Social disadaptation is a complete orpartial loss of the subject's ability to adapt to the conditions of society. That is, it is a violation of human relationships with the environment, which is characterized by its inability to fulfill its positive social role under certain social conditions, corresponding to its potential.
Social disadaptation is characterized byseveral levels that reflect its depth: the latent manifestation of disadaptation phenomena, disadaptive "perturbations," the destruction of previously formed adaptive mechanisms and connections, entrenched disadaptation.
Adaption literally means adaptation. This is one of the most important concepts in biology. It is widely used in concepts that treat the relationship of individuals with their surroundings as processes of homeostatic balancing. It is viewed from the point of view of its two directions: the adaptation of the individual to the external new environment and adaptation as the formation on this basis of new qualities of personality.
There are two degrees of adaptation of the subject: disadaptation or deep adaptation.
Socio-psychological adaptation isin the interaction of the social environment and personality, leading to an ideal balance of the values and goals of the group in general and the individual in particular. In the course of such adaptation, the needs and aspirations, the interests of the individual are realized, its individuality is revealed and formed, the individual enters the social and new environment. The result of such adaptation is the formation of professional and social qualities of communications, activities and behavioral reactions adopted in a particular society.
If we consider the adaptive processessubject from the position of the socio-psychological process of inclusion into activity, then as the main points of activity it is necessary to allocate a fixation of interest in it, establishing contacts with individuals that surround, satisfaction with such relations, inclusion in social life.
The concept of social maladjustmentdenotes the disruption of the processes of interaction of the subject with the environment, which are aimed at maintaining balance within the body, between the body and the environment. This term appeared relatively recently in psychology and psychiatry. The application of the concept of "disadaptation" is quite contradictory and ambiguous, which can be traced mainly in assessing the place and role of disadaptation states with respect to such categories as "norm" or "pathology", since the parameters of "norm" and "pathology" in psychology are still little developed.
Social disadaptation of the person is a rather versatile phenomenon, which is based on certain factors of social disadaptation, which hamper the social adaptation of the individual.
Factors of social disadaptation:
- relative cultural and social deprivation (deprivation of necessary benefits or vital needs);
- psychological and pedagogical neglect;
- hyperstimulation with new (in content) social stimuli;
- insufficient preparedness for the processes of self-regulation;
- loss of already formed forms of mentoring;
- loss of the usual team;
- a low degree of psychological readiness to master the profession;
- the breaking of dynamic stereotypes;
- Cognitive dissonance, which was caused by the discrepancy between judgments about life and situation in reality;
- accentuation of character;
- psychopathic personality formation.
Thus, speaking of problemssocial and psychological disadaptation, implies a change in the internal and external circumstances of socialization. Those. social disadaptation of the person is a relatively short-term situational state that is a consequence of the influence of new, unusual irritating factors of the changed environment and signals a violation of the balance between environmental requirements and mental activity. It can be defined as a difficulty complicated by some adaptive factors to transforming conditions, which is expressed in inadequate reactions and behavior of the subject. It is the most important process of socialization of the individual.
Causes of social disadaptation
Social disadaptation of personality is notcongenital process and never arises spontaneously or unexpectedly. Its formation is preceded by a whole phased set of negative neoplasms of personality. Also distinguish 5 significant causes that affect the occurrence of maladaptive disorders. To such reasons carry: social, biological, psychological, age, social and economic.
Today, most scientists believethe primary source of deviations in behavior are social causes. Due to incorrect family upbringing, the violation of interpersonal communication is the so-called deformation of the processes of accumulation of social experience. This deformation often occurs in adolescence and childhood due to mistaken education, poor relationships with parents, lack of understanding, trauma of the psyche in childhood.
For biological reasons, congenitalpathology or trauma of the brain, which affects the emotional-volitional sphere of children. Children with pathology or suffered trauma are characterized by increased fatigue, difficulty in communicative processes, irritability, inability to prolonged and regular loads, inability to exert strong-willed efforts. If such a child grows up in a dysfunctional family, then this only increases the tendency to deviant behavior.
