Russophobia is a disparaging, biased,Impartial, suspicious, unfriendly and even hostile-aggressive attitude towards Russians in particular or Russia as a whole. Russophobia is a separate manifestation
I.e. Russophobia is one of the directions of ethnophobia (negative attitude towards some ethnic groups).
Many scientists consider Russophobia, in contrast toOther phobias, the manifestation of a specific ideology, consisting in a whole set of concepts and a set of ideas that have a certain structure, history of development, a system of concepts and their characteristic manifestations.
Causes of Russophobia
To find ways to overcome the phobia you needTo study the origins of Russophobia, to understand the causes of its appearance and origin. The reasons that lead to Russophobia have rather deep roots. From time immemorial, there have always been foreigners in Russia. Even in antiquity in the 15th and 17th centuries foreigners had a malevolent opinion and a disdainful attitude towards Russia and the Russians. Even then, the Russian people were attributed all kinds of human vices and weaknesses that foreign citizens possessed. Foreign chroniclers slandered in their writings well, Russian citizens, saturate them with all kinds of fictions, slander and gossip. Therefore, their compatriots were biased against the citizens of Russia, they felt to them in particular and to Russia as a whole a feeling of disgust and dislike, thereby in every way supporting and nurturing Russophobia.
Many scientists believe that this phobia shouldSubdivided into hostility towards Russian people, which is conditioned by a certain situation, and a phobia, which is an ideology. For example, according to historians, there is information, documented, about the existence of Russophobia from the beginning of the 16th century. This is due to the fact that it was in this century that the West began to discover the Russian state for itself. And their curiosity was based on horror, which was evoked by reviews of strangers who visited Russia about people in particular and about the country as a whole.
However, it should be emphasized that,That before the 19th century, the presence of a huge number of negative reviews and characteristics did not have any systemic implications. Therefore, there is an opinion that the main reason for the emergence of Russophobia, as a common position, a little later. There are facts that indicate that Russophobia manifests itself in Russia, sometimes even in the most unexpected places. The forms of its manifestation are very diverse. So, for example, after several acts of terrorism in 2010, held in the Moscow metro, various inscriptions of such content as "death to Russians" and others were found in the capital.
Today, there are three main reasons for the emergence of this type of phobia: on the basis of liberalism and the national liberation movement, the result of competition, on the basis of cultural ideology.
The first reason is related to the rather aggressiveThe foreign policy first of the Russian Empire, the USSR, and then the Russian Federation. Historian N. Petrov believes that many countries condemn the monstrous crimes of Stalin in particular and the entire Soviet government as a whole, as a result of which an incorrect judgment appears that leads to Russophobia. A philosopher A. Tsipko considered one of the reasons for the emergence of Russophobia propaganda company of the Russian government in the field of combating any manifestations of fascism.
The second reason can be related, according to D. Rogozin, with the vision of Russia as a fairly large state, which can be dangerous for neighbors. Also, the hostility of Russophobia may lie with the hostility of European ethnoses to each other.
And D. Chiesa noticed the artificially preserved and artificially maintained by the Western media the motive of Russophobia, which he associated with political rivalry and economic competition of countries.
Cultural-ideological Russophobia arose onThe reason for the dislike of the Western intelligentsia towards Russian citizens. Russophobia is a consequence of the representation of the Western powers about their so-called economic preponderance and cultural superiority. This is due, as a rule, to the fact that some Western countries perceived Russians as barbarians who have a minimally developed culture and a tendency to an autocratic model of government. Whereas Europe is striving for a developed democratic society. With the collapse of the Union, such an opinion gained momentum again, but it has already become connected with Russian emigrants or Russian citizens due to their involvement in criminality ("Russian mafia", prostitution). Particularly noticeable is the manifestation of Russophobia in the media and in online comments directed against all that is happening in Russia.
There is also an opinion that the origins of Russophobia needSeek in the genetically inherent historical memory of society. You can, for example, take the French and their former emperor Napoleon, who shamefully fled from Moscow. His once great army shamefully retreated from the Russian land. All these events of the past years have left an indelible mark in the memory of French citizens. And today it has become unimportant that it was the French who were the first to unleash the war, because at the level of national consciousness the Russian state continues to be associated with something dangerous and formidable. The same example can serve Germany.
History of Russophobia
We can assume that for the first time the concept of "Russophobia"Was applied by the Russian poet F. Tyutchev. He opposed Russophobia pan-Slavism (an ideology based on the need to unite the Slavs). Active propaganda against the Russian Empire was led by the Polish and Lithuanian government, writers and historians, and then by the Jesuits. The reason for the emergence of such propaganda is the rivalry for the Russian lands. Also such propaganda arose on the basis of the struggle of Orthodoxy with Catholicism. So, for example, King Sigismund 1, tried by any means to stop and prevent any political alliances of Russia in Europe. He tried to convince Western monarchs that Russians are not Christians, but ruthless barbarians who belong to Asia and have collusion with the Tatars and Turks about the destruction of the entire Christian world.
