The psychology of conflict is his device,in other words, this is how it flows. The psychology of conflicts considers the interrelationship of various elements of personality. And it defines conflict directly as the absence of unanimity between two individuals (parties) or groups of subjects. Confrontation is one of the variations of the subjects' relationships. If it passes constructively, it acts as a development of the relationship between the participants.
In psychology, the term conflict containscontradictions associated with incredibly strong emotions. Any conflict is a social phenomenon and is characterized by the presence of specific functions that act as peculiar indicators, showing how conflict situations affect the society or the individual.
The concept of conflict in psychology
in the process of existence and activityrepeatedly faced with a variety of conflict situations. Conflict refers to the divergence in goals, ideological positions of the subjects of interaction. To understand the meaning of oppositions in the life of the society and individuals, it is necessary to delve briefly into the essence of the psychology of the conflict, and in order to clarify its essence, it is important to identify the core signs and conditions for the emergence of confrontation.
So, the foundation of any collision or contradiction is always a situation that in itself can contain one of the following conditions:
- Contradictory views of subjects in relation to a particular object or object;
- dissimilar goals or the means used in certain circumstances to achieve them;
- opposing interests, wishes of opponents.
Conflict situation always includespresence of subjects of a possible collision and its object. However, for the development of confrontation, it is also necessary to have an action, that is, one participant in the confrontation must begin to act, offending the interests of the other participant. If, at the same time, the second participant in the process responds with similar acts, the clash will outgrow the potential confrontation into the actual one.
The essence of the psychology of conflict is summarized inThe presence of an initial discrepancy in views, lack of agreement, divergence of goals. At the same time, the confrontation itself can take place either explicitly or veiled.
The conducted studies show that in eighty percent of cases of confrontation arise regardless of the desire of the subjects of confrontation.
Leading role in the formation of conflict situationsplay "conflicts", that is, words, deeds or lack of actions that generate and provoke the outbreak of confrontation. Any confrontation is characterized by a clear structure. Its main elements are: the sides of confrontation, the subject and motives of the clash, the image of the conflict situation, the positions of the participants in the confrontation. Participants in the confrontation are individuals who are in interaction. At the same time, their interests must be violated directly. Participants are also actors that support either explicitly or implicitly the conflict.
The object of the conflict is an objectively existing or contrived problem that serves as the reason for the confrontation between the participants.
The motives of confrontation as internal drivers encourage individuals to confront. They manifest themselves as individual needs, goals and beliefs.
The image of the conflict situation is a reflection of the subject of confrontation in the minds of individuals participating in the conflict interaction.
The positions of the participants in the confrontation are what the parties state in the course of the confrontation or during the negotiations.
The conflict process, as well as any other social phenomenon, has its functions.
The functions of conflict in psychology
Any opposition can carry a positive aspect, that is, be constructive, or bear negative consequences, that is, be destructive.
The civilized conflict process is basedon maintaining interaction within the limits of competition and cooperation. The struggle also marks the emergence of confrontation beyond the borders of civilization. Therefore, the functions of conflicts are divided into destructive and constructive.
Constructive functions of conflicts in psychology:
- removal of tension between subjects of social interaction;
- connecting and communicative-informational;
- Motivation for social change;
- promoting the formation of socially necessary harmony;
- reassessment of accepted norms and former values;
- facilitating the strengthening of the loyalty of members of a particular structural unit.
Negative functions of conflict in psychology:
- dissatisfaction, a decrease in labor productivity, an increase in personnel turnover;
- violation of the communication system, a decrease in the level of cooperation in the future;
- indestructible devotion to one's own community and unproductive rivalry with other groups;
- Representation of the opposing side as an enemy, understanding its goals as positive, and the intentions of the other party - negative;
- elimination of interaction between the parties in confrontation;
- Increased hostility between the parties involved in the conflict process as communication is reduced, increasing mutual hostility;
- a shift in emphasis: the victory in the confrontation is given more importance than the solution of the problem;
- in the social experience of the community or an individual, there is a consolidation of violent methods of solving problems.
The boundary between constructive and negativefunctions often lose their own uniqueness when necessary to assess the consequences of a particular collision. In addition, the overwhelming majority of confrontations are characterized by the simultaneous presence of positive and destructive functions.
Conflict processes are subdivided by the spheres of their origin into: economic, ideological, social and family conflicts.
