Self-efficacy is a kind of belief inThe effectiveness of their efforts, the expectation of success from their implementation. It is one of the basic concepts in A. Bandura's theory. He believed that collective self-efficacy is formed from individual (personal) self-efficiencies that can exist in completely different spheres of activity of individuals.
Self-efficacy of the individual is due toThe subjective attitude of the individual to the activities carried out, carried out by means of a personal appeal to internal personal reserves, development opportunities, the choice of certain means, actions and the construction of a specific plan of activities.
Self-efficacy of personality
Self-efficacy of the individual is in faithIndividuals in their own ability to cope with certain activities. K. Gaidar in his works summarized the theoretical definitions of this self-realization, singling out his interpretation of the concept. According to Gaidar, self-realization is a combination of the individual's ideas about personal potentials and abilities to be productive in the implementation of future activities, his conviction that he will be able to realize himself in this activity and achieve success, the expected unbiased and biased effect.
Own effectiveness is divided depending on the scope of self-efficacy in activities and self-efficacy in communication.
The conviction of the individual and his idea of what,That in any case he will be able to use his skills, experience, skills and knowledge, formed earlier in this activity, that can achieve success in it, called self-efficacy in the activity.
Self-efficacy in communication isA combination of the individual's notions that he is competent in communication and his conviction that he can be a successful communicator capable of constructively solving various problems of a communicative nature.
Faith of subjects in self-efficacy takes itsThe basis of the four main sources. The most optimal method that promotes belief in personal effectiveness is the achievement of significant results in the implementation of an activity or in life as a whole. Steady confidence of individuals in personal effectiveness is based on success in self-realization, and failures can destroy a person's self-efficacy, especially if they arise before the emergence of a persistent sense of self-efficacy.
Social modeling is the second method,Promoting the development and strengthening of self-efficacy. Sources of motivation and various knowledge are social models. For example, watching people who resemble themselves, who are stubbornly moving towards the realization of their plans, goals and achieve success, ultimately strengthens the observer's belief in personal abilities.
The third method of influencing self-efficacyIs a social motivation. Real incentives for efficiency can induce individuals to make great efforts, which leads to increased opportunities for success.
Often, in order to assess their capabilities,Subjects are based on the assessment of a personal physiological state. Reducing acute physiological reactions or modifying the means of interpreting one's own physiological states will be the fourth method in transforming the beliefs of individuals into self-efficacy.
Self-efficacy in psychology
Self-efficacy in psychology is calledFeeling of subjective efficiency and competence. However, it should be delimited with such concepts as a sense of personal dignity and self-esteem.
The term self-efficacy was introduced by a psychologist from AmericaPandora. By this term he meant a person's sense of personal abilities, potentials, the ability to cope with a specific set of conditions, circumstances, situations that occur during life.
The theory of Pandora's self-efficacy lies in theLack of faith in the effectiveness and success of their efforts, actions. The absence of such faith can be one of the causes of the violation of behavior. A belief in success signifies an individual's conviction that in all difficult circumstances he is able to demonstrate optimal behavior. Those. Belief in efficiency is an assessment of its definitely conditioned behavioral competence.
Bandura believed that one of the definingCharacteristics of most mental disorders is a deficit or complete lack of trust in their behavioral abilities. A number of diseases are accompanied by an incorrect assessment of their abilities and behavioral skills. The possibility of an individual in a particular situation to achieve success is dependent not only on his competence, but also on a number of other conditions.
The ability of individuals to cope with complex andExtraordinary situations, to influence the success of the activity and the life of the person as a whole is due to self-efficacy. An individual who is aware of his own effectiveness can make much more effort to overcome obstacles, solve problems and tasks than an individual who constantly doubts his potential.
Lack of trust in their behavioralActions and abilities are expressed in low self-efficacy. High self-efficacy influences the individual in such a way that periodically arising problems or obstacles are perceived by them not as the end of the path, but as a kind of challenge that gives the opportunity to test their abilities, confirm them and implement them. This assessment of the situation leads to the mobilization of all internal human resources.
