body parts), joints of body movements, integral movements - movements of the body. Local movements and combinations of movements can be trained with the help of developing exercises. Holistic movements are jumping, walking, throwing. In the processes of teaching children the basic movements should be purposefully influenced the formation of such physical qualities as strength, speed, agility, etc. Success in mastering important skills and skills is due to the degree of development of physical qualities.

Sensual, mental and emotional areaAre formed in the course of education of the above physical qualities. That is why the physical education of the baby is so important. Physical education is considered the first step in teaching in general.
Age of children from seven to ten years, outsideDependence on its morphofunctional species, is characterized by a fairly high level of sensitivity to the influence of physical exertion and the largest number of stages with the highest natural growth of motor qualities. And the period from ten years to thirteen is characterized by the least number of such stages.

Sensitive periods of mental development

Sensitive periods of human development need to knowAnd must be taken into account to form an effective social influence on the development of the individual. In specific phases of life, children are particularly sensitive to certain pedagogical influences and sensitive to it.
Sensitive periods of human development - this is a sensitive and particularly favorable stage of the formation of the personality to the formation of certain functions of the psyche.
If the sensitive period has been lost, then the corresponding qualities of the child's psyche are formed rather difficult and can not always reach perfection.
Sensitivity must be interpreted asTimely and most favorable conditions for the formation of a specific function or property of the psyche. Be sure to take into account that the sensitive period of the formation of certain functions of the psyche, has a transitional temporary nature. For example, early childhood is a sensitive stage for the formation of speech, and if for some reason it is missed, the child will find it more difficult to talk and express his thoughts in a coherent way.
Sensitivity is dependent on the wholeComplex factors - from the laws of the formation of the human brain, its previous achievements in mental development. It follows that the boundaries of the experience of the sensitive phase are individual for each individual. It should also be remembered that taking into account the sensitive phase should rely not only on the earlier established mental processes, but rather on those that are still in the processes of maturation. An effective and competent approach to learning activates children's inclinations, while stimulating their formation to the level of skills, knowledge and abilities.
In modern science, the question remains openThe establishment of sensitive periods for the development of all the functions of the psyche that are formed in the process of the ontogenesis of the individual. However, there are several common characteristics of such periods and they are always universal, i. E. Appear in the process of development of all subjects, regardless of nationality and race, development rates, differences related to culture or geopolitics; They are necessarily individual in those cases when it concerns the duration of their flow in a particular subject and the time of their appearance.

Critical and Sensitive Periods

The ability of the nervous system to transformUnder the influence of external factors has a rolling character. And it coincides with a period of more intense morphofunctional maturation, which can be explained by the phenomenon of age sensitivity to the influences of the environment with which sensitive and critical stages of development are interrelated.
Each stage has a number of characteristicFeatures, although their basis is the temporary increase in sensitivity to certain external influences. Characteristic features: the level of selectivity to perception, time schedule, the consequences of inadequate exercise, reversibility of outcomes.
Initially, such a concept as a critical period,Was used in embryology to identify time intervals that are characterized by high sensitivity to the influence of factors that go beyond physiological norms.
During the period of intrauterine formation in clearly defined stages, each organ undergoes certain critical phases of differentiation.
Critical should be called a period whenThe body must feel normative influences, and this will be a condition for its future full-fledged development. All the transformations that occur during the critical phase are characterized by irreversibility, as a result of which the function and structure get a finished look that becomes unaffected by modifying influences in later life. Critical phases are more typical for anatomical and morphological transformations in the formation process. Since they are associated with a specific stage of morphological development, they can be a chronological symmetry of development.
The notion of a sensitive one denotes a period of time,Characterized by some set of incentives that have a greater impact on the formation of functions than before or after. In fact, this period is considered more favorable for development. In other words, the critical period means the action "now or never", and sensitive - "it is possible and at another time, but better now."
Sensitive and critical periods causeThe mechanism of individualization of formation, since depending on the implementation of a certain period the subsequent stages can receive an increasingly more experienced experience, characteristic only of the given subject.
Due to the fact that the individuality of the subject onThe entire stage of ontogenetic development is holistic, we can conclude that crises have a systemic character and, as an invisible force, "include" meaningful physiological transformations.

