Suggestion is a psychological effect onThe consciousness of the individual, in order to instill in him the desirable attitudes that are not realized and contradict his will. The term "suggestion" assumes the presence of additional concepts for describing the suggestive process. Suggestion is used in a wide variety of areas of life: psychology, medicine, pedagogy, religion, sports, training, military affairs, painting, literature, theatrical activity, music.
Sugestabel - this is a characteristic of a person who easily succumbs.
Which inspires and is the source of suggestion. Suggestors can be not only an individual, but a group.
Suggerend is someone who succumbs, heran object. An individual subjected to suggestion, perceives information coming into his brain without her comprehending, analyzing or correlating with known facts about her and her own condition.
Suggestion is used to changeUnwanted behavior of a person or his thinking, inducing an individual to his opinion, to the desired action, dissemination of necessary information and useful rumors.
There are several types of suggestion: In a state of wakefulness, in a trance state, in a dream, in a salted condition, with a retired effect, using certain procedures and preparations, intermittent and absentee. Each of these types of suggestion is unsafe in the use of people who do not know the basis of the suggestion, because they can harm themselves and others. The impact that is carried out by suggestion on a person when he is in a state of hypnotic sleep is called -
In other words, psychological reality hypnosis is a state of suggestion. At its core, suggestion is a component
Or specific communication.
Suggestion is considered from three points of view: Psychophysiology, psychology, philosophy. Suggeness or suggestibility is the degree of susceptibility to suggestion, which is determined by the subjective willingness of the individual to submit to suggestive effects.
Sugestability - represents a non-uniformA phenomenon that is the opposite phenomenon to criticality. She discovers herself differently in different spheres of personality, relative to this or that kind of activity and content. Each individual can to some extent in some situations be susceptible.
Sugestability represents different degreesSusceptibility to suggestion, which depend on sex, age, class, profession, willpower, mental development, mental and physical health, etc.
Sugestability is a characteristic of the individual, which depends on situational and personal factors, expresses the property of the human's nervous-mental apparatus, as well as belonging to the herd
And submission to the strongest; Displays the result of the intimate relationship and attraction of the souggendend to the suggestor.
What is suggestion
Suggestion is a psychology and psychotherapy methodInfluence on the human psyche, without his awareness of this process. At the same time, the influence extends to the emotional sphere, the impressions of the person and the unconscious area.
Suggestion is in psychology a very useful method in the fight against phobias,
. Since the suggestion is not realized by the patient,Defense mechanisms do not work, which allows you to control his thinking and actions. Most of all the methods of suggestion are used in medical and psychotherapeutic practice, but it happens that it is used for selfish purposes.
Suggestive impact can be outside from other people, and can act from within, that is
(autosuggestion). For example, a person who has fallen into an unpleasant situation, reassures himself that everything will end well, so he uses autosuggestion. Autosuggestion produces a powerful influence on the person, because a person can deal with it for an unlimited time.
Methods of suggestion. Suggestion can be of several kinds. By means of achievement: verbal and non-verbal. Verbal suggestion involves the use of words, phrases, non-verbal - facial expressions, gestures, features of the environment.
Suggestion is dependent on the implementation methods and is divided into direct and indirect. The direct consists in the use of verbal formulas by which the suggestor affects the psyche of the sugerend and changes its behavior and
. Indirect suggestion provides for the conclusion of hidden information in the message.
By the nature of the effect, suggestion isImperative and cooperative. The Imperative is based on directives and non-verbal stimuli. Co-operative involves the use of soft forms of suggestion with the use of weak stimuli and poorly expressed verbal suggestions.
There are certain factors of suggestion, which increase the person's suggestibility. Among them are the following personality traits:
- Inferiority complex, shyness, propensity to obedience;
- shyness, high level
- High emotionality and impressionability;
, Slow reactivity of mental activity;
- dependence on others, on their opinion and influence;
(Immaturity of the person);
- weak volitional processes, mental retardation.
The above personality properties (factorsSuggestion) can be determined with the help of specially oriented tests. Thus, a person can correct certain qualities in order to be less susceptible to suggestion. In addition to certain personality traits, the factors of suggestion include:
- the psychophysical actual state of the person at the time of suggestion;
- level of calmness, relaxation;
- the power of emotional excitement, fatigue, stress.
Increased exposure of suggestion to humansContributes to the lack of competence in the discussed topic and the activities performed, not the high importance of the issue for him, the lack of time for making a balanced decision. Older people and children are more easily impressed because their psyche is unstable and the cognitive processes are rather weak.
The means of suggestion is a person's speech. With the help of a verbal communication, a person can influence a partner, with a view to changing his ideas. But not everyone agrees to these changes, since he is able to protect his autonomy, therefore he builds
You can often hear in one expression the concepts"Suggestion and counter-suggestion," they are opposite in essence. So, psychologists put forward the idea of counteracting suggestive influence and called this concept "counter-suggestion" (as a counterattack).