Self-efficacy is the most importantA scheme that influences the behavior of subjects and their outcomes through cognitive, motivational, selective, affective, physiological processes. However, it should be understood that self-efficacy is not relevant to the ability to exercise the main motor functions. Such functions include walking, grasping, etc. It is therefore necessary to understand that any actions of the developed strategy or worked out plan should lie within the physical potential of the subject.
High self-efficacy is able to changeThe thinking of individuals and contributes to the increase of judgments, self-approving character. It also contributes to the emergence of stability of motivation for any activity and determines the strength of such motivation. This is more often expressed in cases when the subject faces obstacles to the implementation of the strategy. In the affective area, high self-efficacy promotes a decrease in the level of anxiety, manifestation of negative emotions that arise when failures occur.
The main source of self-efficacy growthIs the experience of success experienced. To take all the necessary actions, to do the possible and impossible, and to get the desired result means to feel successful and more confident. Only in the processes of active activity, which is aimed at achieving the result and solving the tasks dictated by the situation, arise and grow in the persistence of persuasion.
Through the development of cognitive skills builtHis behavior, the acquisition of experience is ensured the development of the individual's self-efficacy. High efficiency in conjunction with the expectation of success always leads to positive outcomes and, consequently, to an increase in self-efficacy.
As mentioned above, the term "self-efficacy"Introduced Bandura. However, he introduced it not in order to explain the phenomenon, but for the possibility of purposeful work on the correction of personality. In this concept, Bandura invested the possibility of assessing the abilities of subjects to comprehend their abilities and apply them in the most optimal way. It was proved that a person with more than modest initial abilities, is able to achieve high enough results. As well as having a high potential does not mean that a person will succeed if he does not believe in the possibility of using such a potential in practice.
Carry out a diagnosis of self-efficacy of the personIt is possible with the help of the technique proposed by Medus and Scheer. This technique is one of the means by which it is possible to examine the self-esteem of an individual and
. It consists in evaluating an individual's ownCapacity in the field of substantive activities and communication, which he really can use. The methodology is presented in the form of test statements in an amount of 23 pieces. Each test subject should evaluate according to the degree of his consent or disagreement on an eleven-point scale. The test contains ideas about self-efficacy.
With the help of this technique, in addition to obtaining information about the individual's self-esteem and information about the level of self-realization, one can create a definite impetus to personal self-development.
Thus, this technique allowsThe individual's attempts to achieve significant results in practical activities and interpersonal communications. The resulting sum of estimates of the first seventeen statements characterizes the degree of self-efficacy in practice, and the sum of the estimates of the remaining six statements characterizes the area of interpersonal communications.
Self-efficacy and self-control
Most people are used to thinking of self-controlOne of the main signs of a strong personality. However, this opinion is erroneous. If you try to consider self-control from the position that a person who is trying to control himself makes some efforts, for example, in order not to show undesirable emotions, then he will only expend energy on such control. Those. In this case self-control is a sign of low endurance of the individual. So, the more and more often a subject has to control the manifestation of his emotions, actions, actions, the more it will take away his strength.
Faith and self-confidencePromotes self-control, thereby increasing self-efficacy. The attitude of an individual to himself as to a successful personality is self-efficacy, which promotes the use of self-control to achieve the set strategy and goal. Consequently, self-efficacy and personal control are two interrelated processes. Those. Natural personality control helps develop a sense of self-efficacy. It follows that such control contributes to the formation in the subject of the conviction that he can control the most important events of life. In addition to natural personal control, other types of control, for example, control through a representative (relations with other individuals) may also influence the formation of their own effectiveness.
Meaningful self-control minimizes the low powers of the individual's personality, but if you gradually develop personal self-control, then it can contribute to the success of the subject.
Approach to yourself, based on optimism andRespect for themselves as a competent and promising person, brings tremendous benefits to the health of the individual and his successful life. People who have a pronounced sense of their own effectiveness are much less likely to
And feelings of apathy, are less anxious and more persistent in the implementation of strategy and achievement goals.
Self-efficacy and personal control are directly dependent on each other. By developing self-control, people help themselves in forming a sense of their own effectiveness.