Reflection is a form of theoretical activityIndividual, reflecting the view or expressing an appeal back through the comprehension of their personal actions, as well as their laws. The inner reflection of the personality reflects the activity of self-discovery, revealing the specifics of the individual's spiritual world. The content of reflection is determined by the subject-sensory activity. The concept of reflexion involves understanding the objective world of culture and in this sense reflection is a method of philosophy, and dialectics is a reflection of the mind.
Reflection in psychology is the treatment of a subjectOn himself, on his consciousness, on products of his own activity or any rethinking. The traditional concept includes the content, as well as the functions of one's own consciousness, which are part of personal structures (interests, values, motives), connect thinking, behavioral patterns, decision-making mechanisms, perception, emotional response.
Types of Reflection
A. Karpov, as well as other researchers identified the following types of reflection: situational, retrospective, prospective.
Situational reflection is the motivation andSelf-assessments that ensure the inclusion of the subject in the situation, as well as analysis of what is happening and comprehension of the elements of analysis. For this species is characterized by the ability to correlate with the objective situation of their actions, the ability to control and coordinate the elements of the activities depending on changing conditions.
Retrospective reflection of personality is an analysis of events, performed activities that took place in the past.
A prospective reflection is a reflection onForthcoming activities, planning, presentation of activity trends, selection of the most effective ways of its implementation, forecasting of possible outcomes.
Other researchers distinguish elementary,Scientific, philosophical, psychological, social reflection. The goal of elementary is the consideration, as well as the analysis of one's own actions and knowledge by the individual. This kind is peculiar to every individual, as everyone thought about the causes of mistakes and failures, in order to change the ideas about the environment and the world, to correct mistakes, not to admit them in the future. This state allows you to learn from personal mistakes.
Scientific reflection has a focus onA critical study of scientific methods, the study of scientific knowledge, the methods of obtaining scientific results, the procedures for substantiating scientific laws and theories. This state finds expression in the methodology of scientific knowledge, logic, psychology of scientific creativity.
Social reflection is the understanding of anotherIndividual through meditation for him. It is attributed to internal betrayal. The representation of what others think about the individual is of great importance in social cognition. This knowledge of the other (but I think), as they think about me and the knowledge of myself supposedly through the eyes of another. A wide range of communication allows a person to know a lot about themselves.
The highest form is philosophical reflection, which includes reflections and reasoning about the foundations of human culture, as well as the meaning of human existence.
The state of reflection Socrates considered the most importantMeans of self-knowledge of the person, and also a basis of spiritual perfection. It is the ability of critical self-esteem to be the most important distinctive feature of an individual as an intelligent person. Thanks to this state, human errors, prejudices are eliminated, the spiritual progress of mankind becomes real.
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin noted that a reflexive state distinguishes a person from animals and allows an individual not only to know something, but also gives an opportunity to know about his knowledge.
Ernst Cassirer believed that reflection is expressed in the ability to isolate from all sensory phenomena some elements that are stable for isolating and concentrating on them.
One of the first in psychology to consider the reflective state of A. Buseman, who interpreted it, as the transfer of experiences from the outside world to himself.
Psychological studies of reflection are twofold:
- a way of the researcher's comprehension of the grounds, as well as the results of the research;
- the basic property of the subject, under which there is awareness, as well as the regulation of their vital activity.
Reflection in psychology is a reflection of a person whose purpose is to consider, as well as an analysis of one's own activity, of oneself, of one's own states, past events, actions.
The depth of the state is related to the interestThe individual in this process, as well as the ability to focus his attention on a lesser or to a greater extent, which is affected by education, the notion of morality, the development of moral feelings, the level of self-control. It is believed that individuals of various professional and social groups are different in the use of a reflective position. This property is considered as a conversation or a kind of dialogue with oneself, as well as the individual's ability to self-development.
Reflection is a thought with a focus onThought or self. It can be regarded as a secondary genetic phenomenon arising from practice. This is a way out of practice beyond the boundaries of oneself, as well as the return of practice to oneself. The psychology of creative thinking and creativity treats this process as a reinterpretation and comprehension by the subject of stereotypes of experience.
The study of the relationship between personalityIndividual, reflective state, creativity, allows us to talk about the problems of the creative uniqueness of the individual, as well as its development. E. Husserl - a classic of philosophical thought noted that the reflective position is a way of seeing that transforms from the direction of the object.
Psychological characteristics of this state include the ability to change the content of consciousness, as well as change the structure of consciousness.
Domestic psychology identifies four approaches in studying the understanding of reflection: cooperative, communicative, intellectual (cognitive), personal (general psychology).
