Affect - is an emotional, powerful experience,Which arise when it is impossible to find a way out of critical, dangerous situations, associated with pronounced organic and motor manifestations. Translated from the Latin language, affect means passion, emotional excitement. This condition can lead to inhibition of other mental processes, as well as the implementation of behavioral reactions.
In a state of affect, intense emotionNarrows consciousness and limits will. After the emotions experienced, affective special complexes arise, which start without awareness of the causes that caused the reaction.
Causes of affect
The most important cause of affectThere are circumstances that threaten the existence of man (an indirect or direct threat to life). The reason may also be conflict, a contradiction between a strong desire, an inclination, a desire for something, and an inability to objectively satisfy motivation. For the person himself there is the impossibility of realizing this situation. Conflict can also be expressed in the increased demands that are made on the person at the moment.
Affective reaction can be provokedThe actions of others that affected the self-esteem of a person and this traumatized his personality. The presence of a conflict situation is mandatory, but not sufficient for the emergence of an affective situation. Of great importance are stable individual psychological features of the individual, as well as the temporary state of the subject who has fallen into a conflict situation. One person's circumstances will cause a disruptive system of behavior, while the other does not.
Signs of affect
To the signs include external manifestations inBehavior of a person who is accused of a crime (motor activity, appearance, peculiarity of speech, facial expressions), as well as feelings experienced by the accused. These feelings are often expressed in words: "vaguely I remember what happened to me," "something seemed to break in me," "sensations like a dream."
Later in the writings of the criminal law emergedSuddenly emotional excitement began to identify with the psychological concept affect, for which the following symptoms are inherent: explosive nature, suddenness of occurrence, profound and specifically psychological changes that persist within the limits of sanity.
Affect refers to the sensual, emotionallyThe excited state experienced by the individual in the process of all life activity. There are different signs by which emotions, feelings, affective reactions are singled out. Modern use of the concept of affect, which designates emotional excitement, has three conceptual levels:
1) clinical manifestations of feelings associated with the spectrum of experiences of pleasure or displeasure;
2) concomitant neurobiological phenomena, which include secretory, hormonal, vegetative or somatic manifestations;
3) the third level is associated with mental energy, instinctual drives and their discharge, signal affects without detente.
Affect in psychology
The emotional sphere of a person is specialMental processes, as well as states that reflect the experiences of the individual in different situations. Emotions are the reaction of a subject to an acting stimulus, as well as the result of actions. Emotions throughout life affect the human psyche, penetrating into all mental processes.
Affect in psychology is strong, and alsoShort-term emotions (experiences) that occur after certain stimuli. The state of affect and emotion differ from each other. Emotions are perceived by man as an integral part of himself - "I", and affect is a state that appears past the will of a person. Affect occurs when unexpected stressful situations and is characterized by a narrowing of consciousness, the extreme degree of which is the pathological affective reaction.
Mind disturbance exercises an important adaptiveFunction, preparing a person for a corresponding reaction to internal and external events, and is marked by a high degree of emotional experience, leading to the mobilization of psychological, as well as physical resources of man. One of the signs is a partial loss of memory, which is not noted in every reaction. In individual cases, the individual does not remember the events that precede the affective reaction, as well as the events that occurred during the emotional excitement.
Psychological affect marked excitementMental activity, which reduces control over behavior. This circumstance leads to a crime and entails legal consequences. Persons who are in a state of emotional unrest are limited in their ability to realize their actions. Psychological affect has a significant effect on a person, while disorganizing the psyche, touching its higher mental functions.
Types of affect
There are such types of emotional excitement - physiological and pathological.
The physiological affect is uncontrolledConsciousness is a discharge that appears in the affective situation under emotional stress, but does not go beyond the limits of the norm. Physiological affect is a non-painful emotional state, which represents a rapid and short-lived explosive reaction without a psychotic change in mental activity.
Pathological affect is psychogenicA morbid condition that occurs in mentally healthy people. Psychiatrists feel this excitement as an acute reaction to psychotraumatic factors. The height of development has irregularities in the type of twilight state. The affective reaction is characterized by sharpness, brightness, three-phase flow (preparatory, explosion phase, final). Inclination to pathological conditions indicates a violation of balancing the processes of inhibition and excitation in the central nervous system. For pathological affect emotional manifestations are inherent, often in the form of aggression.
In psychology, there is also an affectInadequacy, by which is understood a stable negative experience, provoked by the inability to achieve success in any activity. Often, the effects of inadequacy appear in young children, when there is no arbitrary regulation of behavior. Any difficulty that caused the dissatisfaction of the child's needs, as well as any conflict provokes the occurrence of emotional unrest. With incorrect education, the propensity for affective behavior is fixed. In children under unfavorable conditions of upbringing, suspicion, constant resentment, a tendency to aggressive reactions and negativism, irritability is manifested. The length of this state of inadequacy provokes the formation, as well as the consolidation of negative traits of character.
