Needs of the person (need) is the so-calledThe source of personal activity, because it is the needs of the person that are his motive for the actions in a certain way, forcing them to move in the right direction. Thus, need or need is such a personal state, in which the dependence of subjects on certain situations or conditions of existence is revealed.
Personality activity is manifested only inThe process of satisfying its needs, which are formed during the education of the individual, its involvement in the social culture. In its primary biological manifestation, need is nothing other than a certain state of the organism, expressing its objective need (desire) in something. Thus, the personality needs system directly depends on the individual's way of life, the interaction between the environment and the sphere of its use. From the standpoint of neurophysiology, need means the formation of a dominant, i.e. The appearance of excitation of special cells of the brain, characterized by stability and regulating the required behavioral actions.
Types of the individual's needs
The needs of man are quite diverse andToday there are a huge number of their classifications. However, in the current psychology, two main classifications of kinds of needs are distinguished. In the first classification, needs (needs) are subdivided into material (biological), spiritual (ideal) and social.
Realization of material or biological needsIs associated with the individual-species existence of the individual. These include - the need for food, sleep, clothing, security, home, intimate desires. Those. Need (need), which is due to biological need.
Spiritual or ideal needs are expressed in the knowledge of the world that surrounds, the sense of existence, self-realization and self-esteem.
The desire of an individual to belong to anySocial group, as well as the need for human recognition, leadership, domination, self-affirmation, affection of others in love and respect is reflected in social needs. All these needs are divided into important types of activity:
- Work, work - the need for knowledge, creation and creation;
- Development - the need for training, self-realization;
- Social communication - spiritual and moral needs.
The needs or needs described above have a social orientation, therefore they are called sociogenic or social.
In another type of classification, all needs are broken down into two types: the need or need for growth (development) and conservation.
The need for conservation combines suchNeeds (needs) - physiological: sleep, intimate desires, hunger, etc. These are the basic needs of the individual. Without their satisfaction, the individual simply can not survive. Further, the need for security and preservation; Abundance is the comprehensiveness of satisfying natural needs; Material needs and biological.
The need for growth combines the following: Desire for love and respect; Self-actualization; Self-esteem; Cognition, including the meaning of life; Needs for sensual (emotional) contact; Social and spiritual (ideal) needs. The above classifications make it possible to identify more significant needs for the subject's practical behavior.
OH. Maslow put forward the concept of a systematic approach to researching the psychology of the personality of subjects, based on the model of the needs of the individual in the form of a pyramid. Hierarchy of the needs of the individual according to A.Kh. Maslow is the behavior of an individual, directly dependent on the satisfaction of his every need. This means that the needs at the top of the hierarchy (the realization of goals, self-development) direct the behavior of the individual to the extent that his needs are met at the very bottom of the pyramid (thirst, hunger, intimate desires, etc.).
Also distinguish potential(Non-actualized) needs and actualized. The main driver of personal activity is the internal conflict (contradiction) between the internal conditions of existence and the external ones.
All types of personal needs, located on theThe upper levels of the hierarchy have different levels of expression in different people, but without society no one can exist. A full-fledged personality can become a subject only when he satisfies his need for self-actualization.
Social needs of the individual
This is a special kind of human need. It consists in the need to have everything necessary for the existence and life activity of the individual, any social group, society as a whole. This is an internal motivating factor of activity.
Public needs are people's need forWork, social activity, culture, spiritual life. The needs created by society are such needs that are the basis of social life. Without motivating factors of meeting needs, production and progress as a whole are impossible.
Also, social needs include needs,Associated with the desire to form a family, joining various social groups, collectives, with various spheres of productive (non-productive) activity, the existence of the society as a whole. Conditions, environmental factors that surround the individual in the process of his life, not only contribute to the emergence of needs, but also form the opportunities for satisfying them. In human life and the hierarchy of needs, social needs play one of the defining roles. The existence of an individual in the society and through it is the central area of the manifestation of the essence of man, the basic condition for the realization of all other needs - biological and spiritual.
Classify social needs by three criteria: the needs of others, their needs, joint needs.