Psychological causesare conditioned by the peculiarity of the nervous system, accentuations of character, which, under unfavorable circumstances of upbringing, form anomalous features of character and pathology in behavior (impulsiveness, high excitability, imbalance, unrestrained, excessive activity, etc.).
Age-related causes are the lability and excitability characteristic of the adolescent's age, accelerating the formation of hedonistic phenomena, the desire for idleness and carelessness.
For socio-economic reasons include excessive commercialization of society, a small family income, criminalization of society.
Social disadaptation of children
Significance of the problems of social maladjustment of childrenis determined by the prevailing situation in society. The current situation that has developed in society should be regarded as critical. Recent studies show a sharp increase among children of such negative manifestations as pedagogical neglect, a lack of desire to learn, a delay in mental development, fatigue, bad mood, exhaustion, excessive activity and mobility, lack of focus in mental activity, problems with concentration, early anesthesia and alcoholization.
Obviously, the formation of the listedmanifestations are directly affected by biological and social circumstances, closely interrelated and conditioned, first of all, by the transformed living conditions of children and adults.
The problems of society are directly reflected in thefamily in general and children in particular. Based on the studies, it can be concluded that today 10% of children are characterized by various developmental disabilities. Most children from infancy to adolescence have any kind of disease.
On the social adaptation of an adult younga person is affected by the conditions of his formation in childhood and adolescence, his socialization in the social children's environment. Therefore, there is a significant problem of social and school disadaptation of the child. Its main task is prevention - prevention, and correction, i.e. methods aimed at correction.
A maladjusted child is a child whodiffers from its peers due to problems with adaptation in the life environment, reflected in its development, the processes of socialization, the ability to find solutions to its natural tasks.
In principle, most children quickly and easily, without special difficulties, overcome the state of disadaptation with which they occur in the process of life.
The main causes of violations in the social adaptation of children, their conflicts may be features of the individual or the psyche, such as:
- the absence of elementary communication skills;
- inadequacy in evaluating oneself in the processes of communication;
- exaggerated claims to the people who surround them. This is especially acute in cases when the child is intellectually developed and characterized by mental development above the average in the group;
- emotional instability;
- the prevalence of attitudes that interfere with communicative processes. For example, humiliation of the interlocutor, the manifestation of his superiority, which turns communication into a competitive process;
- fear of communication and anxiety;
Depending on the reasons for the occurrence of violations insocial disadaptation the child can either passively submit to pushing peers out of his circle, or he himself leaves angry and with the desire to take revenge on the collective.
Lack of communication skills isa rather significant barrier to interpersonal communication among children. Skills can be developed through behavioral training. Social disadaptation can often be manifested in the child's aggression. Signs of social disadaptation: low self-esteem along with overstated requirements for peers and adults, lack of desire to communicate and fear of communication, imbalance, manifested in a sharp change in mood, demonstration of emotions "in public," isolation.
Disadaptation is quite dangerous for children, becauseit can lead to the following negative consequences: personal deformities, retardation of physical and mental development, possible brain dysfunctions, typical nervous system disorders (depression, inhibition or excitability, aggressiveness), loneliness or self-alienation, problems in relationships with peers and other people, suppression instinct of self-preservation,
Social disadaptation of adolescents
The process of socialization is the introduction of a child intosociety. This process is characterized by complexity, multifactoriness, multidirectionality and weak forecasting in the end. The process of socialization can last a lifetime. Do not deny the impact of innate qualities of the body on personal properties. After all, there is the formation of personality only as the person is included in the surrounding society.
One of the prerequisites for the formation ofpersonality is the interaction with other subjects, transferring accumulated knowledge and life experience. This is accomplished not simply by mastering social relations, but as the result of a complex interaction of social (external) and psychophysical (internal) developmental inclinations. And it represents the cohesion of socially-typical features and individually significant qualities. From this it follows that the personality is socially conditioned, develops only in the process of vital activity, in the change of the children's attitude to the surrounding reality. Hence it can be concluded that the degree of socialization of an individual is determined by a number of components that combine to form a general structure of the influence of society on a single individual. And the presence of certain defects in each of these components leads to the formation in the personality of social and psychological qualities that can lead the person in specific circumstances to conflict situations with the society.