Sensitive period of speech development

A sensitive stage for the formation of a fairlyIt is large in duration and takes practically the entire period of pre-school childhood. The sensitive period of speech formation lasts from about zero to six years. And the beginning of this stage is still in the prenatal development, when the child through the water begins to perceive the mother's speech and the sounds of the environment. It is at this time that the baby gets used to the speech, and may, while still in the mother's belly, react to the intonation and mood of the mother.
Age up to four and a half monthsCharacterized by the fact that the baby feels speech as something special. Consciousness of a child at this age is not yet able to isolate the individual images of the world around him, himself. All his impressions of the environment are rather confused, but speech for him becomes the only vivid image.
Newborn children from the moment of birth carefullyRefer to speech, can die or listen to spoken words. Often you can see how the children look at the mouth of the speaker, turn to the sound. By the absence of reactions to sounds and speech, one can judge the presence of hearing problems in children. Unfortunately, the position of some adults is that they believe that small children do not understand anything and therefore neglect to communicate with them. Thus losing his sensitive period.
The kid tries to learn how to imitate the audibleSounds. This time, when the baby constantly blows bubbles from the saliva, everything spits out, which indicates the beginning of training muscles of the articulatory apparatus. Then he begins to independently arrange the sounds they are pronouncing one after the other, while trying to arrange them in different sequences and listen to the sound.
One of the steps towards the development andSpeech, characterized by awareness, is first agukanie baby, and then uttering some combinations of letters. However, at first this happens unconsciously. The kid is just starting to train his articulatory apparatus. However, the most frequent words that are addressed to him, he has already learned to understand.
At about the age of about a year the child tries to pronounce his first word - this is his first expression of thought. However, here he meets with the situation
. He perfectly represents that speech should mean something, but can not use such knowledge because of a lack of words. The kid wants to talk, but it's not the time yet.
Closer to the year, children can already eatMeaningfully more often pronounced words. At this age the child fills his passive vocabulary. By the age of two, his vocabulary will already have a lot of words, while in the active one there will be a small number of them. At this age, an avalanche-like filling of the children's dictionary takes place.
The kid begins to show his feelings and expressDesire at the age of about one and a half years. This stage is characterized by the fact that the child speaks directly about what he wants or what he does not want. He speaks the language of the senses, applying orientational mechanical speech. For example, instead of the word "correctly", the word "nice" is pronounced. This orientation method is natural for the subject. In the future, a person is imposed another way of orientation in the process of education. At this stage of formation, children are already able to perceive the grammatical standards of the language and are able to formulate phrases and sentences grammatically correctly. It is because of the lack of words in adults that it seems that there is a characteristic children's language with certain grammar norms.
Consequently, it is possible to make two significantO modules. The first is a categorical ban for adults on the so-called "lisping" with the baby, on inventing parents to facilitate the communication of a special, simpler child's language. On the contrary, in a period of sensitivity, when children are more sensitive to learning and accepting language norms, adult speech should be characterized by literacy, clarity and clarity. At this stage, children more than ever need to be told as many stories as possible, including the diversity and richness of words, grammatical constructions of speech, stories that are a model of the style, communicate more with it. The second conclusion is the principal possibility of the subsequent speech development of children in a bilingual environment, i.e. When they have the opportunity to learn two languages ​​at once. You can be sure that there will not be confusion in children with words. They will not use English words in Russian grammatical constructions.
Age from two and a half years and up to threeCharacterized by the fact that the child begins to lead a monologue with himself. As it was said above, later monologues are made internal. To judge the peculiarities of thinking in the future it will be possible only indirectly.
Age from three and a half and up to four yearsCharacterized by the use of the child speech consciously and purposefully. He begins to solve his problems with speech. For example, it can ask for something. This stage is caused by the fact that the baby begins to realize the power of his thought, which is expressed competently and therefore is understandable to others. During this period, children are actively interested in letters, can with pleasure draw them around or add various combinations of words from them.
The next serious step in the development of speech in the babyManifests itself at the age of four to four and a half years - the child starts spontaneously writing some words, phrases, small sentences and small stories. The most surprising thing is that this occurs regardless of whether the child was previously taught the letter or not.
Age about five yearsCharacterized by the fact that the baby is already without coercion, completely independently learns to read - to this it is guided by the logic of speech development. Since the process of writing is a peculiar expression of a certain way of its thinking, and the reading process provides, in addition to distinguishing letters and the ability to put them into words, also the understanding of the thoughts of other individuals who are behind these words. And this process is much more complicated than the expression of one's own thoughts.
From all of the above,That if children are forced to do something outside the boundaries of a relevant sensitive period (for example, to master the skills of writing, reading), the result will, of course, be, but much later, and sometimes the result may not be at all.

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