The need of others (needs for others) isNeeds that express the ancestral basis of the individual. It is in the need of communication, the protection of the weak. Altruism is one of the expressed needs for others, the need to sacrifice their interests for others. Altruism is realized only through the victory over selfishness. That is, the need "for oneself" should be transformed into a need "for others".
Its need (need for itself) is expressed inSelf-assertion in the society, self-realization, self-identification, in the need to take their place in the society and the collective, the desire for power, etc. Such needs, therefore, are social, that can not exist without needs "for others". Only through doing something for others, it is possible to realize one's desires. Take some position in society, i.e. To achieve recognition for oneself, it is much easier to do without hurting the interests and claims of other members of society. The most effective way of realizing one's egoistic desires will be a path in which the movement contains a share of compensation for satisfying the claims of other people, those who can claim the same role or place, but can be satisfied with less.
Joint needs (needs "together with others")- express the motivating power of a multitude of people at once or society in general. For example, the need for security, in freedom, in the world, the changing of the existing political system,
Needs and motives of personality
The main condition for the life of organisms -Is the presence of their activity. In animals, activity manifests itself in instincts. But the behavior of a person is much more complicated and is determined by the presence of two factors: regulative and incentive, i.e. Motives and needs.
The motives and the system of the needs of the individual have their ownKey Features. If the need is a need (deficiency), the need for something and the need to eliminate something that is in excess, then the motive is the pusher. Those. The need creates a state of activity, and the motive gives it direction, pushes the activity in the required direction. Necessity or need, first of all, is felt by a person as a state of tension inside, or manifests itself as thoughts, dreams. This induces the individual to search for the object of need, but does not give the direction of activity to satisfy it.
The motive, in turn, is an incentiveThe reason for achieving the desired or, conversely, avoiding it, to carry out activities or not. Motives can be accompanied by positive or negative emotions. Satisfaction of needs always leads to the removal of tension, the need disappears, but after a while it can arise again. With motives it's the opposite. The goal set and the motive itself do not coincide. Because the goal is where or where the aspiration of a person is, and the motive is the reason why he aspires.
The goal can be set in front of a differentMotives. But it is also possible that the motive shifts to the goal. This means the transformation of the motive of activity directly into the motive. For example, a student first learns lessons, because parents make him, but then interest awakens and he begins to learn for the sake of studying. Those. It turns out that the motive is the inner psychological impulse of behavior or actions that possesses stability and induces the individual to carry out activities, giving it meaningfulness. And the need is an internal state of sense of need, which expresses the dependence of man or animals on certain conditions of existence.
Needs and interests of the individual
With the category, the need is inextricably linked andCategory of interests. At the heart of the emergence of interests are always needs. Interest is an expression of the individual's purposeful attitude toward some kind of his needs.
The interest of man is not so much directed atThe subject of the need, how much is directed at such social factors that make this object more accessible, basically these are the various blessings of civilization (material or spiritual) that satisfy such needs. Interests are also determined by the specific situation of people in society, the position of social groups and are the most powerful incentives for any activity.
Interests can also be classified inDepending on the orientation or the carrier of these interests. The first group includes social, spiritual and political interests. To the second - the interests of the society as a whole, group and individual interests.
The interests of the individual express its orientation, which determines in many ways its way and the nature of any activity.
In the general display by interest it is possible to nameThe true cause of social and personal actions, events, which stands directly behind motives - the motives of individuals taking part in these same actions. Interest is objective and objective social, conscious, realizable. Objectively effective and optimal way to meet needs is called objective interest. Such an objective interest does not depend on the individual's consciousness.
Objectively effective and optimal way forSatisfaction of needs in the public space is called objective social interest. For example, there are a lot of stalls and shops on the market and there is definitely an optimal way to the best and cheapest goods. This will be a manifestation of objective social interest. There are many ways of making different purchases, but necessarily among them there will be one objectively optimal for a particular situation.
