Child psychology

School disadaptation - causes, types, prevention

School disadaptation is a disorderAdaptation of the child of school age to the conditions of the educational institution, which reduces the ability to learn, and the relations with teachers and classmates deteriorate. Most often it occurs in schoolchildren of younger age, but it can also occur in children, students in high school.
School disadaptation is a violationAdaptation of the student to external requirements, which is also a disorder of the general capacity for psychological adaptation in connection with certain pathological factors. Thus, it turns out that school disadaptation is a medical and biological problem.
In this sense, school disadaptation is forParents, educators and doctors, as a vector of "illness / health disorder, developmental or behavioral disorders". In this vein, the attitude to the phenomenon of school adaptation is expressed, as to something unhealthy, which speaks of the pathology of development and health.
The negative consequence of this relationship isA reference point for compulsory testing before the child enters the school or to assess the development level of the student, due to his transition from one level to the next level, when he needs the results of a lack of deviations in his ability to study the program offered by the teachers and the school that his parents chose .
Another consequence is the pronounced tendency of teachers who can not cope with the pupil, refer him to a psychologist or psychiatrist. Children with Disorder
On special distinguish, they are labeled,Which follow from clinical practice to everyday use - "psychopath", "hysterical", "schizoid" and other various examples of psychiatric terms that are absolutely unjustifiably used in social, psychological and educational purposes to cover up and justify the impotence, lack of professionalism and incompetence of persons who Are responsible for the upbringing, education of the child and social assistance for him.
The appearance of signs of psychogenic disorderAdaptation is observed in many students. Some experts believe that about 15-20% of students need psychotherapy. It was also found that there is a dependence of the frequency of occurrence of the adjustment disorder on the student's age. At schoolchildren of early age, school disadaptation is observed in 5-8% of episodes, in adolescents this figure is much larger and amounts to 18-20% of cases. Also, there is evidence from another study, according to which 7% of cases in 7 to 9-year-olds have an adjustment disorder.
In adolescents, school disadaptation is observed in 15.6% of cases.
Most of the ideas about the phenomenon of school disadaptation ignore the individual and age specific development of the child.