The origins of Russophobia come back from the timesThe split between the Roman Empire and Constantinople due to religious disagreement. The Russophobia and rejection of the Orthodox Church is based on the West's rejection of the Christian East in general. Russia at all times attributed to the renegades and schismatics.
It so happened that in the 16th century Europe becameTo discover the Russian state. She still perceived Russia on the principle of "stranger". At first, Europe's dislike for Russia came from the realization that there is another culture in the Russian state that is alien to and incomprehensible to Europeans, the Russian people themselves and their actions are also incomprehensible and alien to Europeans. She explored the traditions with great curiosity, and sometimes with horror, got acquainted with customs and customs. Since the bulk of the population of Europe recognized Russia only by descriptions of their fellow tribesmen, and their descriptions and reviews were more often negative, the opinion of the mainstream masses was based on this. This is due to the fact that this is how humanity works - it denies something that does not understand. And the West and to this day does not understand the mysterious Russian soul, as a result of which it cultivates Russophobic sentiments in itself.
At the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th centuryThere is the origin of the Russophobic attitude as a system that causes a hostile-aggressive policy towards the Russian state by one or another country.
In the beginning, such sentiments appeared in France in1815 after the failure of the Napoleonic plans to seize foreign territories. Then in the 20-40 years of the 19th century Russophobia became infected by the British. The historian A. Fursov characterizes the system russophobia as a psychohistorical weapon. The purpose of such weapons is the opportunity to prove to themselves and the Russians that they are lagging behind in development, since it does not correspond to the Western version, thereby putting the Russians in a deliberately losing state of defense. The West considers its culture, its development, its traditions as a kind of standard, to which the rest must correspond.
Some sources indicate thatThe emergence of Russophobia as a system began after the anti-liberal and militaristic policy of Nicholas 1. After a number of his successes in military operations, the Russian state began to evoke fears and to be perceived as a threat to the interests of some European powers.
However, the most dangerous manifestation of RussophobiaIs considered internally the world outlook of the country with Russophobic color. How the whole world can get rid of Russophobia, if the Russians themselves do not respect their people, their traditions, the history of the state. For a Russian, there is no such thing as a homeland. For him, the Motherland is where he will be happy. This position is incomprehensible to Europeans.
The most important problem of the modern RussianSociety is mass ignorance, ignorance of its history, disrespect for the history of the state. Ignorance always leads to doubts, to exposure to other people's thoughts and ideas, to the influence of other people's traditions and to disregard their traditions and culture. For this reason, the phenomenon of Russophobia in the Russian state and the consciousness of the Russian citizen is born.
Most historians agree thatThe origins of Russophobia are hidden in the national consciousness of Russians. This is evidenced by the huge number of Russophobes living in Russia itself, as well as among prominent public Russian figures. This position is also proved by the special Russian mentality, which is based on aspiration to rigid self-criticism.
Struggle against Russophobia
There are several definite views onPossible ways of overcoming and combating any manifestations of Russophobia, which come from different understandings of its roots. One of the reasons for the hostile attitude towards Russian citizens is the lack of access to the general use of objective information about Russians, due to the lack of cultural ties between the countries of the West and Russia, and also due to a lack of understanding and lack of interaction between the indigenous population and Russian diasporas within these countries.
In cases of manifestations of Russophobic sentimentsIt would be inappropriate to turn in retaliation against the cultures of such countries, to lock themselves within their own culture and state. Dislike, misunderstanding, dislike can be overcome only on the condition of establishing broader interstate relations and intercultural interaction.
Russophobia can still be viewed from the standpoint of itsEmergence as a result of the deep rooting of racism in the Western mind and worldview. As a result, many scientists believe that the absolute overcoming of manifestations of Russophobia will be unlikely. In this case, they can only soften or completely eliminate internal manifestations, but in the minds of foreign citizens Russophobic attitudes will remain. To overcome Russophobia caused by the rooting of racism in the minds of Western citizens, one can apply the experience and means of fighting for the own rights of blacks in the US and Jews in Western Europe.
Another way to overcome manifestations of RussophobiaCan be considered correcting erroneous interpretations of the phobia itself. Often, any critical remarks about Russian people or Russia are treated as Russophobic sentiments. There is an opinion that people who indicate a manifestation of the Russophobic attitude do so, mainly because of their own unhealthy intolerance.
Among the common goals aimed at combatingRussophobic manifestations, it is necessary to single out the need for an expedient and reasonable approach to the problems of this phobia. Such an approach should be based on a comprehensive study and discussion of the problem, monitoring its dynamics, soft impact, without aggressive methods, on the behavior and attitudes of people prone to Russophobic manifestations, according to national interests.