Representations of the subject of activity on howYet it is better to satisfy your needs called conscious interest. This interest may coincide with the objective or slightly different, and may have an absolutely opposite direction. The immediate cause of almost all actions of subjects is precisely the interest of a conscious nature. Such an interest is based on a person's personal experience. The way a person goes to meet the needs of an individual is called realized interest. It can completely coincide with the interest of a conscious character, and absolutely contradict it.
There is another kind of interest - this isproduct. Such a variety is both a way to meet the needs, and a way to meet them. The product can be the optimal way to meet the needs and may seem so.
Spiritual needs of the individual
Spiritual needs of the individual is a directed aspiration for self-realization, expressed through creativity or through other activities.
Three aspects of the term stand out: the spiritual needs of the individual:
- The first aspect is the desire to master the results of spiritual productivity. It includes admission to art, culture, science.
- The second aspect is the expression of needs for material order and social relations in the present society.
- The third aspect is the harmonious development of the individual.
Any spiritual needs are represented by internalMotivations of a person to his spiritual manifestation, creativity, creation, creation of spiritual values and to their consumption, to spiritual communications (communication). They are conditioned by the inner world of the individual, the desire to withdraw into oneself, to concentrate on what is not connected with social and physiological needs. These needs encourage people to engage in art, religion, culture, not in order to satisfy their physiological and social needs, but in order to understand the meaning of existence. Their distinctive feature is unsaturation. Since the more internal needs are satisfied, the more tense and stable they become.
The limits of progressive growth of spiritual needs are notexist. The limitation of such growth and development can only be the amount of spiritual wealth accumulated by mankind earlier, the strength of the individual's desires to participate in their work and its capabilities. The main features that distinguish spiritual needs from material ones:
- Spiritual needs arise in the consciousness of the individual;
- Spiritual needs are inherent in necessity, and the level of freedom in choosing ways and means to meet such needs is much higher than for material needs;
- Satisfaction of most spiritual needs is mainly due to the amount of free time;
- In such needs, the relationship between the object of need and the subject is characterized by a certain degree of disinterestedness;
- The process of satisfying spiritual needs has no limits.
In terms of their content, spiritual needs are objective. They are determined by the set of conditions for the life of individuals and show the objective need for spiritual study of the social and natural world that surrounds them.
YU. Sharov singled out a detailed classification of spiritual needs: the need for labor; The need for communication; Aesthetic and moral needs; Scientific and cognitive needs; Need for sanitation; The need for a military duty. One of the most important spiritual needs of the individual is cognition. The future of any society depends on the spiritual foundation that will be developed among modern youth.
Psychological needs of the individual
The psychological needs of the individual are suchNeeds that do not boil down to bodily needs, but also do not reach the level of spiritual ones. Such needs usually include the need for affiliation, communication, etc.
The need for communication with children is not innateneed. It is formed through the activity of surrounding adults. Usually actively begins to manifest itself to two months of life. Adolescents also have the conviction that their need for communication brings them the opportunity to actively use adults. For adults, inadequate satisfaction of the need for communication is detrimental. They are immersed in negative emotions. The need for acceptance lies in the individual's desire to be accepted by another person by a group of persons or by society as a whole. This need often pushes people to violate generally accepted norms and can lead to antisocial behavior.
Among psychological needs, basicNeeds of the individual. These are such needs, at the dissatisfaction of which little children will not be able to develop fully. They seem to stop in their development and become more susceptible to certain diseases than their peers who have such needs met. So, for example, if the baby regularly receives feeding, but grows without proper communication with parents, his development may be delayed.
Basic needs of the personality of adultsPsychological character are divided into 4 groups: autonomy - the need for independence, independence; Need for competence; Need for significant interpersonal relationships for the individual; The need to be a member of a social group, to feel loved. This also includes a sense of self-worth, and the need for recognition by others. In cases of dissatisfaction with basic physiological needs, the physical health of the individual suffers, and in cases of dissatisfaction with basic psychological needs, the spirit (psychological health) suffers.