Under the influence of socio-psychologicalconditions of the environment and in the presence of internal factors, the child develops disadaptation, manifested as an abnormal - deviant behavior. Social disadaptation of adolescents arises from violations of normal socialization and is characterized by deformation of the reference and value orientations of adolescents, a decrease in the importance of the reference character and alienation, primarily from the impact of teachers in the school.
Depending on the degree of estrangement and depthformed deformations of value and reference orientations distinguish two phases of social disadaptation. The first phase is pedagogical neglect and is characterized by alienation from the school and the loss of referential significance in the school, while maintaining a sufficiently high reference in the family. The second phase is more dangerous and is characterized by alienation from both the school and the family. The connection with the main institutions of socialization is lost. There is an assimilation of distorted value-normative representations and the first criminal experience in youth groups appears. The result will be not only a backlog in academic performance, poor academic performance, but also the growing psychological discomfort experienced by teenagers in school. This pushes teenagers to search for a new, non-school community of communication, another peer review team, which subsequently begins to play a leading role in the process of socialization of adolescents.
Factors of social disadaptation of adolescents: ousting from the situation of growth and development of personality, neglect of personal desire for self-realization, self-affirmation in a socially acceptable way. The consequence of maladaptation will be psychological isolation in the communicative sphere, with a loss of a sense of belonging to its own culture, a transition to attitudes and values that dominate the micros environment.
Unmet needs can lead toincreased social activity. And it, in turn, can result in social creativity and this will be a positive deviation, or manifest in antisocial activity. If she does not find an outlet, she can rush to find an outlet for addiction to alcoholic beverages or drugs. In the most unfavorable development is a suicidal attempt.
The existing social, economicinstability, the critical state of health care systems and education not only does not contribute to a comfortable socialization of the individual, but also aggravates the processes of teenage disadaptation associated with problems in family upbringing that lead to even greater anomalies in the behavioral reactions of adolescents. Therefore, more and more the process of socialization of adolescents acquires a negative character. The situation is aggravated by the spiritual pressure of the criminal world and their values, rather than civil institutions. The destruction of the basic institutions of socialization leads to an increase in crime among underage teenagers.
Also, a sharp increase in the number of maladaptiveadolescents are affected by the following social contradictions: indifference in secondary school to smoking, lack of an effective method of combating absenteeism, which today has practically become the norm of school behavior, along with continuing reduction of educational and preventive work in state organizations and institutions that are engaged in leisure and upbringing of children; the replenishment of juvenile criminal groups at the expense of adolescents who dropped out of school and lag behind in training, along with a decline in the social relationships of the family with teachers. This facilitates the establishment of contacts between adolescents and criminal gangs of minors, where the unlawful and
; crisis phenomena in society, whichcontribute to the growth of anomalies in the socialization of adolescents, along with the relaxation of the educational influence on adolescents of public collectives, who must educate and publicly control the actions of minors.
Consequently, the growth of maladaptation, deviantbehavior, juvenile delinquency is the result of the global social alienation of children and young people from society. And this is a consequence of the violation of the processes of socialization directly, which began to be uncontrolled, spontaneous.
Signs of social disadaptation of adolescents associated with such an institution of socialization as the school:
The first sign is poor progress inthe school program, which includes: chronic underachievement, repetition, lack and fragmentation of the acquired general educational information, i.e. lack of a system of knowledge and skills in learning.
The next sign is systematic violationsemotionally colored personal attitude to learning in general and some subjects in particular, to teachers, life perspectives related to teaching. Behavior can be indifferent-indifferent, passive-negative, demonstratively-disdainful, etc.
The third sign is regularly recurring anomaliesbehavior in school and in the school environment. For example, passive-refusal behavior, noncontactness, complete abandonment of school, stable behavior with a violation of discipline, characterized by oppositional-defiant actions and involving an active and demonstrative opposition of one's personality to other students, teachers, disregard for the rules adopted in school, vandalism in school .