Family psychology conflicts inthe quality of the relationship between the direct confrontation and the personality of the opposing side. Peculiarities of family contradictions are the danger of transforming the normal mental state of partners into a stressful one, that is, a state that distorts the psyche of the individual, the consequence of which is often a state of devastation and complete indifference.
understands as a directed negativethe state of mind of one or both partners, characterized by aggressiveness, negativism in relationships. This state is provoked by the incompatibility of the views of spouses, their interests, beliefs or needs.
Family confrontations differ from stagesdevelopment of the community cell. The most important role played by the conflict process during the formation of the family, when the husband and wife are just beginning to find a common language, adapting to each other.
Conflict in social psychology
Communicative interaction as aprocess of communication originates from a jointly accepted by individuals of a positive decision regarding the exchange of information. Participation in the communicative process can take an unlimited number of subjects. Each of the interacting entities is obliged to make its own contribution to the creation of a full and effective communication. If a large number of individuals participate in the exchange of information, the consequence of this process should be the planning of further joint activities. Only in this case, communication should be considered held.
Interaction, consisting of two participants,is considered simple communication. If more than two individuals are involved in communication, then such communication is called complex. Participation in the communicative process of several communities can be based on mutual understanding or on their confrontation, which is expressed in the form of competition based on competition. The conflict process is the most striking expression of competition. Sociologists distinguish the following components of the confrontation: the origin of the conflict situation, the presence of participants, the cause of the conflict process (that is, the object of confrontation), the trigger mechanism, maturation and resolution of confrontation.
Psychology of conflict development
All individuals fall into a confrontation situation. Often people may not realize that they are involved in a confrontation. Often this happens at the stage of the origin of the contradiction, due to the fact that individuals lack basic knowledge about the stages of conflict formation and escalation, which are studied by the psychology of conflict development.
The process of the origin of the situation of confrontationcalled dynamics and consists of several successive stages of the development of confrontation, namely the emergence of confrontation between actors, the identification of the desire of the actors to develop the situation of confrontation, the parties' awareness of the essence and the root cause of the confrontation, the discovery of conflictual relations, the establishment of participants, the fading of confrontation.
There are many variations in the definitionconflict in social psychology, but the following formulation is more correct: the conflict process is born on the background of the contradiction that arises between individuals or communities in connection with the need to make decisions on various issues of personal life and social life. However, not every contradiction will develop into a conflict. Confrontation will arise if contradictions affect the social status of a collective or an individual, material values or spiritual orientations of people, moral dignity of a person.
The psychology of behavior in conflict depends onprocess of learning. A protracted confrontation helps opponents to study each other well, which allows them to take different actions based on the opponent's temperament, the specific features of his character, inherent emotional reactions. In other words, competitors can virtually predict the actions of the opposite side with absolute certainty, which allows them to significantly increase the arsenal of tools used and expand the scope of the behavior strategies used, adjusting them to the characteristics of the opposing side. Thus, the problem of conflict in psychology is the interdependence of the actions of opponents, which leads to a mutually directed influence of the parties.
Conflicts are considered very important, but not enoughstudied by the social and psychological problem. Most scientists view conflicts as a natural and inevitable phenomenon. Therefore, the psychology of behavior in the conflict is considered one of the leading topics of social psychology and conflictology. Since the acquisition of skills for smoothing and resolving all kinds of conflict situations in the course of professional activities or family life will help an individual to become more successful and happier.
Causes of conflict psychology
In the history of studying conflict as a psychologicalthe phenomenon is conditionally distinguished by two stages. The first one originates from the twentieth century and continues until the fifties of the last century, and the second - from the end of the fifties of the last century and continues to this day. The second stage is the psychology of modern conflicts, based on the assertion that any acts of individuals are social, because they are characterized by close interconnection with the social environment.
Conflicts, their factors provoking, formsmanifestations and means of their settlement are accessible to understanding solely on the basis of a profound interpretation of the nature of the society and individual personality, the laws of social interaction and the interrelations of individuals.
At the beginning of the last century in a separate subjectthe conflict did not stand out. The collision was then considered as an integral part of more global concepts (psychoanalytic theory or sociometry). In those days, psychologists were interested only in the consequences of conflicts or a number of reasons provoking their emergence. Directly the conflict as a key link of research did not interest them.