Motivation and needs of the individual
Motivational processes of the individual have in themselvesThe direction of achieving, or, conversely, avoiding the set goals, to realize a certain activity or not. Such processes are accompanied by various emotions of both positive and negative nature, for example, joy, fear. Also during such processes, there is a certain psychophysiological tension. This means that motivational processes are accompanied by a state of excitement or excitement, and a sense of decline or a surge of energy can also appear.
On the one hand, the regulation of mental processes,Which affect the direction of activity and the amount of energy needed to perform this activity itself is called motivation. And on the other hand, motivation is still a certain set of motives, which gives the direction of activity and the very inner process of motivation. Motivational processes explain directly the choice between different options for action, but which have equally attractive goals. It is the motivation that influences the perseverance and persistence with which the individual achieves the set goals, overcomes obstacles.
A logical explanation of the causes of actions or behavior is called motivation. Motivation may differ from real motives or be used consciously to disguise them.
Motivation is closely related to the needs andNeeds of the individual, because it appears when there is a desire (need) or lack of something. Motivation is the initial stage of the physical and mental activity of the individual. Those. It is a kind of motivation for the performance of actions by a certain motive or by a process of choosing the reasons for a particular activity.
It should always be taken into account that for absolutely similar, at first sight, actions or actions of the subject there can be absolutely different reasons, i.e. Their motivation may be very different.
Motivation is external (extrinsic) orInternal (intrinsevnoy). The first is not related to the content of a particular activity, but is due to external conditions relative to the subject. The second relates directly to the content of the process of activity. Also distinguish between negative and positive motivation. Motivation, which is based on positive messages, is called positive. And motivation, based on negative messages, is called negative. For example, positive motivation will be "if I behave well, I will be bought ice cream", negative - "if I behave well, I will not be punished".
Motivation can be individual, i.e. Striving to maintain the constancy of the internal environment of his body. For example, avoiding pain, thirst, desire to maintain optimal temperature, hunger, etc. It can also be group. It includes caring for children, finding and choosing their place in the social hierarchy, etc. Cognitive motivational processes include various gaming activities and research.
Basic needs of the individual
The main (leading) needs of the individualCan differ not only in content, but also in the level of conditionality of the society. Regardless of sex or age, as well as social belonging, any person has basic needs. More in detail in their work described by A. Maslow. He proposed a theory based on the principle of hierarchical structure ("The hierarchy of the needs of the individual" according to Maslow). Those. Some personal needs are primary in relation to others. For example, if a person experiences thirst or hunger, he will not be particularly worried, respected by his neighbor or not. The lack of an object of need Maslow called scarce or deficit needs. Those. In the absence of food (an object of need), a person will strive to fill up such a deficit in any way possible in any way possible for him.
Basic needs are divided into 6 groups:
1. They include, in the first place, physical need, which includes the need for food, drink, air, and sleep. This also applies to the individual's need for close communication with subjects of the opposite sex (intimate relationships).
2. The need for praise, trust, love, etc. is called emotional needs.
3. The need for friendly relations, respect in a team or other social group is called a social need.
4. The need to receive answers to questions posed, satisfaction of curiosity is called intellectual needs.
5. Belief in divine authority or simply the need to believe is called a spiritual need. Such needs help people to find peace, experience troubles, etc.
6. The need for self-expression through creativity is called creative need (needs).
All of the listed needs of the individual arePart of each person. Satisfaction of all basic needs, desires, needs of a person contribute to his health and positive attitude in all deeds. All basic needs necessarily have a cycle of processes, direction and intensity. All the needs in the processes of their satisfaction are fixed. At first, the satisfied basic need temporarily becomes subdued (fading away) in order to eventually arise with even greater intensity.
Needs expressed more weakly, butRepeatedly satisfied, gradually become more stable. There is a certain pattern in fixing needs - the more diverse the means used to consolidate needs, the more firmly they are fixed. In this case, needs are made the basis of behavioral action.
Need determines the entire adaptive mechanismMentality. Objects of reality are reflected as likely obstacles or conditions for satisfying the needs. Therefore, any basic need is equipped with peculiar effectors and detectors. The emergence of basic needs and their actualization directs the psyche to determine the appropriate goals.