Correction of social disadaptation
In childhood, the main thrustscorrection of social disadaptation of an individual should be: the development of communication skills, the harmonization of interpersonal communication in the family and in peer groups, the adjustment of certain personality traits preventing communication or the transformation of manifestations of properties in such a way that in the future they could not negatively affect the communication sphere, adjusting the self-esteem of children to bring it closer to normal.
At the present time,correction of social disadaptation is used by trainings: psychotechnical games aimed at the development of various functions of the psyche, which are associated with transformations in consciousness, and role-playing socio-psychological training.
This training is aimed at resolving internalthe contradictions of the subject in the conditions of working out certain skills in the performance of specific social functions (the formation and consolidation of the necessary social and cultural norms). The training takes place in the form of a game.
The main functions of the training:
- training, consisting in the development of skills and abilities necessary for training, such as: attention, memory, reproduction of information received, foreign language skills;
- entertaining, serves to create a more favorable atmosphere in the training, which transforms learning into an exciting and entertaining adventure;
- communicative, consisting in the establishment of emotional contacts;
- Relaxation - is aimed at relieving emotional stress;
- psychotechnical, characterized by the formation of skills for the preparation of their own physiological state in order to obtain more information;
- preventive, aimed at preventing undesirable behavior;
- developing, characterized by the development of the personality from different sides, the development of character traits through the playback of all possible situations.
Socio-psychological training isspecific psychological impact, which is based on active ways of working in groups. It is characterized by the intensity of preparing the individual for a more full and active life. The essence of the training is a specially organized training aimed at self-improvement of the individual's personality. It is aimed at solving such problems as: the development of social and pedagogical knowledge, the formation of the abilities to cognize oneself and others, the multiplication of ideas about its importance, the formation of diverse abilities, skills, skills.
Training is a whole complex of consecutive sessions with one group. Tasks and exercises are selected for each group individually.
Prevention of social disadaptation
Prevention is a whole system of social,economically, hygienically directed measures that are carried out at the state level, by individuals and public organizations to ensure a higher degree of public health and prevent diseases.
Prevention of social disadaptation is a scientificconditioned and timely actions aimed at preventing potential physical, sociocultural, psychological clashes among individual subjects belonging to a group of risks, preserving and protecting human health, supporting achievement of goals, disclosing internal potential.
The concept of prevention is toavoid certain problems. To solve this problem, it is necessary to eliminate the already existing causes of risk and increase the protective mechanisms. There are two approaches to prevention: one is directed at the individual, the other - at the structure. In order for these two approaches to be most effective, they should be used together. All preventive measures should be aimed at the general population, certain groups and individuals who are at risk.
There is primary, secondary and tertiaryprevention. Primary - is characterized by a focus on preventing the emergence of problematic situations, eliminating negative factors and unfavorable conditions that cause certain phenomena, as well as increasing the stability of the individual to the impact of such factors. Secondary - is designed to recognize early manifestations of disadaptive behavior of individuals (there are certain criteria for social disadaptation that contribute to early detection), its symptoms and reduce their actions. Such preventive measures are taken in relation to children from groups of risks right before the emergence of problems. Tertiary - is to carry out activities at the stage of an already emerging disease. Those. These measures are taken to eliminate the problem that has already arisen, but at the same time they are also aimed at preventing the emergence of new ones.
Depending on what the reasons werethe following types of preventive measures are distinguished: neutralizing and compensating, measures aimed at preventing the emergence of situations that contribute to the emergence of maladaptation; elimination of such situations, monitoring of preventive measures and their results.
Effectiveness of preventive work within most cases, the depressed individuals are dependent on the availability of a developed and integrated infrastructure, which includes such elements as: qualified specialists, financial and organizational support from supervisory and government bodies, relationship with scientific units, a specially created social space with the aim of solving disadaptive problems, in which should develop their traditions, ways of working with people with disadaptation.
The main goal of social preventive workshould be the psychological adaptation and its final outcome - the successful entry into the social team, the emergence of a sense of confidence in the relationship with members of the collective group and satisfaction with their own position in such a system of relations. Thus, any preventive activity should be purposeful for a person as a subject of social adaptation and consist in increasing its adaptive potential, on the environment and on the conditions for the best interaction.