Affect in Criminal Law
Attributes of affect in criminal law are a lossFlexibility in thinking, a decline in the quality of thought processes, leading to awareness of the immediate goals of their actions. The person focuses on the source of irritation. For this reason, the individual, because of emotional stress, is losing the opportunity to choose a behavior pattern, which provokes a sharp decrease in control over his actions. Such affective behavior disrupts the appropriateness, purposefulness, and also the sequence of actions.
Forensic psychiatry, as well as forensic psychologyIt refers to a state of passion limit the ability of the individual to realize the actual nature and social danger of his actions and the inability to manage them.
Psychological affect has minimal freedom. A crime committed in a state of affect is considered a mitigating circumstance by a court if there are certain conditions.
The notions of affect in criminal law and in psychologydo not match. In psychology, there are no specifics of negative stimuli, which provoke a state of affective reaction. There is a clear position in the Criminal Code, which refers to the circumstances that can cause this state: mockery, violence, insult on the part of the victim or a long-term traumatic situation, immoral and unlawful actions of the victim.
In psychology, the affect and the strong emerging emotion do not refer to the identical, and the criminal law between these concepts raises the sign of equality.
Affect as a strong short-term mentalThe excitement is formed in a person very quickly. This state arises suddenly for others and for the person himself. A proof of the presence of emotional excitement is the suddenness of its occurrence, which is an organic property. Strong emotional excitement can be caused by the actions of the victim and needs to establish a connection between the affective reaction and the act of the victim. This state should suddenly arise. The suddenness of his appearance is closely related to the origin of the motive. The following sudden emotional anguish is preceded by the following situations: mockery, violence, grievous insult, immoral and unlawful actions. In this case, the affective reaction arises under the influence of one-time, as well as significant for the most guilty event.
The state of affect and its examples
Affective reactions negatively affectHuman activity, reduce the level of organization. In this state, a person commits irrational actions. Extremely strong excitement is replaced by inhibition and as a result ends with fatigue, a decline in strength, a stupor. Disturbances of consciousness lead to partial or complete amnesia. Despite the suddenness, emotional excitement has its own stages of development. At the beginning of the affective state, one can stop emotional emotional excitement, and at the final stages, losing control, a person can not stop himself.
To detach the affective state,We need enormous volitional efforts to restrain ourselves. In some cases, the affect of rage manifests itself in strong movements, violently and with cries, in a furious expression of the face. In other cases, examples of affective reaction are desperation, confusion, ecstasy. In practice, there are cases when weak people physically, experiencing intense emotional excitement, commit acts that are incapable in a calm environment.
Examples of the state of affects: The husband unexpectedly returned from a business trip and found out personally the fact of adultery; A puny man beats up several professional boxers in the state of affective reaction, or knocks an oak door with one blow, or inflicts many deadly wounds; The drunkard-husband makes constant scandals, fights, debauches because of the adoption of alcohol.
Treatment of affective conditions includesEmergency measures, which include the establishment of supervision of a person and the mandatory referral to a doctor for a psychiatrist. Depressive patients who are prone to suicide are shown hospitalization with increased supervision, and the transportation of such people is carried out under the supervision of medical staff. In outpatient settings, patients with agitated depression, as well as depression with suicidal attempts, are shown injecting 5 ml of a 2.5% solution of Aminazine.
Treatment of affect with
Includes medical therapy affectingOn manic and depressive phases of the disease. With depression, antidepressants of different groups are appointed (Lerivol, Anafranil, Amitriprilin, Ludomil). Depending on the type of affective reaction, atypical antidepressants are prescribed. Electroconvulsive therapy is used when it is impossible to medicate. The condition of mania is treated with such neuroleptics as Azaleptin, Clopixol, Tizercin. Salts are well recommended in treatment if the affective reaction takes a monopolar variant.
Manic patients are often hospitalized,Because their wrong and unethical actions can harm others and the patients themselves. In the treatment of manic states use neuroleptic drugs - Propazine, Aminazine. Patients with euphoria also need to be hospitalized, since this condition means either the presence of intoxication, or an organic brain disease.
Aggression in patients with epileptic
Is removed by hospitalization. If the depressive state acts as a phase of circular psychosis, then psychotropic drugs-antidepressants-are effective in treatment. The presence of agitation in the structure
Requires comprehensive antidepressant therapyAnd neuroleptic means. With psychogenic shallow depression, hospitalization is not necessary, since its course is regredient. Treatment includes antidepressant and sedatives.