Causes of school disadaptation of students

There are several factors that cause school disadaptation. Below it will be considered what are the causes of school disadaptation of students, among them there are:
- insufficient level of preparation of the child for school conditions; A lack of knowledge and insufficient development of psychomotor skills, as a result of which the child is slower than the rest coping with tasks;
- Insufficient control of behavior - it is difficult for a child to sit a whole lesson, silently and without getting up;
- inability to adjust to the pace of the program;
- the socio-psychological aspect - the inconsistency of personal contacts with the pedagogical collective and peers;
- a low level of development of functional abilities of cognitive processes.
As reasons for school disadaptation, there are several other factors that influence pupil behavior in school and the lack of a normal adaptation.
The most influential factor is the influence ofFeatures of the family and parents. When some parents show too emotional reactions to the failures of their child in school, they themselves, without knowing it, damage the impressionable child's psyche. As a result of this attitude, the child begins to be shy about his ignorance of a topic, so he is afraid to disappoint his parents and the next time. In this regard, the baby develops a negative reaction to everything related to the school, this in turn leads to the formation of school disadaptation.
The second most significant factor after the impactParents have the influence of the teachers themselves, with whom the child interacts in school. It happens that teachers incorrectly build a learning paradigm, which in turn affects the development of misunderstanding and negativity on the part of students.
School disadaptation of adolescents is manifested inToo high activity, manifestation of one's character and personality through clothes and appearance. If, in response to such expressions of schoolchildren, teachers react too violently, then this will trigger a negative reaction of the adolescent. As an expression of protest against the education system, a teenager may face the phenomenon of school disadaptation.
Another influential factor in the development of school disadaptation is the influence of peers. Especially school adolescents' disadaptation is very dependent on this factor.
Teenagers are a very special categoryPeople who are highly sensitive. Teenagers always communicate with companies, so the opinion of friends who are in the circle of their communication becomes authoritative for them. That's why, if peers protest the education system, then it is more likely that the child himself will also join the general protest. Although mostly it concerns more conformable personalities.
Knowing what are the causes of school disadaptationStudents, it is possible to diagnose school disadaptation in the event of primary signs and start working with it on time. For example, if at one point a schoolboy declares his unwillingness to go to school, his own level of academic performance drops, he begins to react negatively and very sharply about teachers, then it is worth thinking about possible disadaptation. The sooner a problem is identified, the faster it can be handled.
School disadaptation may not even beTo be displayed on the progress and discipline of students, expressed in subjective experiences or in the form of psychogenic disorders. For example, inadequate responses to stress and problems associated with disintegration of behavior, the emergence
With the surrounding people, a sharp and sudden decline in interest in the learning process in school, negativism, increased
, The disintegration of learning skills.
Forms of school disadaptation includeFeatures of educational activity of pupils of elementary grades. The youngest pupils quickly master the subject matter of the learning process - skills, techniques and skills, through which new knowledge is assimilated.
Mastering the motivational and demand sideEducational activity occurs as if in a latent way: gradually adopting the norms and forms of social behavior of adults. The child still does not know how to use them as actively as adults, while remaining very dependent on adults in their relationships with people.
If the younger student does notThe formation of the skills of educational activity or the way and methods that he uses and which are fixed to him are not productive enough and are not designed to study more complex material, he lags behind his classmates and begins to experience serious learning difficulties.
Thus, one of the signs appearsSchool disadaptation - a decline in academic performance. The reasons may be individual features of psychomotor and intellectual development, which, however, are not fatal. Many teachers, psychologists and psychotherapists believe that with proper organization of work with such students, taking into account individual qualities, paying attention to how children cope with tasks of varying complexity, it is possible to achieve elimination of the backlog for several months, without isolation of children from the class In learning and compensation for developmental delays.
Another form of school disadaptation of studentsThe younger age has a strong connection with the specifics of age development. The replacement of the main activity (the study comes to replace the games) that occurs in children at the age of six is ​​due to the fact that only understood and accepted motives of learning under established conditions become active motives.
The researchers found that amongExamined students of the first-third classes met those who had a pre-school relationship with the teaching. This means that for them the training activities, like the situation in the school and all the external attributes that the children used in the game, came to the forefront. The reason for this form of school disadaptation is the inattention of parents to their children. External signs of immaturity of educational motivation are manifested as an irresponsible attitude of a schoolboy to school activities, expressed through indiscipline, despite the high degree of formation of cognitive abilities.
The next form of school disadaptation isInability to self-control, arbitrary control of behavior and attention. The inability to adapt to the conditions of the school and to control the behavior accordingly to the accepted norms can be the result of incorrect education, which affects rather unfavorably and contributes to the aggravation of some psychological characteristics, for example, the excitability increases, difficulties arise with concentration of attention, emotional lability, and others. The main characteristic of the style of family relations to these children is the complete absence of external frameworks and norms that should become means of self-management by the child, or the presence of means of control only outside.

In the first case, this is inherent in those families in whichThe child is absolutely left to himself and develops in conditions of complete neglect, or to families with the "cult of the child", this means that the child is allowed absolutely everything he wants and his freedom is not limited.
The fourth form of school disadaptation of junior schoolchildren is the inability to adapt to the rhythm of life in school.
Most often it occurs in children with a weakenedBody and low immunity, children with a delay in physical development, a weak nervous system, with disturbances in the work of analyzers and other diseases. The reason for this form of school disadaptation is in incorrect family education or ignoring the individual characteristics of children.
The above forms of school disadaptationAre closely connected with the social factors of their development, the emergence of new leading activities and requirements. So, psychogenic, school disadaptation is inextricably linked with the character and peculiarities of the attitude of significant adults (parents and teachers) to the child. This relationship can be expressed through the style of communication. Actually the style of communication of significant adults with schoolchildren of lower grades can become an obstacle in educational activity or lead to the fact that real or imaginary difficulties and problems associated with learning will be perceived by the child as incorrigible, generated by his shortcomings and unsolvable.
If negative experiences are notAre compensated if there are no significant people who genuinely desire good and can find an approach to the child in order to increase his self-esteem, then he develops psychogenic reactions to any school problems that, if re-emerged, will develop into a syndrome called psychogenic maladaptation.