The ability of a person to resist suggestion,To express counter psychological activity is called counter-suggestion, or an antinomianism, through which a person is able to build barriers to communication.
In a person's life there are not only situations,Bearing positive information, but also useless, and also threatening. The main thing is that the person himself is able to tell which situation benefits him, and which has an adverse effect.
Suggestion and counter-suggestion can actAt the same time. When one person tries to inspire the other with his will, the sugerend will not wait for the end of this process, but immediately begins to enter into a counterattack. Contrasuggestions provide for distrust of the suggestor. Being protected from trust in him, a person protects himself from his influence. If a person has previously determined that the communication partner is an unsafe person, then he immediately begins to perceive him as unnecessary, unauthoritative, not his own and will simply avoid meeting him, not delving into his messages, interrupting the conversation. Do not be embarrassed to do so, this is how you can protect yourself from unnecessary exposure.
Actively used suggestion in advertising. The object of advertising suggestion is a huge mass of people. In the best way, people perceive information that is laid out easily, visually, figuratively and concisely, and especially the impact will be especially great if the information that is suggested will correspond to the needs and interests of society.
Suggestion in advertising will be more effective ifSuggestor will have a high status and be an authority for people, have intellectual superiority over others. Therefore, in any type of advertising, the main character is characterized by pronounced personality qualities: courage (or femininity), confidence, will, optimism and charisma.
It is important that the suggestion be susceptible to suggestion. The relationship between the candidate and the candidate should be formed as best as possible, that is, to generate trust, authority and dependence. Therefore, in many advertising characters in order to be closer to people, create the necessary conditions, a homely atmosphere, talk about popular, exciting problems.
Suggestion in advertising depends on "construction"Messages, on the level of its reasoning, the combination of emotional and logical components, the concreteness of keywords, the meaning of which can immediately be presented in the head. In an advertising message it is important to use figurative concepts, keywords that carry a specific meaning and euphony.
For the effect, specific andShaped qualities. It is necessary to try with words to form a person's ideas about the specific merits of the goods, so the phrases should be with a peculiar content.
The effect of suggestion in advertising will be greater if in an advertising appeal to pick up the particle "not", because it creates a negative impact.
Suggestions examples of advertising appeal: "Our cream makes the skin of your hands young and smooth," instead of: "Our cream will make sure that your hands are not covered by wrinkles, and will not grow old"; "You will be healthy", instead of "You will not be sick anymore".
The effect of suggestion in advertising depends on the speechDynamics. The main speech techniques are: softness and strength of voice, enriched intonation, pauses, surprise effect. If these techniques are mastered qualitatively, one can achieve high persuasiveness of treatment.
Advertising suggestion factors include the timbre of the voice. More advantageous is the use of the male voice in the scoring of the message. Low baritone, "velvet" voice acts on the subconscious of a person positively. But the tenor evokes a reaction of surprise.
The effect of suggestion in advertising is achieved with the help ofFacial expressions and gestures, if they are adequate to the situation, are perceived as an interest and emotional involvement, which contributes to creating a situation of trust and a positive attitude.
Suggestion in advertising is achieved by the influence of certain sound combinations. If correctly to pick up sound combinations, they can not only evoke emotions, but certain images in the imagination.
Advertising suggestion, examples of the use of sounds: The sound "o" is perceived gently and causes relaxation, when a person hears "o", he wants to relax; The sounds of "e" and "a" are associated with emotional uplift, "Na", "Hurray", "Eh".
Some manipulators for personal purposes prefer to use techniques such as hypnosis (suggestion - suggestion). Suggestion through hypnosis is used using techniques
, Fixation of the look, rhythmic stimuli and verbal formulas.
To implement the method of suggestion in psychotherapy, it may be sufficient only to achieve the first stage. Reception is carried out in this way: against a background of loud and masking information at the level
Incentives that are outside theLimits of the threshold of audibility. Another use of audiosuggestion in hypnosis is spectral masking using music information as a carrier of useful information.
Visual suggestion operates using the method of visual suggestion, the most popular method here is the use of the 25th frame.
Using video and audio correction methods, you canAchieve positive and negative goals of suggestion. With a positive goal, they are used to rehabilitate patients who survived the traumatic situation, those who need to regain a sense of self-confidence, to achieve success. But, unfortunately, these methods are used more for the sake of extracting personal benefits from other people.
Methods of speech dynamics are used by clergymen. They say a soft and heartfelt voice with pure kindness, without a hint of
, Use expressive pauses and intonations, have adequate speech, facial expressions and appropriate gestures.
The pace of speech can be increased in people with high
, Which in turn raises confidence in this person. The main thing is that such a high rate would allow us to grasp the essence of the message, otherwise it will remain meaningless.
Also in advertisements use the familiar voices of popular leaders or actors in order for people to succumb to their suggestion, perceiving their authority.