Professional self-determination is a form ofPersonal choice, reflecting the search process, as well as the acquisition of the profession. Self-determination is realized in the process of analyzing personal opportunities, abilities in correlation with professional requirements. At present, the understanding of professional self-determination takes into account the problems of interrelation with the life self-determination of the individual, and also includes the impact of the impact on
Social environment and its active position. In the conditions of a market economy, the problem of freedom of choice of a profession and ensuring the competitiveness of an employee are acute.
Professional self-determination of students
Self-determination of students is a processFormation of the individual's personal attitude to professional activity and the way of its implementation through the harmonization of social, professional and personal needs.
Professional self-determination of students is a part of life self-determination, because it is part of the social group of choice of profession and way of life.
In professional self-determination, there areVarious approaches: sociological - when the society puts tasks before the individual, socio-psychological - step-by-step decision-making by the individual, as well as the harmonization of society's needs and personal preferences, differential-psychological - the formation of an individual life system.
Symbolically distinguish the interrelated stages of professional self-determination of students:
- preschool stage, including the formation of initial labor skills;
- Primary school, including the recognition of the role of labor in the life of the individual through participation in various types of activities: educational, playful, labor.
Awareness of their abilities and interests related to professional choice occurs in the 5-7th grades, and the formation of professional self-awareness falls on the 8th-9th grades.
In the professional self-determination of studentsA significant role is assigned to the family and the state-social structure (vocational and general educational institutions, additional education institutions, employment services).
Psychological and pedagogical support for the self-determination of students is aimed at realizing a conscious choice of profession.
Students are identified with the choice of profession in the process of teaching basic sciences, as well as during training.
So, the professional self-determination of studentsIncludes the process of formation of the individual's personal attitude to the labor sphere, as well as the way of his self-realization through the harmonization of professional and intrapersonal needs.
Professional self-determination of high school students
Identifying high school students with a future professionIs a form of personal self-determination and is characterized by the acquisition process, as well as the search for a profession, the analysis of personal opportunities, abilities in comparison with the requirements of the profession.
At the age of fifteen, a high school student is veryIt is difficult to choose a profession. Often, professional intentions are vague and diffuse, and professionally oriented dreams, as well as romantic aspirations for realization are impossible.
Unsatisfied future is stimulating the development of
- awareness of the personal "I". The high school student is "determined": who is he, what are his abilities, what is the life ideal, what does he want to become. Self-examination is a delayed psychological basis for professional self-determination for the majority of students in a vocational school.
More comfortable feel thoseSenior pupils who receive a complete secondary general education. At the time of graduation, high school students from the fantastic, imaginary professions choose the most acceptable and realistic options. Children understand that success and well-being in life, first of all, depends on the right choice of profession.
Assessing their abilities and abilities, the prestige of the profession, the socio-economic situation, high school students are self-determined in obtaining professional education.
Thus, for high school students, vocational and professional self-determination is a conscious choice of vocational education and vocational training.
Professional self-determination of a person
Professional-personal self-determinationPsychologists refer to the process of forming a person's personal relationship to the professional labor sphere, as well as self-realization through the harmonization of socially professional and intrapersonal needs.
Consider professional self-determination, including the various stages of the formation of personality.
In pre-school childhood kids in the gamingActivities imitate the adults and reproduce their actions. Widespread in the preschool age acquire story-role games, some of which are professionally oriented. Kids playing, they assume the role of sellers, doctors, builders, educators, cooks, drivers of vehicles.
Great importance in professionalSelf-determination is the initial labor action - the implementation of simple actions for caring for plants, clothing, cleaning the premises. These actions contribute to the development of children's interest in the work of adults. Professionally-role games, the performance of elementary types of labor, observation of the labor of adults, contribute to the self-determination of preschool children. At a younger school age, kids willingly imitate the actions of adults and, on the basis of this, they focus on the profession of relatives, parents, teachers, close acquaintances. An important feature of schoolchildren is the motivation of achievements in educational activities. Awareness of the child's capabilities, as well as abilities on the basis of existing experience in gaming, educational, work activity, forms an idea of the future profession.