Types of school disadaptation

Before describing the types of school disadaptation, its criteria should be singled out:
- poor academic performance in terms of programs thatCorrespond to the age and abilities of the student, along with such signs as repetition, chronic failure, lack of general knowledge and lack of necessary skills;
- Disorder of emotional personal attitude to the learning process, to teachers and to life opportunities related to study;
- episodic unverifiable correctionsBehavior disorders (anti-disciplinary behavior with demonstrative opposition to other students, disregard for the rules and obligations of life in school, manifestations of vandalism);
- pathogenic maladaptation, which is a consequence of disruption of the nervous system, sensory analyzers, brain diseases and manifestations of different
- psychosocial disadaptation, which acts as a child's age and sex characteristics, which causes its non-standardization and requires a special approach in the conditions of the school;
(Undermining order, moral and legal norms, antisocial behavior, deformation of internal regulation, and social attitudes).
There are five main types of manifestation of school disadaptation.
The first type is cognitive school disadaptation, which expresses the failure of the child in the process of learning programs appropriate to the abilities of the student.
The second type of school disadaptation -Emotionally-evaluative, which is associated with permanent violations of the emotional-personal relationship as a process of learning in general, and to individual subjects. Includes anxiety and worries about the problems that arise in school.
The third type of school disadaptation is behavioral,It consists in repeating the violation of behaviors in the school environment and learning (aggressiveness, reluctance to make contact and passive-refusal reactions).
The fourth type of school disadaptation is somatic, with deviations in the physical development and health of the schoolboy associated with it.
The fifth type of school disadaptation is communicative, it expresses difficulties in identifying contacts, both with adults and with peers.

Prevention of school disadaptation

The first step in the prevention of school adaptationThere is an establishment of psychological readiness of the child for transition to a new, unusual regime. However, psychological readiness is just one of the components of the comprehensive preparation of the child for school. At the same time, the level of available knowledge and skills is determined, its potential capabilities, the level of development of thinking, attention, memory are studied, and psychological correction is used, if necessary.
Parents should be very attentive to theirChildren and understand that during the period of adaptation the schoolboy especially needs the support of close people and in the readiness together to experience emotional difficulties, anxieties and experiences.
The main way to combat schoolPsychological disadaptation is psychological. It is very important that close people, in particular parents, pay due attention to long-term work with a psychologist. In the case of a negative influence of the family on the student it is necessary to address the correction of such manifestations of disapproval. Parents are obliged to remember and remind themselves that any failure of a child at school does not yet mean his life crash. Accordingly, do not condemn him for every bad evaluation, it is best to conduct a careful conversation about the possible causes of failure. Thanks to the preservation of friendly relations between the child and the parents, it is possible to achieve a more successful overcoming of life's difficulties.
The result will be more effective in the event that,If the help of a psychologist will be combined with the support of parents and a change in the school environment. In the event that the student's relations with teachers and other students do not develop, or these people negatively influence him, causing antipathy towards the educational institution, then it is advisable to think about changing schools. Perhaps in a different school institution the student will be able to become interested in studying and find new friends.
Thus, it is possible to prevent a strongThe development of school disadaptation or gradually overcome even the most serious maladaptation. The success of preventing an adjustment disorder in the school depends on the timely involvement of parents and the school psychologist in resolving the problems of the child.
Prevention of school disadaptation includesThe creation of classes of compensatory instruction, the use of consultative psychological assistance when necessary, the use of psychocorrection, social training, training of pupils with their parents, mastering the methods of corrective and developmental instruction by teachers, which is aimed at learning activities.
School disadaptation of teenagers distinguishes thoseAdolescents who are adapted to the school by their own attitude towards learning. Adolescents with disadaptation often indicate that it is difficult for them to learn that there is a lot of incomprehensible in their studies. Adaptive schoolchildren are twice as likely to talk about difficulties in lack of free time through busy work.
The approach of social prevention as the main goal distinguishes the elimination of causes and conditions, various negative phenomena. With the help of this approach, correction of school disadaptation is carried out.
Social prevention includes a system ofLegal, social, environmental and educational activities that are carried out by society to neutralize the causes of deviant behavior, which leads to a disorder of adaptation in the school.
In the prevention of school disadaptation, there isPsychological-pedagogical approach, with its help the qualities of a person with disadaptive behavior are restored or adjusted, especially focusing on moral-willed qualities.
The information approach is based on the idea thatDeviations from the norms of behavior occur, because children know nothing about the norms themselves. This approach is most relevant to adolescents, they are informed of the rights and obligations that are presented to them.
Correction of school disadaptation is carried outPsychologist at school, but often parents direct the child to individually practicing psychologist, because children are afraid that they will learn about their problems, therefore they are put to the expert with disbelief.

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