Reminiscence is a mnemonic effectCharacterized by a sudden recollection of the perceived material without its recurrence after a long time (from one day to seven, or even a longer period of time). Reminiscence is a psychic phenomenon that often occurs when you perceive information material with internal logical connections of content that produces a strong emotional impression on the individual. Explicit reasons for the occurrence of sudden memories have not yet been studied.
What is a reminiscence?
Reminiscence refers to this phenomenon
, Which appears after memorizing the information without immediately reproducing it immediately after
, And after a certain period of time without the effect on the person of the stimulus series.
The term reminiscence was proposed in psychologySerbian scientist V. Urbancic in 1907. The scientist studied the phenomenon that he observed in the subjects when memorizing material (verbal, non-verbal, and sensorimotor movements).
The effect of reminiscence is most pronounced inPreschool age and in younger schoolchildren. In the field of psychology, scientists have revealed higher quality indicators of the delayed reproduction of learned material, rather than the reproduction of information immediately after its memorization.
Sudden reproduction of the material afterMemorization studied P. Bellard. In his experimental studies involved individuals who memorized the stimulus material, but time for sufficient development was not enough. After a time interval of 24 hours - 7 days, the subjects reproduced the material. The best results were shown after 2-3 day interval. The obtained results differed quantitatively with high indicators, which was fixed in the psychological science of memory, as a phenomenon of Bellard.
Also in psychology, the scientist Pierre Janet studied reminiscence. In his writings he described the phenomenon as an automatic repetition of actions independent of external factors.
Reminiscence is a phenomenon that is fairly widespread, and the frequency of its emergence depends largely on the nature of the material that you need to remember.
In the researches of the scientist D.I. The coloring reproduction of the semantic material was revealed much more than the incoherent reproduction of the material. Experimental studies have established that interest in a material significantly affects the manifestation of reminiscence.
The occurrence of the phenomenon of sudden memories is affected by the degree of mastering the content of the material by memorizing. Provided that
Insufficiently mastered the content of the informationMaterial, a sudden memory will not take place. If the learner tries to reproduce the material immediately after the very memorization, then he relies on associations appearing between images and concepts, and if the reproduction is more delayed, then the subject relies on a logical connection.
An example of reminiscence is the transfer of creditA student who by heart learns the necessary information without understanding it, comprehending it. Before passing the credit, an individual may have a "porridge in his head", but at the right moment the information is recalled. And after passing the test, the student forgets everything, and does not understand the meaning of the memorized. Or, for example, a poem by a schoolboy, a formulation, a concept. In many models of teaching the main thing is just the unintelligible memorization of actions, phrases or words, which is achieved by frequent repetition of the stimulus material.
Reminiscence can be observed practicallyeveryone. It happens that an individual suddenly remembers this or that song, verse or minor events. The peculiarity of this effect is that this reproduction of the material takes place without purposeful efforts. The person does not draw from memory, does not try to remember the lines from the song, they themselves come up from the depths of memory.
Reminiscence in Psychology
Scientists have not sufficiently studied the causal seriesThe emergence of a sudden recollection, the factors that cause a sudden recall, but the mechanism of the reminiscence effect was investigated, based on the works of domestic and foreign researchers.
The mechanism of sudden
Is caused by the action of affective inhibition,Due to the expressed emotional experience, impression from the perceived information material. Emotional inhibition affects the nature of the material being reproduced. When you play back the learned information, the story begins with the part that produced the most vivid impression, while the logical connection between the reproduced information is lost. In the case of delayed playback, the information does not lose its logical sequence.
From the point of view of psychology, reminiscence isThe process of normalizing the state of fatigue after a tense physical, intellectual or emotional load. The information material after its perception by the individual is arranged in the head, after which it becomes easier for the person to voice it.
A sudden memory also occurs whenThere is no stratification of many details of a single logical phenomenon, in which confusion arises. Conditional forgetting can take place, but after an interval during which stimulus material does not work for the individual and there is no additional burden on memory, a sudden memory may appear.
Reminiscence depends on the allusion, which is only a hint, a clue that pushes the right thought. Because of the appearance of allusion, the individual has a sudden memory.
Is an external phenomenon, a stimulating factor that provokes the emergence of an internal phenomenon of reminiscence.
The phenomenon of reminiscence is also considered from the point of viewThe view of pathology in psychology, when there is a psychotraumatic event and memories take the character of intrusive and negative. Getting into external circumstances similar to the circumstances of a traumatic event, a person may experience emotional discomfort associated with the effect of compulsive reminiscence. This state directly depends on the initial emotional state of the individual.
The phenomenon of a sudden memory in an obsessive form can be observed in persons with
. Reminiscence in these cases manifests itself in dreams with memories of acquired traumatic experiences.
The sudden reproduction of early perceived information is often a natural feature of the work of human memory.
If we consider the reminiscence ofPsychiatry, it can be a symptom of such diseases as traumatic brain injury, alcoholic or infectious intoxications, brain pathologies and others.
Reminiscence in psychiatry is seen as a form
, As a manifestation
, As a symptom in depressive states, manifested by uncontrolled chaotic thoughts. Sudden memories can occur when
The manifestation of reminiscence, as a pathological symptom, is characterized by the obsession of thoughts and images, and also evokes in the individual a sufficiently expressive emotional reaction (anxiety,
Reminiscence can be the object of attention inThe practical activity of a psychologist, corrective activity with the aim of substituting negative experiences for positive ones, in the treatment of conditions associated with psychotraumatic situations. Interventions specialist require both obsessive reminiscences with negative emotional symptoms, and the complete absence of this memory effect, which can signal the violation of the CNS or the beginning
If a sudden recollection takes place inPathological manifestation, then it is necessary to intervene with a specialist who will determine the medicinal principles of treating the disease, the manifestations of which were reminiscences. Also, an effective and adequate psychotherapeutic tactic should be selected by a qualified specialist.