The end of primary school age is celebratedA significant increase in individual differences in the development of abilities between children, and this in turn affects the significant expansion of the range of professional preferences. Labor and educational activities affect the development of the imagination of children, both creative and recreating. Thanks to this ability, enrichment of ideas about different types of work is carried out, the ability to see oneself in a certain profession develops. Often the child has professionally painted fantasies, which in the future have a huge impact on professional self-determination.
The adolescent age is marked by laying the foundationsMoral attitude to various kinds of work, a teenager forms a system of personal values that determine selectivity in relation to professions. This period of psychology is attributed to the person responsible for the formation of personality.
Adolescent boys, imitating external formsAdult behavior, are guided by romantic professions that have endurance, strong will, courage, courage, for example, an astronaut, test pilot, racing driver. Girls prefer "real women" professions - they are charming, popular, attractive top models, pop singers, TV presenters.
On a romantic profession, orientationIs directed under the influence of the mass media, which replicate the samples of "real adults". This professional romantic orientation is promoted by the desire of adolescents to self-affirmation and self-expression. Differentiated attitudes toward different occupations in circles, subjects, and subjects form children's intentions and dreams. Dreams, patterns of the desired future are the dashes of self-determination.
Professional self-determination of personality in early adolescence is the most important task. Often the teenager's plans are very amorphous, vague, represent the character of a dream.
The teenager most often presents himself inVarious emotionally attractive roles and the psychological justified choice of a profession can not be done independently. And at the beginning of adolescence, this problem confronts young men and girls who leave the main general education school. They make up a third of older adolescents who enter secondary and primary vocational education institutions, while others are forced to start working independently.
Psychologists have found that often studentsThose who receive education in vocational schools, vocational schools, colleges and technical schools were not definitively determined and their choice of an educational institution was not psychologically justified.
The vast majority of young people aged 16 -23 years in educational institutions receive education or undergo vocational training in institutions or enterprises. Often romantic aspirations, dreams are in the past, and the desired future has become real and many are experiencing frustration and dissatisfaction with the choices made. Some attempts are made to make adjustments to the professional start, and most young men and women during the training are strengthened confidence in the correctness of their choice.
At the age of 27 yearsSocial and professional activity. There is already a place of work and some experience. Actuality is gained by professional growth and achievements. However, the overwhelming majority begin to experience psychological discomfort, which is caused by sublime, unrealized plans, as well as labor saturation.
Uncertainty of career prospects, lack ofAchievements actualize the reflection of personal being, generating self-esteem of the "I-concept" and self-analysis. This period is characterized by emotional turmoil. The revision of professional life pushes to the definition of new meaningful goals. Some of them include professional development and improvement; Change of work and initiation of promotion; The choice of a new profession or related specialty.
For many people, by the age of 30,The urgent problem of professional self-determination. There are two possible ways: either to assert yourself further in the chosen profession and become a professional or change the place of work, as well as the profession.
The age period up to 60 years is considered the mostProductive. This period is marked by the realization of oneself as a person, and is also characterized by the use of professional and psychological potential. It is during this period that vital plans are realized, the semantic existence of man is justified. The profession gives a unique opportunity, using their abilities in the labor post, to realize the need to be a person, and also to develop an individual style of activity.
After reaching the retirement age, people leaveFrom the profession, however by the age of 60 the person does not have time to exhaust his potential completely. This period is marked by an alarming state, because over the course of decades stereotypes, as well as a way of life, have collapsed. Skills, knowledge, important qualities - everything becomes unclaimed. Such negative aspects accelerate social aging. The majority of pensioners experience psychological confusion, experience their uselessness and uselessness. Again, the problem arises of self-determination, however, in socially useful, social life.
Psychology of professional self-determination
Domestic psychology processesProfessional self-determination associates with personal self-determination and choice of a way of life. Choosing this or that profession, a person plans his way of being, while correlating the future professional personal status with life values.
The following researchers worked on this problem: M.R. Ginzburg, KA Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, N.S. Pryazhnikov, E.I. Golovakhi, E.F. Zeer, E.A. Klimov.
The most versatile and consistently questionsProfessional self-determination of the subject were studied in the works of N.S. Pryazhnikova, E.A. Klimova, E.F. Zera. E.A. Klimov attributed professional self-determination to the quality of the mental manifestation of human development. During the life of an individual, a certain attitude to different areas of labor is formed, an idea is formed about their capabilities, professions, preferences are singled out.