Co-operative is the analysis of subject-subjectTypes of activities, the design of collective activities aimed at the coordination of professional positions, as well as group roles of actors or cooperation of joint actions.
Communicative is a component of developed communication, as well as interpersonal perception, as a specific quality of the individual's cognition of the individual.
Intellectual or cognitive isThe ability of the subject to analyze, isolate, correlate his own actions with the objective situation, and also consider it depending on the study of the mechanisms of thinking.
The personal (general psychological) is the building of a new image of one's self in the process of communicating with other individuals, as well as active activities and the development of new knowledge about the world around them.
Personal reflection consists of psychologicalMechanism of changing individual consciousness. A.V. Rossokhin believes that this aspect is a subjective active process of generating meanings, which is based on uniqueness
To be conscious of the unconscious. This is internal work leading to the formation of new strategies, ways of internal dialogue, to changes in value-semantic entities, the integration of the individual into a new, as well as a holistic state.
Reflection of activity
Reflection is considered a special skill,Which consists in the ability to recognize the focus of attention, and also to monitor the psychological state, thoughts, sensations. It represents the ability to observe yourself as if from the outside by the eyes of an outsider, allows you to see what exactly focuses and focuses on. Modern psychology under this concept implies any thinking of the individual, which is aimed at introspection. This is an assessment of your condition, actions, reflection on any events. The depth of introspection depends on the level of morality, the education of a person, his ability to control himself.
Reflection of activity is the mainThe source of new ideas. Reflexive state, giving a certain material, can later serve as an observation, as well as criticism. The individual changes as a result of introspection and the reflexive position represents a mechanism that makes implicit thoughts explicit. Under certain conditions, a reflexive state becomes a source of gaining even deeper knowledge than those that we possess. Professional development of the individual is directly related to this condition. The very development takes place not only in terms of technology, but also in the intellectual, as well as personal. A man for whom reflection is alien, his life does not control and the vital river carries him in the direction of the current.
The reflection of activity enables an individualTo realize what the person is doing now, where he is and where it needs to move to develop. Reflexive state, aimed at understanding the causes, as well as the bases of personal judgments, is often referred to as philosophy.
Reflection of activity is important forA person engaged in intellectual work. It is needed when interpersonal group interaction is necessary. For example, management refers to this case. Reflection must be differentiated from
Purpose of Reflection
Without reflection, there is no learning. The individual who repeats the activity proposed in the sample a hundred times, can not learn anything.
The goal of reflection is to identify, recall andTo realize the components of activity. These are the types, meaning, ways, ways to solve them, problems, the results obtained. Without awareness of the ways of learning, the mechanisms of cognition, the trainees are unable to appropriate the knowledge they have gained. Training occurs when directed reflection is connected, thanks to which schemes of activity are distinguished, namely methods of solving practical problems.
Reflexive feeling is an inner experience, a way of self-knowledge, as well as an essential tool of thinking. The most relevant is the reflection in distance learning forms.
Development of reflection
It is incredibly important to develop reflection to change the sober individual for the better. Development includes the following methods:
- Analyze personal actions after all important events, as well as making complex decisions;
- try to evaluate yourself adequately;
- think about how you acted and how your actions looked in the eyes of others, evaluate your actions in terms of the ability to change something, evaluate the experience;
- try to finish your work dayAnalyzing events, mentally running through all the episodes of the passing day, especially concentrate on those episodes that you are not happy with, and assess all the unfortunate moments with the view of an outside observer;
- periodically check the personal opinion about other people, analyzing how much personal perceptions are erroneous or true.
- communicate more with people who are different from you, holding a different point of view than yours, because every attempt to understand a different person makes it possible to activate the reflection.
Achieving success allows us to talk about masteringReflexive position. One should not be afraid to understand another individual, since this does not mean accepting his position. Deep and wide vision of the situation makes your mind the most flexible, allows you to find a coordinated and effective solution. To analyze personal actions, use the problems that arise at a particular moment. In the most difficult situations, it is possible to find a share of the comic and paradox. If you look at your problem from a different angle, you will notice something funny in it. This skill indicates a high level of reflective position. It's difficult to find something funny in the problem, but it will help to solve it.
After six months, developing the ability toReflexive position, you will notice that you have mastered the ability to understand people, and also in yourself. You will be surprised that you can predict others' actions, as well as anticipate thoughts. You will feel a powerful inflow of forces and learn to understand yourself.
Reflection is an effective and subtle weapon. This direction can be developed indefinitely, and use the ability in the most diverse spheres of life.
The development of personal reflection is not an easy task. If there are difficulties, then improve communication skills, ensuring the development of a reflective position.