At the end of the fifties, the first research appears, in which the main subject of research is the problem of conflict in psychology.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, among the key areas of psychological research of the conflict process are the following:
- psychoanalytic theory (Z. Freud, E. Fromm, K. Horney);
- ethological (N. Tinbergen, K. Lorenz);
- the concept of group dynamics (K.Levin);
- Behavioral (A.Bandura);
- Sociometric (D. Moreno).
The psychoanalytic trend, first of all,is connected with Freud, who created the conceptual theory of human conflict. Freud drew attention to the need to search for factors that cause interpersonal conflicts in the area of the unconscious.
TO. Horney tried to bring the social context into the nature of conflicts. The main reason for the confrontations observed between the subject and the environment, she considered the lack of benevolence from the relatives, and in the first turn, parents. Fromm believed that conflicts arose because of the inability to implement personal needs and aspirations in society.
K. Lorenz is considered the ancestor of the ethological approach to explaining the causes of the emergence of confrontations. He considered the main reason for confrontation
crowd and individual. In his opinion, the mechanisms of origin
in animals and in human individuals of the same type, because aggression is an unchanging state of a living organism.
TO. Levin, in his study of the problems of group dynamics, developed a theory of a dynamic behavioral system in which the tension increases when the balance between the environment and the individual is disturbed. This tension is expressed in the form of confrontation. For example, the source of confrontation may be the unfavorable management style of the superior.
Followers of the behavioral approach soughtcauses collisions not only exclusively in innate human qualities, but also in the social environment of individuals, which transforms these qualities.
The founder of the theory of sociometry, J. Moreno, believed that interpersonal conflicts are due to the state of emotional relationships between subjects, their likes and dislikes towards each other.
The psychology of modern conflicts is based on research conducted in the second half of the last century, in the following areas:
- game theory (M. Deutsch);
- the concept of organizational systems (R. Blake);
- The theory and practice of the process of introducing negotiations (R. Fisher).
M. Deutch considered the basis of the conflict the incompatibility of the aspirations of the participants in interpersonal relationships.
In the sixties and seventies of the last century a separate direction on the study of the negotiation process is being formed as an integral part of the conflict interaction.
B. Hassan, in his work "Constructive Psychology of Conflict" on a new look at the talks as a way out of confrontation. He believed that any effective negotiation process is a product of joint research work of all its participants. In his manual "Constructive Psychology of Conflict" he presented the basic concepts of a constructive approach to conflicts, suggested ways of analyzing confrontation situations. In addition, he outlined various approaches to the negotiation process, to an understanding of the ways of organizing and conducting negotiations as the main way of interaction of opponents for effective resolution of confrontations.
Conflict Management Psychology
Participants in the conflict process may bein it for a long time and get used to it. However, over time, there will be an incident that will provoke an open clash of the parties, a demonstration of mutually exclusive views.
It happens that the resolution of conflict situationsproceeds quite correctly and competently, but more often the way out of the confrontation is unprofessional, which leads to negative consequences for the participants of the clash.
So you need to know how to properly manageconfrontations. It should be understood that the management of the confrontation is not equivalent to solving the problem that caused the confrontation. In the first turn, there may be a discrepancy between operational and strategic objectives. For example, now it is more important to save in the team a good relationship, rather than to get out of the problem situation. D. Dan argued that resolving the conflict for himself would not necessarily carry the resolution of the problem. In addition, it is possible to resolve a problematic issue and confrontation in various ways. For example, the death of one of the rivals can mean solving a problematic issue.
Therefore, competent management of the conflict psychology considers possible under the condition that the following conditions are met:
- an objective awareness of the contradiction as an actual reality;
- the admissibility of the possibility of actively influencing confrontation and transforming it into a self-regulating factor of the system;
- the availability of social and material and spiritual resources, the legal basis for management, the ability of individuals to coordinate their views and interests, attitudes and orientations.
Conflict resolution should include:
- Diagnosis and prediction of contradictions;
- prevention and prevention;
- management and rapid resolution of confrontations.
The most effective personality-orientedways of resolving confrontations are set forth in the work of E. Bogdanov and V. Zazykina "The Psychology of Personality in Conflict." It examines the main psychological causes of the emergence of various intergroup, interpersonal and other confrontations, the content of psychological conditions of conflict individuals.
Also in the book "Psychology of personality in conflict"the definition of interethnic confrontations, their object and subjects, time frame and spatial characteristics is given. Also, it lists the reasons for their generating and possible