The psychology of conflict

Stages of conflict - development, resolution, examples of stages of conflict

Stages of conflict. Sociologists argue that conflict interaction is a normal state of society. After all, any society, regardless of the era is characterized by the presence of confrontation situations. Even when interpersonal interaction is built harmoniously and is based on mutual understanding, collisions are inevitable. In order for the confrontation not to destroy the life of the society, so that social interaction is adequate, it is necessary to know the basic stages of the conflict development that will help to identify the moment of the origin of confrontation, effectively smooth out the sharp angles in disputes and disagreements. Most psychologists recommend using confrontation as a source of self-learning and life experience. Analysis of the conflict situation allows you to learn more about your own personality involved in the confrontation of the actors and the situation that provoked the confrontation.

Stages of conflict development

It is customary to distinguish four concepts of the stage of development of conflicts: the pre-conflict stage, the conflict itself, the stage of conflict resolution and the post-conflict stage.
So, the main stages of the conflict: Pre-conflict stage. It begins with a pre-conflict situation, because any confrontation is preceded first of all by an increase in tension in the interaction of potential actors in the conflict process, provoked by certain contradictions. At the same time, not all contradictions are not always leading to conflict. Only those differences lead to a conflict process, which are perceived by the subjects of confrontation as the opposition of goals, interests and values. Tension is a psychological state of individuals, which has a hidden character before the beginning of the conflict process.
Dissatisfaction is considered one of the key factors in the emergence of conflicts.
The accumulation of dissatisfaction due to the existingState of things or the development of events leads to an increase in tension. The potential subject of the conflict confrontation, dissatisfied with the objective state of things, finds the alleged and real perpetrators of his dissatisfaction. At the same time, the subjects of the conflict conflict have an understanding of the unsolvability of the formed situation of confrontation through the usual ways of interaction. In this way, the problematic situation gradually evolves into a clear clash. At the same time, the controversial situation can exist independently of subjective-objective conditions for a long time without being transformed directly into a conflict. For the conflict to begin, an incident is needed, that is, a formal pretext for the emergence of a direct clash between the participants. The incident can appear accidentally or be provoked by the subject of conflict confrontation. Moreover, it can also be the result of a natural course of events.
Conflict situation as a stage of developmentConflict is often not always detected, because often the clash can begin directly with the clash of the parties, in other words, begins with the incident.
According to the nature of the emergence, four types of conflict situation stand out: objectively purposeful and non-goal-oriented, subjectively targeted and non-goal-oriented.
Conflict situation, as the stage of the conflict is created by one opponent or several participants in the interaction and is often a condition for the origin of the conflict process.
As it was said above, for the emergenceIt is necessary to have an incident together with a confrontation situation. At the same time, the situation of confrontation is born before the incident (incident). It can be formed objectively, that is, outside the people's desire, and subjectively, due to the motives of behavior, the conscious aspirations of the opposing participants.
The main stages in the development of the conflict are directly conflict.
The beginning of obvious confrontation between the participants isThe consequence of the conflict-style behavioral response, which refers to acts aimed at the confronting party for the sake of capturing, holding the object of the dispute or forcing the opponent to change their intentions or renounce them.
There are four forms of conflict behavior:
- a call or an actively conflicting style;
- An answer to a challenge or a passive-conflict style;
- conflict-compromise model;
- Compromise behavior.
Confrontation acquires its own logic andDevelopment depending on the problem setting and style of conflict-related behavioral response of participants. Developing confrontation is characterized by a tendency to form additional reasons for self aggravation and sprawl. Therefore, each confrontation has its own stages in the dynamics of the conflict and is to a certain extent unique.
Opposition can develop in twoScenarios: enter the phase of escalation or pass it. In other words, the dynamics of the development of a collision at the stage of conflict is designated by the term escalation, which is characterized by an increase in the destructive actions of the opposing sides. The escalation of conflicts can often lead to irreversible consequences.
Usually three main stages of the dynamics of the conflict are distinguished, which result from this stage:
- outgrowth of confrontation from a latent form into an open clash of opponents;
- further escalation (escalation) of the conflict;
- the confrontation reaches its peak and takes the form of a general war, which is not abhorred by any means.
At the last stage of the conflict, development occursAs follows: the conflicting participants "forget" the real causes of the conflict. For them, the main goal is to cause maximum damage to the enemy.
The main stages in the development of the conflict are the resolution of the confrontation.
The intensity and duration of confrontation dependFrom a variety of conditions and factors. At a certain stage of the course of confrontation, the opposing participants may significantly change their opinion about their own potential and about the capabilities of the opponent. That is, the time has come for a "reassessment of values" caused by renewed, conflict-based relationships, awareness of the exorbitant "value" of success or the inability to achieve goals. This encourages opponents to transform the tactics and style of conflict confrontation. At this stage, one opposing party or both seek to find ways to resolve the problem situation, as a result, as a rule, the intensity of the struggle is on the decline. This is the beginning of the process of ending the conflict. However, this does not exclude a new aggravation.
The final stage of confrontation is after the conflict. Ending the immediate confrontationOpponents do not always signify a full resolution of the confrontation. In many ways, the degree of satisfaction of the subjects of conflict interaction or dissatisfaction of participants with "peace agreements concluded" is characterized by dependence on the following provisions:

- whether the goal pursued by the conflict has been achieved and how satisfied it is;
- by what means and methods the confrontation was conducted;
- how much damage the parties (for example, material);
- How high is the degree of infringement of the dignity of opponents;
- did the emotional tension of the participants come about during the conclusion of the "peace"?
- what methods were the basis for negotiating interaction;
- to what extent the interests of the participants were agreed upon;
- whether the compromise solution was imposed as a result of coercion or was the result of mutual finding the way to resolve the collision;
- what is the reaction of the social environment to the results of the conflict.

Stages of social conflict

Taking direct part inConfrontation, it is difficult to abstract and think about something else, because often the divergence in views is quite acute. At the same time, observers of confrontation can easily identify the main stages of social conflict. Usually, sociologists disagree about the number of stages of social confrontation. But they are all similar in defining social confrontation. In a narrow sense, social confrontation is defined as confrontation caused by disagreements between social communities in substantiating work activity, generally deteriorating economic status and status or, in comparison with other collectives, a decrease in the level of satisfaction with joint activities. A characteristic feature of social confrontation is the existence of an object of confrontation, possession of which has a connection with

, Involved in social confrontation.
The main stages of social conflict: Latent (hidden increase in discontent), peak of social tension (explicit expression of confrontation, active actions of participants), resolution of the collision (reduction of social tension by overcoming the crisis).
The latent stage marks the stage in the origin of the conflict. Often it is not even noticeable to an outside observer. All the actions of this stage develop on a social and psychological level.
Examples of the stage of conflict - origin (conversationsIn the smoking rooms or offices). The growth of this phase can be traced along a series of indirect signs. In the latent stage of the conflict, examples of signs can be cited as follows: an increase in the number of absenteeism, dismissals.
This stage can be quite lengthy in duration.
The peak phase is the critical pointConfrontation. At the peak stage of the conflict, the interaction between the opposing sides achieves the utmost severity and intensity. It is important to be able to identify the passage of this point, since the situation of confrontation after its peak, as a rule, is manageable. Simultaneously, sociologists argue that interference in a collision at the peak phase is useless, often even dangerous.
At the peak stage of the conflict, examples can be cited as follows: armed mass uprisings, territorial disagreements among the powers, strikes.
The extinction of confrontation is due either to the exhaustion of the resources of one of the parties involved, or to agreement.

Stages of conflict resolution

Social opposition will be observed untilThere will be no obvious and clear conditions for its completion. An external sign of the termination of the conflict may be the end of the incident, which means the termination of the conflict between the subjects of confrontation. Completion of the conflict is considered necessary, but at the same time an insufficient condition for the extinction of the confrontation. Because in certain circumstances, a fading conflict can ignite again. In other words, the situation not up to the end of the resolved conflict provokes its renewal on the same foundation or due to a new reason.
However, the incomplete resolution of the confrontation is stillIt can not be regarded as a detrimental action. Often it is objectively conditioned, since not every collision is resolved at the first attempt and forever. On the contrary, human being is filled with conflicts that are resolved either temporarily or partially.
The concepts of the stage of conflicts enable the subjects of confrontation to outline the most appropriate behavioral model.
The stage of resolving confrontation involves the following variations in the development of the situation:
- the obvious superiority of one subject of interaction allows him to impose his own conditions for the end of the collision;
- the struggle can drag on until the capitulation of one of the participants;
- due to a shortage of resources, the struggle takes a long, sluggish character;
- using all the resources, without revealing the undisputed winner, the subjects make concessions;
- Confrontation can be stopped under the pressure of a third party.
Stage of conflict resolution atThe ability to regulate confrontation can and even should begin before the emergence of a direct conflict. For this purpose it is recommended to use the following forms of constructive resolution: collective discussion, negotiations, etc.
There are many ways of constructiveThe end of the confrontation. For the most part, these methods are aimed at modifying the situation of confrontation itself, as well as influencing the subjects of the conflict or changing the characteristics of the conflict object.

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