According to E.A. Klimov, the most important component in self-determination is the formation of self-consciousness.
The structure of professional self-awareness includes:
- awareness of personal belonging to a specific professional community ("we are builders");
- Evaluation of their place and personal correspondence to the standards in the profession (one of the best specialists, a beginner);
- knowledge of the individual about his recognition in a social group ("I am classed as a good specialist");
- knowledge of weak and strong sides, individual, as well as successful ways of acting and ways of self-improvement;
- a personal idea of yourself, as well as work in the future.
E.A. Klimov marks two levels in professional self-determination:
- Gnostic (restructuring of self-consciousness and consciousness);
- practical (changes in the social status of a person).
E.F. Zeer highlights the problem of self-determination of an individual in the context of applied psychology, where professional self-determination is noted:
- selectivity in relation to the individual to the world of professions;
- choice, taking into account individual qualities and characteristics of a person, as well as socio-economic conditions and requirements in the profession;
- constant self-determination of the subject throughout life;
- Definition of external events (change of a residence, the termination of training);
- a manifestation of the social maturity of the individual with a close relationship of self-realization.
The tasks in self-determination are all resolved in different waysAt each stage of professional development. They are determined by interpersonal relations in the team, socio-economic conditions, professional and age crises, but the leading role remains for the activity of the individual and its responsibility for personal development.
E.F. Zeer believes that self-determination is an important factor in self-realization of an individual in a particular profession.
H. S. Pryazhnikov proposed his model of self-determination, which includes such components:
- awareness by the individual of the values of socially useful work, as well as the need for professional training;
- orientation in the socio-economic situation, as well as forecasting the prestige of the chosen work;
- definition of a professional goal-dream;
- allocation of professional immediate goals, as stages for achieving further goals;
- search for information on specialties and professions that correspond to educational institutions and places of employment;
- an idea of the personal qualities necessary to implement the plans, as well as possible difficulties in achieving the goals;
- Presence of reserve options in choosing a profession in case of failure under the basic option of self-determination;
- practical realization of personal prospects, adjustment of plans.
Professional self-determination by N.S. Pryazhnikov occurs at the following levels:
- self-determination in labor, specific functions(The employee sees the meaning of the activity in the qualitative execution of operations or individual labor functions, while the individual's freedom of choice of actions is limited);
- self-determination on a labor specific post(The labor post is marked by an industrial limited environment, which includes certain rights, means of labor, duties), while the performance of multiple functions enables self-fulfillment of the performed activity, and the change of the job post affects negatively the quality of labor, causing dissatisfaction of the employee;
- Self-determination at the level of a certain specialty provides for the replacement of labor posts, which makes it possible to expand the possibilities for self-realization of the individual;
- self-determination in a particular profession;
- life self-determination is associated with the choice of a way of life that includes leisure and self-education;
- personal self-determination is determinedThe discovery of the image of the self and its affirmation among the surrounding individuals (the individual rises above social roles, profession, becomes the master of his personal life and surrounding people classifies him as a good specialist, and a respected, unique personality);
- self-determination of an individual in culture is notedOrientation of the individual to "continue" themselves in other people and is characterized by a significant contribution to the development of culture, which makes it possible to talk about the social immortality of the individual.
The problem of professional self-determination
The experience of professional consulting work shows that,Students who do not choose a profession often turn to a psychologist for help in determining the type of activity where they will be most capable. Behind this lies an unconscious desire to shift the solution of the life problem to another individual. Difficulties of such a plan often arise because of the lack of adequate schoolchildren's ideas about professional suitability, inability to assess their abilities and abilities, and also to relate them to the world of professions.
Many students can not answer: "What kind of activities would you like to do?", "What do they see as their abilities?"; "What qualities are important for success in mastering the future profession?"
A low culture of knowledge, as well as ignorance of modern professions complicates the choice of high school students life path.
Professional orientation work of a psychologist shouldTo turn from diagnostic into formative, developing, diagnostic-correctional. Stages of consulting work should be aimed at encouraging students to form a desire for a conscious, independent choice of their profession, taking into account the knowledge they have gained about themselves.